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Original  Town  of  Concord, 



Erie   Couni^v,    new.  York, 





Entered  according  to  Act  of  Congress  in   the  year  1S83. 


In  the  Office  of  the  Librarian  of    Congress,  at  Washington. 



Chapter  I.  pa(;e. 

From  1534  to  1(355. 

Cartier's  and  Champlain's  Expe- 
dions 3 

Chapter  II. 

From  1655  to  1679— Indians, 
Dutch,  French,  &c 9 

Chapter   III. 

DeNonville-La  Houton— Queen 
Anne — the  Iroquois,  &c 13 

Chapter  IV. 

Pontiac'  League — tlie  Senecas — 
the  Devil's  Hole,  &c 17 

Chapter  V. 

The  Revolution  —  the  Indians' 
Ho?tiUty — Wyoming— Clierry 
Valley.  &c 20 

Chapter  VI 

The  Treaty  of  Fort  Stanwix  and 
subsequent  Treaties 24 

Chapter  VII. 

Land  Titles — Various  Grants — 
Conflicting  Claims  —  Robert 
Morris 29 

Chapter  VIII. 

A  curious  fact — the  First  Crop 
raised  on  the  Holland  Pur- 
(;hase  . 32 

Chapter  IX. 

Agents  of  Holland  C'ompany. 
Theophilus  Cazenova  &  Paul 

Bustle 48 

Joseph  Ellicott 49 

Jacob  S.  Otto,  David  E   Evans.     51 
A  sketcli  of  others. 

Robert  Morris 52 

Mary  Jemison,  the  White  Wo- 
man       57 

Chapter  X.          pa«e. 
War  of  1812-15 60 

Chapter  XI. 
Campaign  of  1813 66 

Chapter  XII. 
Burning  of  Buffalo,  &c 74 

Chapter  XIII. 

Campaign  of  1814 81 

Discipline  at  Butf  alo— the  Death 

Penalty 82 

Capture  of  Fort  Erie    by  the 

Americans 83 

An  Indian  Battle 84 

The  Battle  of  Chippewa 87 

Battle  of  Conjockety  Creek. ...  91 

Battle  of  Fort  Erie 92 

Sortie  at  Fort  Erie 95 

News  of  Peace 98 

Chapter  XIV. 

Early  Settlers 100 

Early  Organization  of  County 

and  Towns 102 

Date  of  Settlement  and  Organi- 
zation of  Towns  in  Erie  Co.  . .   104 

Old  Town  of  Concord 105 

Coming  to  the  country 106 

Log  Houses — Dutch   Cliimneys 

and  Log-raising "106 

Clearing  Land 109 

Sugar  Making 113 

Pioneer  Wells 116 

Pioneer  Fencing 118 

Frame  Barns 120 

Primitive  Household  Furnitm-e, 

&c  ,  &c 121 

Carding,  Spinning  and  Weaving  124 
Raising,  Dressing  and  Spinning 

Flax 127 

Bull  Plow  and  Crotch  Drag 128 

Milling 129 

Manufacturing  of  Clothing, 

Boots  and  Shoes I3i 

Making  Black  Salt  . . .  v 132 

Husking  Bees,  &c  . .'. .-',. . . ... . .  134 

Schools •••,■>..   136 




Spelling  Schools 139 

Reaping  with  a  Sickle,  &c 143 

Militia  Training .-.   144 

Wrestling 146 

Snow  Shoes 146 

Dancing 147 

The  Great  AVolf  Hunt 148 

Droves  and  Drovers 150 

The  Lost  Boy lol 

Pigeons l^^ 

Thanksgiving 153 

Chapter  XV. 

History  of  Concord 156 

Names  of  persons  previous  to 

Jan.  1.  1815 158 

Names  of  persons  Buying  Land 
of    the     Holland     Company, 

Township  6,  Range  6 159 

Township  7.  Range  6  .  160 

Township  6,  Range  7 163 

Township  7.  Range  7 : .  . . .   165 

Copy  of  an  Original  Article  of 

Land 168 

Copy  of  the  First  Deed  in  Con- 
cord    172 

Early  Roads 173 

Springville  &  Sardinia  Railroad  175 
Rochester  &  Pittsburgh  Railro'd  175 
Names  of  one  or  more  of  the 
First  Settlers  on  each  Lot  in 

Concord 176 

Hotels — Mills  —  Manufactories .   17S 
Professional  Men — Merchants — 

Tradei-s  and  Mechanics 185 

Banks 192 

Manufacturers — Merchants  and 

Tradesmen 193 

" Fiddler's  Green' 196 

Mail  Routes— Post  Offices 197 

Commission  of  the  First   Post 

Master  in  Springville 199 

A  list  of  the  Owners  of  Farming 
Lands  in  the  Town  of  Con- 
cord in  1845 200 

Concord  Soldiers'  Record 205 

Presbyterian  Church 209 

Metliodist  Episcopal  Church  of 

Springville 213 

First  Baptist  Church  of  Spring- 
ville    214 

Free  Baptist  Church  of  Spring- 
ville   216 

Roman   Catholic  C  h  u  r  c  h   o  f 

Springville 217 

Universalist  Church 218 

Free  Baptist  Church,  East  C!on- 

cord 218 

Free  Baptist  Church,  West  Con- 
cord     219 


Methodist    Episcopal    Church, 

West  Concord 219 

Springville  Academy 220 

Semi-Centennial  Celebration  of 
the   Opening  of    Springville 

Academy 223 

Teachers'  institutes    230 

List  of  Accidental  Deaths  in  the 

Town  of  Concord 235 

Names  of  Streams  in  Concord. .   237 

The  First  Liberty-Pole 238 

The  Springville  Mill 239 

Local  Names  in  Concord 240 

The  Springville  Rifle  Company  241 

Town  Officers  of  Concord 242 

Town  Accounts,  1830 245 

Names  of  Early  Settlers 246 

Soldiers  of  Concord  in  1812.  .  .  .   247 

Vosburg  Murder 247 

Otis  Murder 248 

The  Old  Springville  Hotel 248 

Panther  Stories 250 

Bear  Story 251 

Lands  Deeded  in  Concord 252 

Societies 265 

Newspapers 267 

Chapter  XVI. 

Family  Histories  of  the  Town  of 
Concord  in  Alphabetical  Or- 

A,  269  :  B.  277  ;  C,  303  ;  D,  341  ; 
E.  348  ;  F,  353  :  G,  369 ;  H. 
376  :  I,  386  :  J,  387  ;  K,  391  : 
L.  399  :  M,  404  ;  N.  417  :  O. 
422  ;  P.  423  ;  Q,  435  :  R,  436  ; 
S,  450  :  T.  487  ;  Urich,  502  ; 
V,  502  ;  W,  509  :  Z,  532. 

Eliza  Reynolds 


Chester  Spencer 

C.  C   McClure   

Goddard  Family 

Christopher  Stone's  House 



Chapter  XVII. 

History  of  C^ollins 543 

First  Settlers 544 

Articles 545 

Assessment  Roll,  1823 553 

Act  Creating  the  Town 559 

Defining  Boundaries 560 

Zoar 563 

Deeds 569 

List  of  Town  Officers 577 

Schools 583 

Religious  Meetings  and  Church 

Organizations 584 

••East   District."  Town  of  Col- 
lins Center 585 



Collins  Center 585 

Physicians 586 

C'oilins  C'enter  Merchants 586 

Tanneries 587 

Mills 587 

'•  Society  of  Friends" 588 

Soldiers'  Record 589 

Settlers  of  60  and  70  years  ago. .  593 

Town  Account.  1830 593 

Societies 594 

John  Millis  and  his  grist 595 

Wild  Animals 596 

Business    Directory  of    Collins 

Center  for  1882 596 

Cowanda  Directoiy  for  1882...  597 

Mrs.  CJiarlotte  Seymour's  letter  598 

Statement  of  S.  W.  Soule 600 

Mrs.  Stoddard's  Statement 604 

Statement  of  Joseph  Plumb,  Esq  617 

Statement  of  S.  Carv  Adams .  .  .  624 

Statement  of  David  Wilber 696 

Letter  of  Wm   H.  Parkinson.  .  .  675 

Augustus  Smith's  Statement. .  .  683 

Statement  of  Benj.  Albee.  2d.  .  637 

Blackney  Murder 641 

Chapter  XVIII. 

Family  Histories,  Collins 635 

A,  635^  B.  639  ;  C.  647  :  F.  655  ; 
G,  656  ;  H,  657  ;  J,  661  ;  K, 
663  ;  L.  666  :  M,  668  :  N,  674  ; 
O.  674  :  P,  675  ;  R,  682  ;  S,  683  : 

T,  691;     V,  695;    W, 696 

Chapter  XIX. 

North  Collins 707 

Names  of  those  who  Purchased 
Lands  of  the  Holland  Com- 
pany     708 

Deeds 714 

First  Settlers  on  each  Lot 725 

Assessment  Roll  of  1823 734 

List  of  Town  Officers ; .  728 

Societies 731 

Soldiers'  Record 733 

First  Congregational  Chui-ch  . . .  737 
Job  Southwoi-th's  Statement.  . .   738 

Statement  of  Isaac  Hale 740 

Statement  of  Noel  Conger 743 

'Statement  of  Isaac  Woodward .   745 

Family  Histories,  North  Collins  749 

B,  749  ;  C,  750  ;  D,  753  :  F,  752  ; 
G.  753  :  H,  754  ;  J,  755  :  K. 
756  ;  L,  757  ,   P,  759  ;    R.  761  : 

S,  762 ;  V,  766  ;  W, 766 

Chapter  XXI. 
General  Historj^  of  Sardinia. . .   769 
Early  Settlers 770 


Articled  Land 771 

Deed  of  the  Holland  Comi)any.  776 
Early  Reminiscences — Nott.  .  .  .  784 

Fourth  of  July  Party,  181 1 789 

Soldiers"  Record 794 

First  Baptist  Church 797 

Beneficiary  Orders 798 

Town  Ofticers 798 

Assessment  Roll,  1843 813 

Reminiscences  by  Dr.  B.  H.  Col- 

RToye 823 

Statement  of  A.  W.  Shedd 839 

Statement  of  L.  D.  Smith 832 

Statement  of  Cyrus  Rice   835 

Business  Places.  &c 845 

Notes  from  the  Old  Town  Book 

of  1821,  &c 848 

Chapter  XXII. 

Family  Histories  in  Alphabet- 
ical Order — Illustrations 851 

A,  851  ;  B.  854  :  C.  857  :  F.  860  : 
G,  861  :  H,  862  ;  J,  868  :  L, 
868  :  M,  870  :  N,  871  ;  O,  873  ; 
P.  873  ;  R,  875  :  S,  878  ;  T. 
885  ;  V.  885  ;  Sterling  Titus, 
886;  W, 886 


Adams,  J.  C 892 

Brooks,  John 893 

Brooks.  Andrew  J 894 

Briggs,  A.  H  ,  M.  D 894 

Briggs,  George  W 895 

Foster,  Harrison  T 895 

Field,  William 897 

Field.  ]\Iarvin 898 

Drake,  Allen 898 

Hammond,  Wm.   W 899 

Hastings.  Chancey  J 900 

Hastings,  Sej'mour  P 901 

Koch,  Harry  H 901 

Miller.  Frederick 903 

Nott.  S.  E.  L.  H 903 

Nichols,  George  W 904 

Wilev.  William 904 

Wiley,  John  M 905 

Jliller,  Christian 905 

Oatman,  David 906 

Williams,  George 907 

Stowell,  ( "harles 908 

Ewell,  Joseph  E 908 

Tanner,  Aukxs  B 1)09 

Per.sons,  Daniel  H 910 

Emery,  Joseph,  (,'ol 910 

Scott.'  Justus. 91 1 

Smither,  R.  R 913 

Spencer,  H.  S 912 

Tanner,  Alonzo,  Esq 913 

Wil)ert  Family 913 



Cutler,  Caleb 915 

Ransom.  Asa 915 

Ransom,  Asa.  Jr.  ...  :    916 

Ransom,  Harry  B 917 

Titus,  James  B 917 

Kent,  Joseph 919 

Kent,  Jonathan 919 

Cooper,  Joseph 920 

Young,  Charles  E 930 

Lockwood,  Ebenezer 921 

Stickney,  David,  Jr 922 

White,  Aimer 928 

Tucker,  Harvey  J 924 

Lockwood,   A.  U 925 

Preston,  A.  G 926 

Lawson,  W.  W 927 

Bartholomew,   A 928 

Sampson,  Joseph  P 929 


Bensley,  John  R 930 

Bensley,  George  E 931 

Haight,  Albert 982 

Coit,  George 935 

Humphrey,  Arthur 935 

Humphrey,  J.   M 936 

Lockwood,  D.  N 937 

Green,  O  J.  &  Sons 938 

Reading,  Richard 939 

Canbee,  Joseph 940 

Kerr.  Patterson 941 

Scoby.  M    C 941 

Bartlett,  Marcus 542 

Calkins,  AC 544 

Coit,  Chas.  T 944 

Coit,  Frank   S 945 

Eustaphive.  HA 945 

Masonic 947 


Page  105,  read  "  Lawton  "  for  Lanton. 

Page  106,  read  "  Big  Tree  "  for  Fitr  Tree. 

Page  126,  read  "  Scarn  "  for  Scam. 

Page  131,  9th  line,  read  "  difticuU  '"  for  different. 

Page  152,  read  "  Morton's  Corners"  for  Morton's  Creek. 

Page  174,  line  38,  read  "  at  lot  32  "  for  at  lot  52. 

Page  180,  read  '"  Theodore  Frew  "    for  Theodore  Trevv. 

Page  188,  read  "  Perigo  "  for  Brigo. 

Page  189,  read  "  Shoutz  "  for  Shontz  ;  same  page,  read  "  Barnhart  "  for  Ramhart  ;  same 
page,  read  "  Post  "  for  Past. 

Page  190,  read  "  Parmeter  "  for  Bameter. 

Page  192,  read  "  F.  K.  Davis  "  for  T.  K.  Davis. 

Page  195,  read  "  Frew  "  for  Trew. 

Page  208,  read  "  1862  "  for  1892. 

Page  218,  read  "  Morris  Hall  "  for  Horris  Hall. 

Page  275,  read  "  Auwater  "  for  Anwater. 

Page  253,  3d  line  from  bottom,  read  "  1819  "  instead  of  1809. 

Page  293,  read  "  1869"  for  1899. 

Page  294,  read  "  1880  "  for  1810  ;  same  page,  read  "  1882  "  for  1822. 

Page  332,  read  "  1839  "  for  1849.  • 

Page  338,  read  "  1877"  for  1878. 

Page  359,  read  the  name  "  Benjamin  Fay  "  for  Benjamin  Frye. 

Page  360,  read  the  name  "  Nemiah  Fay  '"  for  Nemiah  Frj-e. 

Page  369,  line  16,  read  "  Ruth  Briggs"  for  Bertha  Briggs. 

Page  391,  read  "  Benjamin  Gardner"  for  Benjamin  Gordon. 

Page  305,  read  "  Otis  Morton  "  for  Otis  Horton. 

Page  400,  read  "  Mary  Hufstader  "  for  John  Hufstader. 

Page  433,  read  "  1832  "  for  1882. 

Page  452,  read"'  William  T.,  "  for  William  G.,  and  "'  W.  T.  Lincoln  "  for  William  F. 

Page  468.  read  "  Orrin  Baker  "  for  Owen  Baker. 

Page  484,  line  20,  read  "  Council  Bluffs  "  for  Dakota. 

Page  476,  read  '"  Marcy  "  for  Mercy. 

Page  478,  line  6th,  read  "  1761  "  for  1861. 

Page  496,  2d  line,  leave  out  "Boston";  same  page,  read  4th  line  from  bottom  p;»ge 
■'  near"  for  new. 

Page  498,  2d  line  from  top,  read  "1792  "  for  1702. 

Page  519,  in  the  account  of  Levi  and  Isaac  Woodward,  read  "•  married  "  for  the  capital  M. 

Page  566,  i2th  line,  read  "her  family"  for  his  family. 

Page  618,  read  "  Parthenia"  for  Perthenia. 

Page  623,  read  "  Parthenia  "  for  Pathenia. 

Page  632,  last  line,  read  "  Methodist  Preacher  "  for  teacher 

Page  659,  12th  line,  read  "  born  1831  "  for  1871. 

Page  672,  line  14,  read  "  1850  "  for  1859. 

Page  743,  read  "  Noel  Conger  "  for  Noah  Conger;  page  following  770,  read  "  77I  "  for 
781  ;  page  following  872,  read  "  873  "  for  783. 

Page  827.  read  "  Reuben  B.  Heacock  "  for  Reuben  B.  Hancock. 

Page  861,  ^4th  line,  "  TuUer  "  for  I'uller. 

Page  889,  "  Brewer  "  for  Brower. 

Page  894,  "  John  Jr.,  2d  "  for  John  Jr..  Son. 


"  Oft  did  the  harvest  to  their  sickle  yield 

Their  furrow  oft  the  stubborn  glebe  has  broke, 
How  jocund  did  they  drive  their  team  a-field, 

How  bowed  the  woods  beneath  their  sturdy  stroke. 
Let  not  ambition  mock  their  useful  toil, 

Their  homely  joys  and  destiny  obscure." 

The  motives  that  prompted  the  author  to  attempt  the  com- 
pilation of  a  work  of  this  nature  were,  that  bein^  himself  to 
the  "  manor  born,"  and  having  enjoyed  an  intimate  personal 
acquaintance  with  many  of  the  early  settlers  of  these  towns, 
and  knowing  that  very  little  had  ever  been  said  of  them  in  any 
history  that  had  been  heretofore  published,  he  felt  that  all 
former  attempts  of  the  historian  to  portray  early  tijnes 
and  scenes  were  lacking  in  detail  and  did  not  accord  to  the 
brave  pioneers  of  these  towns  the  mead  of  pra'ise  that  their 
self-sacrificing  labors  and  privations  entitle  them  to,  and  he 
departs  from  the  rule  generally  pursued  by  writers,  of  record- 
ing only  the  acts  of  those  whom  fortune  or  favor  has  raised  to 
positions  of  prominence,  and  he  feels  that  the  lives  and  deeds 
of  the  pioneer,  though  their  destiny  may  have  been  obscure, 
are  worthy  of  being  remembered  and  perpetuated  upon  the 
pages  of  history;  for  the  pioneer,  like  the  great  forests  that 
once  surrounded  his  humble  cabin,  is  passing  awa)- ;  onl)'  here 
and  there  you  find  them,  and  soon,  very  soon,  there  will  not 
one  remain,  and  it  is  but  a  simple  acti  of  justice  to  the  living 
and  an  honor  that  we  owe  to  the  dead,  who  now  rest  from  their 
toils  on  fields  their  hands  helped  to  clear,  that  a  record  of  their 
lives  should  be  put  into  some  tangible  form  and  the  multitude 
of  facts  in  the  possession  of  those  who  are  yet  with  us  be  res- 
cued from  oblivion,  for  soon  these  witnesses  will  pass  away,  and 
there  will  be  none  left  to  tell  the  story  of  the  olden  time. 


For  this  reason  the  author  has  undertaken  the  task  of  com- 
piling a  vohime,  and  he  finds  that  there  has  been  an  ahiiost 
endless  amount  of  labor  to  collect  and  arrange  facts  and  dates 
to  incidents  that  transpired  so  many  years  ago,  and  much  of  it 
may  appear  commonplace  and  non-interesting  to  some,  but  the 
author  belives  that  the  task  he  has  undertaken  is  a  laudable 
one,  and  that  the  few  pioneers  now  remaining  and  their  de- 
scendants for  generations  to  come,  will  be  interested  in  the 
work,  and  will  properly  appreciate  the  undertaking. 

To  the  many  who  have  aided  him  in  this  undertaking  and 
were  induced  to,  at  his  earnest  request,  he  is  under  many  obliga- 
tions, and  though  their  names  may  appear  elsewhere,  in  con- 
nection with  articles  contributed,  still  he  takes  pleasure  in  ren- 
dering a  personal  acknowledgment  here  :  J.  H.  Plumb,  Esq.,  of 
Westfield,  Mrs.  Stoddard  of  Iowa,  S  Gary  Adams,  Esq.  of 
Buffalo,  S.  W.  Soule,  William  H.  Parkinson  of  Collins,  Mrs.  Sey- 
mour of  Chautauqua,  L.  B.  Cochran,  Esq.,  Hon.  C.  C.  Sever- 
ance, W.  G.  Ramson,  Dr.  G.  G.  Stanbro  of  Concord  and  L.  D. 
Smith  and  Cyrus  Rice  of  Sardinia,  have  placed  him  under  a  debt 
of  gratitude.  Of  those  who  rendered  valuable  aid  in  soliciting 
subscriptions  and  encouraging  him  in  his  undertaking,  he  will 
ever  remember  the  names  of  James  Hopkins,  Addison  Whee- 
lock,  Cyrus  Rice,  Welcome  Andrews,  Alden  J.  McArthur  and 
many  others.  Christfield  Johnson,  Esq.,  author  of  the  Centen- 
nial History  of  Erie  county,  courteously  allowed  him  the  free 
use  of  his  book,  and  the  first  one  hundred  pages  of  this  work 
are  taken  from  his  book,  and  Turner's  History  of  the  Holland 
Purchase.  Nearly  the  whole  of  the  remaining  pages  are  original. 
The  amount  of  matter  in  this  volume  in  relation  to  the  family 
histories  of  each  of  these  respective  towns  will  be  accounted  for 
by  the  number  of  subscriptions  that  the  author  has  received  in 
said  towns  to  aid  in  the  publication  of  this  work.  Of  course  a 
work  of  this  nature,  containing  the  amount  of  matter  that  this 
one  does,  must  necessarily  be  expensive,  and  every  page  added 
must  necessarily  also  increase  the  expense  to  be  borne  by  the 
author  who  has  to  depend  for  the  funds  to  defray  the  cost  most 
entirely  upon  local  patronage,  and  most  certainly  he  cannot  do 
as  his  inclinations  would  otherwise  naturally  lead  him,  if  he 
were  not  confined  to  limited  means,  and  in  the    present   under- 


taking  he  wcnild  feci  himself  am[jl\-  rewarded  if  lie  were  to  re- 
ceive the  bare  expense  of  preparing  and  publishing  this  work. 
But  he  is  well  aware  nozo  that  the  expense  will  far  exceed  all 
such  hopes,  and  the  author  regrets  too  that  there  is  a  single 
thing  omitted  that  will  detract  from  the  general  interest  of  this 
volume,  and  yet  he  knows  that  there  are  names  of  those  who 
were  early  identified  with  the  settlement  of  these  towns,  whose 
histories  would  have  been  of  interest  and  were  worth)-  of  being 
preserved,  that  are  now  lacking,  which  can  only  be  accounted 
for  by  the  indifference  of  those  who  should  have  taken  some 
interest  in  a  work  of  this  nature. 

Following  appears  the  number  of  subscribers  of  each  town, 
together  with  those  who  are  not  residents  : 

Concord 260 

Collins 125 

North  Collins 35 

Sardinia 65 

Buffalo  and  others  localities ■ 80 

E.   B. 


^\^^     /, 



E.    BRIGGS. 

Autobioijraphy  of  the  Author. 

The  author  of  this  work  was  born  on  the  ^ist  thi)-  of  August, 
i8i8,  on  Townsend  Hill,  in  the  town  of  (Joncord,  where  he 
remained  with  his  parents  until  after  he  was  seventeen  years  of 
age.  As  soon  as  old  enough,  he  was  put  to  work  to  assist  in 
clearing  up  a  heavily-timbered  farm  ;  and  the  scenes  and  inci- 
dents appertaining  to  pioneer  life  jjortrayed  in  the  several 
articles  in  chapter  xiv.  of  this  work  are  from  his  own  knowl- 
edge and  experience. 

His  education  was  principally  obtained  in  the  district  school, 
on  Townsend  Hill,  supplemented  by  a  few  terms  at  select 
school  and  Springville  Academy.  • 

The  Winter  after  he  was  eighteen  years  of  age,  he  taught  a 
term  of  school,  and  the  Spring  following,  he  took  Greeley's 
advice  and  went  west.  This  was  before  the  advent  of  railroads, 
and  was  quite  an  undertaking.  The  journey  across  the  State 
of  Michigan,  and  from  Chicago  to  Racine,  from  Racine  to 
Janesville,  from  Janesville  to  Galena,  and  from  Galena  to  Ful- 
ton, a  total  distance  of  over  six  hundred  miles,  was  made  on 
foot.  At  that  time,  the  prairies  of  Northern  Illinois  and 
Southern  Wisconsin  were  unoccupied;  the  onl\-  settlers  to  be 
found  were  located  in  or  near  the  timber.  Chicago  at  that 
time  was  a  small  town,  whose  buildings  and  improvements 
were  confined  to  a  narrow  belt  of  dry  land  along  the  lake-shore 
and  river-bank ;  the  ground  back  being  low  and  covered  with 
prairie-grass  and  water.  Racine  was  a  straggling  little  hamlet, 
and  the  city  of  Janesville  was  yet  in  embryo,  its  site  being 
occupied  by  two  or  three  small  log  farm-houses.  He  remem- 
bers stopping  there  a  few  days,  and  planting  corn  on  the  land 
where  the  city  now  stands.  Beloit  was  named,  but  Freeport 
was  unknown,  and  Galena  was  a  very  small  village.  The  jour- 
ney for  the  last  two  days  was  made  on  a  single  meal.  Fulton 
was  surveyed  and  named,  but  contained  but  one  log-house. 
He  remained  in  Fulton  two  and  a  half  years,  putting  up  build- 
ings in  the  Summer,  and  getting  out  timber  and  cutting  steam- 
boat wood  in  the  Winter.  He  built  the  first  frame-house  in 
Fulton,  and  continued  to  work  at  the  business  until  prostrated 
by  sickness. 

When  sufficiently  recovered  to  travel,  he  returned  to  his 
native  town,  where  for  the  next  eleven  years  his  time  was 
divided  between  working  at  the  carpenters'  trade  Summers, 
teaching  school  Winters,  and  attending  to  the  duties  of  the 
office  of  Superintendent  of  Common  Schools. 

In  1850,  he  went  to  the  town  of  West  Seneca,  and  invested 
in  timbered  land,  which  had  formerly  been  a  part  of  the  Indian 
reservation.  For  the  next  fifteen  years,  this  town  and  the  ad- 
joining town  of  Elma  was  his  home.  During  these  }'-ears,  he 
was  quite  extensively  engaged  in  the  wood,  bark  and  lumber 
business.  In  1852,  while  a  resident  of  West  Seneca,  he  was 
elected  Justice  of  the  Peace,  and  also  town  Superintendent  of 
Common  Schools.  He  was  also  chosen  to  represent  them  on  the 
Board  of  Supervisors,  in  1853-54-55.  He  afterward  held  the 
office  of  Justice  of  the  Peace  in  the  town  of  Elma.  Since  his  re- 
turn to  Concord,  in  1865,  he  has  worked  at  building  several  Sum- 
mers, and  taught  school  occasionally  Winters.  For  the  last 
five  years,  his  time  has  been  principally  spent  in  procuring 
facts  and  preparing  this  work.  Since  his  return  to  Concord,  he 
has  been  several  times  elected  Supervisor,  although  the  party 
with  which  he  affiliates  is  in  the  minority ;  and  it  is  a  source  of 
gratification  to  know^  that  wherever  he  has  resided,  he  has, 
enjoyed  the  confidence  of  his  fellow-townsmen. 




FROM  1534  TO  1655. 

George  Cartier's  Expedition — Champlain's  Expedition — King  James'  Grant — 
Henry  Hudson — French  Traders — The  Jesuits— Chaumonot  and  Bre- 
boeuf — Hunting  Buffalo  —  Destruction  of  the  Kahquahs  and  Eries — 
Seneca  Tradition — French  Account — Their  Sysiem  of  Clans  —Its  Import- 
ance—  Sachems  and  War-Chiefs —  Method  of  Descent  —  Choice  of 
Sachems — Family  Relations. 

In  the  year  1534,  forty-two  years  after  the  discovery  of 
America,  George  Cartier,  a  French  explorer  sailed  up  the  St. 
Lawrence  to  Montreal  and  took  possession  of  all  the  country 
round  about  on  behalf  of  the  King  of  France,  Francis  the  P'irst, 
and  called  it  New  France. 

He  made  some  attempts  to  colonize,  but  in  1543  they  were 
all  abandoned,  and  for  more  than  half  a  century  no  further 
progress  was  made. 

In  1603,  the  celebrated  French  mariner,  Samuel  Champlain, 
led  an  expedition  to  Quebec  and  made  a  permanent  settlement 
there,  and,  in  fact,  founded  the  Colony  of  Canada.  Montreal 
was  founded  soon  after,  and  communication  was  comparatively 
easy  along  the  course  of  the  St.  Lawrence  and  Lake  Ontario, 
and,   with   a   portage   around   the    Falls,    to    Lake    Erie.     And 

4  KING    JAMES     GRANT. 

mainly  for  this  reason,  the  French  fur  traders  and  missionaries 
reached  this  region  of  country  long  before  any  other  Europeans. 

In  1606,  King  James,  of  England,  granted  to  an  association 
of  Englishmen  called  the  Plymouth  company,  the  territory  of 
New  England,  but  no  permanent  settlement  was  made  until  the 
9th  day  of  November,  1620,  when,  from  the  historic  Ma}'flower, 
the  Pilgrim  Fathers  landed  on  Plymouth  Rock. 

In  1628,  Charles  the  F"irst,  of  England,  granted  a  charter  for 
the  government  of  the  Province  of  Massachusetts  Bay.  It 
included  the  territory  between  latitude  40°  2'  and  44°  15'  north, 
extending  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific,  making  a  colony  a 
hundred  and  fifty-four  miles  wide  and  four  thousand  miles  long. 
The  County  of  Erie  and  Western  New  York  were  included 
within  its  limits. 

In  1609,  the  English  navigator,  Henry  Hudson,  while  in  the 
employ  of  Holland,  discovered  the  river  that  bears  his  name, 
and  the  Hollanders  established  fortified  trading  posts  on  Man- 
hattan island  and  at  Alban)%  and  commenced  trading  with  the 
Indians.  They  also  made  an  indefinite  claim  of  territory  west- 

All  European  nations  at  that  time  claimed  title  to  lands  in 
America  by  the  right  of  discovery,  and  they  granted  them  away 
to  individuals  and  companies  in  small  and  large  tracts,  as  they 
saw  fit,  when,  as  a  matter  of  right  and  justice,  their  title  was  no 
better  than  was  the  title  of  that  character  we  read  of,  to  all  the 
kingdoms  of  the  world,  which  he  offered  to  give  Christ  if  he 
would  fall  down  and  worship  him. 

In  1623,  permanent  Dutch  emigration  for  agricultural  pur- 
poses first  began  upon  the  Hudson  river. 

In  1625,  a  few  Catholic  missionaries  arrived  on  the  banks  of 
the  St.  Lawrence. 

About  1620,  the  first  white  men  visited  the  country  about  the 
lower  end  of  Lake  Erie  and  the  Niagara  river  ;  the}'  were  French 
fur  traders  in  search  of  furs. 

In  1626,  Father  De  La  Roche  Daillon,  a  French  missionary, 
visited  the  Neuter  Nation  and  passed  the  winter  preaching  the 
gospel  among  them.  The  Neuter  Nation  occupied  the  countiy 
about  the  east  end  of  Lake  Erie  and  on  both  sides  of  the 
Niagara  River.     They  had  their  villages  in  Canada  and  in  Erie 

riiK  jKsri  r  missk  ixariks.  5 

count)';  there  was  one  at  or  near  the  mouth  of  I'LiL(hteen-Mile 
creek,  and  perhaps  others  further  west.  Hut  the  south  shore  of 
Lake  Erie  was  occupied  principally  by  a  tribe  called  the  Eries. 
The  French  called  the.  tribe  occupying  the  countrx-  hereabouts 
the  Neuter  Nation,  because  they  dwelt  in  peace  with  surround- 
ing tribes,  but  they  were  kno\\n  among  the  other  tribes  as  the 

The  Jesuit  missionaries,  fired  with  unbounded  zeal  and  unsur- 
passed valor,  traversed  the  wilderness,  holding  up  the  cross 
before  the  bewildered  pagans.  They  soon  had  flourishing  sta- 
tions as  far  west  as  Lake  Huron.  One  of  these  stations  was  St. 
Marie,  near  the  eastern  extremity  of  the  lake,  and  it  was  from 
St.  Marie  that  Fathers  Breboeuf  and  Chaumonot  set  forth  in 
November,  1640,  to  visit  the  Neuter  Nation.  They  returned  in 
the  Spring,  having  visited  eighteen  Kahquah  villages,  but  hav- 
ing met  with  very  little  encouragement  among  them.  They 
reported  the  Neuter  Lidians  to  be  stronger  and  finer  looking 
than  the  Hurons,  and  that  their  food  and  clothing  were  but  little 
different ;  that  the}'  had  corn,  beans  and  some  other  vegetables, 
and  plenty  of  fish  ;  that  they  were  much  employed  in  hunting 
deer,  bears,  buffalo,  beavers,  wolves,  wild-cats  and  other  animals; 
that  there  was  also  an  abundance  of  wild  turkeys.  They  esti- 
mated the  whole  number  of  villages  of  the  Neuter  Nation  at 
forty,  and  that  the  most  eastern  was  but  one  day's  journe}'  from 
the  country  of  the  Senecas.  The  Senecas,  when  first  \isited  by 
the  whites,  had  their  villages  east  of  the  Genesee  river. 

Up  to  this  time,  the  Kahquahs  had  succeeded  in  maintaining 
their  neutrality  between  the  fierce  belligerents  on  either  side. 
What  the  cause  of  quarrel,  if  any,  arose  between  the  peaceful 
possessors  of  Erie  county  and  the  powerful  confederates  to  the 
eastward,  is  entirely  unknown ;  but  sometime  during  the  next 
fifteen  years,  the  Iroquois  fell  upon  both  the  Kahquahs  and  the 
Eries  and  exterminated  them,  as  nations,  from  the  face  of  the 

The  precise  years  in  which  these  e\ents  occurred  are  uncer- 
tain, and  it  is  not  known  whether  the  Kahquahs  or  the  Eries 
were  first  destroyed.  French  accounts  go  to  show  that  the 
Neuter  Nation  were  first  destroyed ;  while,  according  to  Seneca 
tradition,    the   Kahquahs    still   dwelt   here   when    the    Iroquois 


annihilated  the  Eries;  but  it  is  certain  that,  somewhere  between 
1643  and  1655,  the  fierce  confederates  of  Central  New  York 
"put  out  the  fires"  of  both  the  Kahquahs  and  the  Eries. 

From  the  destruction  of  the  Kahquahs  down  to  the  time  the 
Iroquois  sold  to  the  Holland  Land  company  (or,  rather,  to 
Robert  Morris),  they  were,  by  right  of  conquest,  the  actual 
possessors  of  the  territory  composing  the  present  County  of 
Erie,  and,  a  few  years  before  the  sale,  the  largest  nation  of  the 
confederacy  made  their  principal  residence  within  the  county. 
Within  its  borders,  too,  are  still  to  be  seen  the  largest  united 
body  of  their  descendants.  For  two  hundred  and  thirty  years, 
the  Iroquois  have  been  closely  identified  with  the  history  of 
Erie  county,  and  it  is  proper  to  give  a  short  account  of  the 
interior  structure  of  that  remarkable  confederacy. 

The  name  Iroquois  was  never  applied  by  the  confederates  to 
themselves  ;  it  was  first  used  by  the  French.  The  men  of  the 
five  nations  called  themselves  He-do-no-saunee,  which  means 
literally  "  They  form  a  cabin,"  describing  in  this  expressive 
manner  the  close  union  existing  between  them.  The  Indian 
name  just  quoted  is  more  liberally  and  more  commonly  ren- 
dered "The  People  of  the  Long  House,"  which  is  more  fully 
descriptive  of  the  confederacy. 

The  feature  that  distinguished  the  people  of  the  Long  House 
from  all  the  world  beside,  and  which,  at  the  same  time,  bound 
together  all  these  ferocious  warriors  as  with  a  living  chain  was 
the  system  oi  c/ans  extending  through  all  the  different  tribes. 

Many  readers  doubtless  have  often  heard  of  the  warlike  suc- 
cess and  outward  greatness  of  the  Iroquois  confederacy,  but  one 
unacquainted  with  the  inner  league,  which  was  its  distinguish- 
ing characteristic,  and  without  which  in  all  probability  have  met 
at  an  early  day  with  the  fate  of  numerous  similar  alliances. 

The  people  of  the  Iroquois  confederacy  were  divided  into 
eight  c/aHS,  or  families,  the  names  of  which  were  as  follows: 
Wolf,  Bear,  Beaver,  Turtle,  Deer,  Snipe,  Heron  and  Hawk. 

Each  clan  formed  a  large  artificial  family  modeled  on  the 
natural  family.  All  the  members  of  the  clan,  no  matter  how 
widely  separated  among  the  tribes  were  considered  as  brothers 
and  sisters  to  each  other,  and  forbidden  to  intermarry.  This 
prohibition  was  strictly  enforced  b}'  public  opinion. 

SAC'IIKMS    AND    \VAR-{  1 1 1  KKS.  J 

The  clan.bciiii^  thus  tauL;lU  from  earliest  infanc)'  that  tliey 
belonged  to  the  same  famil\-,  a  bond  of  the  strongest  kind  was 
created  throughout  the  confederac)-.  Hie  Oneida  of  the  Wolf 
clan  had  no  sooner  appeared  among  the  Cayugas  than  those  of 
the  same  clan  claimed  iiim  as  their  special  guest,  and  admitted 
him  to  the  most  confidential  intimac}'.  The  Seneca  of  the 
Turtle  clan  might  wander  to  the  country  of  the  Mohawks  at  the 
further  extremity  of  the  Long  House,  and  he  had  a  claim  upon 
his  brother  Turtles  which  they  would  not  dream  of  repudiating. 

Thus  the  whole  confederacy  was  linked  together.  If  at  any 
time  there  appeared  a  tendency  toward  conflict  between  the 
different  tribes,  it  was  instantly  checked  by  the  thought  that 
if  persisted  in  the  hand  of  the  Heron  would  be  turned  against 
Heron,  and  the  hatchet  of  the  Bear  would  be  raised  against 
his  brother  Bear,  and  the  bow  of  the  Beaver  would  be  drawn 
against  his  brother  Beaver.  And  so  potent  was  the  feeling 
that  until  the  power  of  the  confederacy  was  broken  by  over- 
whelming outside  force,  there  was  no  serious  dissension  between 
the  tribes  of  the  Iroquois.  Aside  from  the  clan-system  just 
described,  which  was  an  artificial  invention  expressly  invented 
to  prevent  dissension  among  the  confederates,  the  Iroquois 
league  had  some  resemblance  to  the  great  American  Union 
which  succeeded  it.  The  central  authority  was  supreme  on 
questions  of  peace  and  war,  and  on  all  others  relating  to  the 
general  welfare  of  the  confederacy,  while  the  tribes,  like  the 
states,  reserved  to  themselves  the  management  of  their  ordin- 
ary affairs.  In  peace,  all  power  was  confided  to  "  Sachems," 
in  war,  to  "  Chiefs."  The  Sachems  of  each  tribe  acted  as  its 
rulers  in  matters  which  required  the  exercise  of  civil  authority. 
The  same  rulers  also  met  in  congress  to  direct  the  affairs  of  the 
confederacy.  There  was,  in  each  tribe,  the  same  number  of 
War-chiefs  as  Sachems,  and  these  had  absolute  authority  in 
time  of  war.  But  in  a  war-party  the  War-chiefs  commanded 
and  the  Sachem  took  his  place  in  the  ranks. 

The  congress  always  met  at  the  council-fire  of  the  Onon- 
dagas.  The  Senecas  were  unquestionably  the  most  powerful 
of  all  the  tribes,  and  as  the\'  were  located  at  the  western 
extremity  of  the  confederac}-,  they  had  to  bear  the  brunt  of 
war  when  it  was  assailed  by  its  most  formidable  foes,  who  dwelt 


in  that  quarter.  It  would  naturally  follow  that  the  principal 
War-chief  of  the  league  should  be  of  the  Seneca  Nation,  and 
such  is  said  to  have  been  the  case. 

As  among  many  other  savage  tribes  the  right  of  heirship  was 
in  the  female  line.  Titles,  as  far  as  they  were  hereditary  at  all, 
followed  the  same  law  of  descent.  The  child  also  followed 
the  clan  and  tribe  of  the  mother.  Notwithstanding  the  modi- 
fied system  of  hereditary  power  in  vogue,  the  constitution  of 
every  tribe  was  essentially  republican.  Warriors,  old  men,  and 
even  women,  attended  the  council  and  made  their  influence 
felt.  Neither  in  the  government  of  the  confederacy  nor  in  the 
tribes,  was  there  any  such  thing  as  tyranny  over  the  people. 


FROM  1655  TO  1679. 

The  Iroquois  Triumphant— Obliteration  of  Dutch  Power — French  Progress  — 
La  Salle  Visits  the  Senecas — Greenhalph's  Estimates — La  Salle  on  the 
Niagara — Building  of  the  Griffin — It  Enters  Lake  Erie — La  Salle's  Subse- 
quent Career — The  Prospect  in  1679. 

From  the  time  of  the  destruction  of  the  Kahquahs  and 
Eries,  the  Iroquois  went  forth  conquering  and  to  conquer. 
This  was  probably  the  day  of  their  greatest  glory.  They 
stayed  the  progress  of  the  French  into  their  territories;  they 
negotiated  on  equal  terms  \\ith  the  Dutch  and  English,  and 
having  supplied  themselves  with  the  terrible  arms  of  the  pale- 
faces, they  smote  with  direst  vengeance  whomsoever  of  their 
own   race  were  unfortunate  enough  to  provoke  their  wrath. 

At  one  period,  the  sound  of  their  war  cry  was  heard  along 
the  Straits  of  St.  Marys  and  at  the  foot  of  Lake  Superior.  At 
another,  under  the  walls  of  Quebec,  where  they  defeated  the 
Hurons  under  the  eyes  of  the  French.  They  spread  the  terror 
of  their  arms  over  New  England — Smith  encountered  their 
warriors  in  the  settlement  of  Virginia,  and  La  Salle  on  the 
discovery  of  Illinois.  They  bore  their  conquering  arms  along 
the  Susquehanna,  the  Allegheny  and  the  Ohio,  and  farther 
south.  In  short,  they  triumphed  on  every  side,  save  only 
where  the  white  men  came,  and  even  the  white  man  was  for  a 
time  held  at  bay  by  their  fierce  confederates. 

In  1664  the  English  conquered  New  Amsterdam,  and  in 
1670  their  conquest  was  made  permanent. 

Charles  the  Second,  then  King  of  England,  granted  the 
conquered  province  to  his  brother  James,  Duke  of  York,  from 
whom  it  was  called  New  York.  This  grant  comprised  all  the 
lands  along  the  Hudson,  with  an  indefinite  amount  westward, 
thus  overlapping  the  previous  grant  of  James  the  First,  to  the 
Plymouth  company,  and  the  boundaries  of  Massachusetts  by 
the  charter  of  Charles  the  First,  and  laying  the  foundation  for 
a  conflict  of  jurisdiction,  which  was  afterward  to  have  import- 
ant effects  on  the  destinies  of  Western  New  York. 


By  1665,  trading  posts  had  been  established  by  the  French  at 
Mackinaw,  Green  Bay,  Chicago  and  St.  Joseph.  In  1669  La 
Salle,  whose  name  was  soon  to  be  indissolubly  united  to  the 
annals  of  Erie  county,  visited  the  Senecas  with  only  two  com- 
panions, finding  their  four  principal  villages  from  ten  to  twenty 
miles  southerly  from  Rochester,  scattered  over  portions  of  the 
present  Counties  of  Monroe,  Livingston  and  Ontario. 

In  1673,  the  Missionaries  Marquette  and  Joliet,  pushed  on 
beyond  the  farthest  French  post  and  erected  the  emblems  of 
Christianity  on  the  shore  of  the  Father  of  Waters. 

In  1677,  Wentworth  Greenhalph,  an  Englishman,  visited  all 
the  F'ive  Nations,  finding  the  same  four  towns  of  the  Senecas 
described  by  the  companions  of  La  Salle.  Greenhalph  made 
very  minute  observations  counting  the  houses  of  the  Indians 
and  reported  the  Mohawk  as  having  three  hundred  warriors, 
the  Oneidas  two  hundred,  the  Onondagas  three  hundred  and 
fifty,  the  Cayugas  three  hundred  and  the  Senecas  a  thousand. 
It  will  be  seen  that  the  Senecas,  the  Guardians  of  the  western 
door  of  the  Long  House,  numbered,  according  to  Greenhalph's 
computation,  nearly  as  many  as  all  of  the  other  tribes  of  the 
confederacy  combined,  and  other  accounts  show  that  he  was  not 
far  from  correct. 

In  the  month  of  January,  1679,  a  Frenchman  of  good 
family,  Robert  Cavalier  de  La  Salle,  arrived  at  the  mouth  of 
Niagara.  He  was  one  of  the  most  gallant,  devoted  and  ad- 
venturous of  all  the  bold  explorers,  who  under  many  different 
banners,  opened  the  new  world  to  the  knowledge  of  the  old. 
In  1678  he  had  received  from  King  Louis  a  commission  to 
discover  the  western  part  of  New  France.  He  made  some 
preparations  the  same  year  and  in  the  Fall  sent  the  Seuer  de 
La  Motte  and  Father  Hennepin  (the  priest  and  historian  of 
the  expedition)  in  advance  to  the  mouth  of  the  Niagara.  As 
soon  as  La  Salle  arrived  he  went  two  leagues  above  the  Falls, 
built  a  rude  dock  at  the  mouth  of  Cayuga  Creek,  in  Niagara 
county  and  laid  the  keel  of  a  vessel  with  which  to  navigate  the 
Lakes.  Hennepin  distinctly  mentions  a  small  village  of  Sene- 
cas at  the  mouth  of  the  Niagara,  and  it  is  plain  from  his  whole 
narrative  that  the  Iroquois  were  in  possession  of  the  country 
along  the  ri\er. 


The  work  was  carried  on  throu<;h  the  Winter,  and  in  the 
Sprin^^  the  vessel  was  launched.  It  was  a  small  vessel  of  sixty 
tons  burthen,  completely  furnished  with  anchors,  and  other 
equipments,  and  armed  with  seven  small  cannon,  all  of  which 
had  been  transported  by  hand  around  the  cataract.  The  vessel 
was  named  the  "Grififin,"  and  there  were  thirt)--four  men  on 
board,   all  Frenchmen  with  a  single  exception. 

For  several  months  the  Griffin  remained  in  the  Niagara, 
between  the  place  where  it  was  built  and  the  rapids  at  the  head 
of  the  river.  When  all  was  ready,  the  attempt  was  made  and 
several  times  repeated,  to  ascend'  the  rapids  above  Black  Rock. 
At  length  on  the  7th  day  of  August,  1679,  a  favorable  wind 
sprung  up  from  the  Northeast;  all  the  Griffin's  sails  were  set, 
and  again  it  approached  the  rapids.  A  dozen  stout  sailors 
were  sent  ashore  ,  with  a  tow-line,  and  aided  with  all  their 
strength  the  breeze  that  blew  from  the  North.  Those  efforts 
were  soon  successful;  by  the  aid  of  sails  and  tow-line,  the 
Griffin  surmounted  the  rapids,  and  the  pioneer  vessel  of  these 
waters  swept  out  on  to  the  bosom  of  Lake  Erie.  As  it  did  so, 
the  priests  led  in  singing  a  joyous  Te  Deum,  and  all  the  cannon 
were  fired  in  a  grand  salute.  On  board  that  vessel  was  the 
intrepid  La  Salle,  a  man  fitted  to  grace  the  salons  of  Paris, 
yet  now  eagerly  pressing  forward  to  dare  the  hardships  of 
unknown  seas  and  savage  lands. 

A  born  leader  of  men,  a  heroic  subduer  of  nature,  the  gallant 
Frenchman  for  a  brief  time  passes  along  the  border  of  our 
county  and  then  disappears  in  the  far  West,  where  he  was 
eventually  to  find  a  grave. 

There  w^as  Tonti,  the  solitary  alien,  amid  the  Gallic  band 
exiled  by  revolution  from  his  native  Italy,  who  had  been  chosen 
by  La  Salle  as  second  in  command,  and  who  justified  the  choice 
by  his  unswerving  courage  and  devoted  loyalty.  There,  too, 
was  Father  Hennepin,  the  earliest  historian  of  these  regions,  one 
of  the  most  zealous  of  all  the  zealous  band  of  Catholic  priests 
who  at  that  period  undauntedly  bore  the  cross  amid  the  fiercest 
pagans  of  America. 

This  was  the  beginning  of  the  commerce  of  the  upper  lakes 
and  like  many  another  first  venture  it  resulted  only  in  disaster 
to  its  projectors,  though  the  harbinger  of  unbounded  success  by 


others.  The  (iriffin  went  to  Green  Bay  where  La  Salle  and 
Hennepin  left  it,  and  started  on  its  return  with'a  cargo  of  furs, 
and  was  never  heard  of  more.  It  is  supposed  that  it  sank  in  a 
storm  and  all  on  board  perished. 

After  the  Grif^n  had  sailed.  La  Salle  and  Hennepin  went  in 
canoes  to  the  head  of  Lake  Michigan.  Then,  after  building  a 
trading  post  and  waiting  many  weary  months  for  the  return  of 
his  vessel,  he  went,  with  thirty  followers,  to  Lake  Peoria,  on  the 
Illinois,  where  he  built  a  fort  and  gave  it  the  expressive  name 
of  "  Creve  Cceur,"  Broken  Heart.  But  notwithstanding  this 
expression  of  despair,  his  courage  was  far  from  exhausted,  and 
after  sending  Hennepin  to  explore  the  Mississippi,  he,  with  three 
comrades,  performed  the  remarkable  feat  of  returning  to  Fort 
Frontenac  on  foot,  depending  on  their  guns  for  support. 

From  Fort  Frontenac  he  returned  to  Creve  Coeur,  the  garri- 
son of  which  had  in  the  meantime  been  driven  away  by  the 
Indians.  Again  the  indomitable  La  Salle  gathered  his  follow- 
^  ers,  and  in  the  fore  part  of  1682  descended  the  Mississippi  to 
the  sea,  being  the  first  European  to  explore  any  considerable 
portion  of  that  mighty  stream.  He  took  possession  of  the 
country  in  the  name  of  King  Louis  the  Fourteenth,  and  called 
it  Louisiana. 

Returning  to  France,  he  astonished  and  gratified  the  Court 
with  the  story  of  his  discoveries,  and  in  1684  was  furnished  with 
a  fleet  and  several  hundred  men  to  colonize  the  new  domain. 
Then  everything  went  wrong  ;  the  fleet,  through  the  blunders 
of  its  naval  commander,  went  to  Mattagorda  bay,  in  Texas  ;  the 
store  ship  was  wrecked  ;  the  fleet  returned  ;  La  Salle  failed  to 
find  the  mouth  of  the  Mississippi ;  his  colony  dwindled  away, 
through  desertion  and  death,  to  forty  men,  and  at  length  he 
started  with  sixteen  of  these  on  foot  to  return  to  Canada  for 
assistance.  Ere  he  reached  the  Sabine  he  was  murdered  by  two 
of  his  followers  and  left  unburied  on  the  prairie.  France  knows 
him  as  the  man  who  added  Louisiana  to  her  empire  ;  the  Mis- 
sissippi valley  reveres  him  as  the  first  explorer  of  its  great  river, 
but  by  the  citizens  of  this  county  he  will  best  be  remembered 
as  the  pioneer  navigator  of  Lake  Erie. 

TIIK    Kki:(   ri(>\    ol"    lOKT    MACAkA.  13 

CHAPTKR   111. 

De  Nonville's  Assault — Origin  of  Fort  Niagara — La  Honlan's  Expedition — The 
Peace  of  Ryswyck — Queen  Anne's  War — The  Iroquois  Neutral — The 
Tuscaroras — Joncaire — Fort  Niagara  Rebuilt — French  Power  Increas- 
ing— Successive  Wars — The  Line  of  Posts— The  Final  Struggle — The 
Expedition  of  D'Aubrey — The  Result — The  Surrender  of  Canada 

For  the  next  forty-five  years  after  the  adventures  of  La 
Salle,  the  French  voya<^eurs  traded  and  the  missionaries  labored, 
and  their  soldiers  sometimes  made  incursions,  but  thev  had  no 
permanent  fortress  this  side  of  Fort  Frontenac  (Kingston, 

In  1687,  the  Marquis  de  Nonville,  Governor  of  New  France, 
came  with  an  army  and  attacked  the  Senecas  at  their  village 
near  Avon  and  Victor,  and  after  giving  battle  the  Senecas  fled. 
De  Nonville  destroyed  their  stores  of  corn  and  retired  to  Lake 
Ontario,  and  then  sailed  to  the  mouth  of  the  Niagara,  where  he 
erected  a  small  fort  on  the  east  side  of  the  river.  This  was  the 
origin  of  Fort  Niagara,  one  of  the  most  celebrated  strongholds 
in  America,  and  which,  though  a  while  abandoned,  was  after- 
wards for  a  long  time  considered  the  key  of  Western  New  York. 

Detroit  was  founded  by  the  French  in  1701  ;  other  posts  were 
established  far  and  wide. 

About  17 12,  an  important  event  occurred  in  the  histor}-  of  the 

The  Five  Nations  become  Six  Nations.  The  Tuscaroras,  a 
powerful  tribe  of  North  Carolina,  had  become  involved  in  a 
w^ar  with  the  whites,  originating,  as  usual,  in  a  dispute  about 
land.  The  colonists  being  aided  by  several  other  tribes,  the 
Tuscaroras  were  soon  defeated,  many  of  them  killed,  and  many 
others  captured  and  sold  as  slaves.  The  greater  part  of  the 
remainder  fled  northward  to  the  Iroquois,  who  immediately 
adopted  them  as  one  of  the  tribes  of  the  confederacy. 

Not  long  after  this,  one  Chabert  Joncaire,  a  Frenchman,  who 
had    been    captured    in    \-outh    by  the   Senecas,  who   had    been 


adopted  into  their  tribe,  and  had  married  a  Seneca  wife,  but 
who  had  been  released,  was  employed  by  the  French  authorities 
to  promote  their  interests  among  the  Iroquois.  Pleading  his 
claims  as  an  adopted  child  of  the  nation,  he  was  allowed  by  the 
Seneca  Chiefs  to  build  a  cabin  on  the  site  of  Lewiston,  which 
soon  became  a  center  of  French  influence. 

About  1725,  the  French  began  re-building  Fort  Niagara  on 
the  site  where  De  Nonville  had  erected  his  fortress  ;  this  was 
their  stronghold  for  many  years.  To  this,  and  forts  that  were 
already  built,  they  added  Presque  Isle  (now  Erie),  Venango 
(Franklin,  Pa.),  and  Fort  Du  Quesne,  on  the  site  of  Pittsburgh, 
designing  to  establish  a  line  of  forts  from  the  Lakes  to  the  Ohio, 
and  thence  down  that  river  to  the  Mississippi. 

Frequent  detachments  of  troops  passed  through  along  this 
line.  Their  course  was  up  Niagara  to  Buffalo,  thence  either  by 
bateaux  up  the  lake  or  on  foot  along  the  shore  to  Erie,  and 
thence  to  Venango  and  Du  Quesne.  Gaily-dressed  French 
officers  went  to  and  fro  ;  dark-gowned  Jesuits  traveled  back  and 
forth  receiving  the  respect  of  the  red  men  even  when  their 
creed  was  rejected. 

In  1756,  war  was  again  declared  between  England  and  France, 
being  their  last  great  struggle  for  supremacy  in  the  New  World. 
More  frequently  sped  the  gay  officers  and  soldiers  of  King 
Louis  from  Quebec,  and  Frontenac,  and  Niagara  —  now  in 
bateaux,  now  on  foot,  along  the  western  border  of  our  county. 

At  first  the  French  were  everywhere  victorious.  Braddock, 
almost  at  the  gates  of  Fort  Du  Quesne,  was  slain,  and  his  army 
cut  in  pieces. 

Montcalm  captured  Oswego.  The  French  line  up  the  lakes 
and  across  to  the  Ohio  was  stronger  than  ever;  but,  in  1758, 
William  Pitt  became  Prime  Minister,  and  then  England  flung 
herself  in  dead  earnest  into  the  contest  ;  that  year  Fort  Du 
Quesne  was  captured  by  an  English  and  provincial  army.  Fort 
Frontenac  was  seized  by  Colonel  Bradstreet.  The  cordon  was 
broken,  but  Fort  Niagara  still  held  out  for  F'rance.  In  1759, 
still  heavier  blows  were  struck.  Wolfe  assailed  Quebec,  the 
strongest  of  all  the  French  strongholds. 

Almost  at  the  same  time  General  Prideaux,  with  two  thous- 
and British  and  Provincials,  accompanied  by  Sir  William  Johnson 


with  his  faithful  Iroquois,  sailed  up  Lake  Ontario  and  laid 
siege  to  Fort  Niagara.  Defended  by  only  six  hundred  men, 
its  capture  was  certain  unless  relief  could  be  obtained.  Its 
commander  was  not  idle.  Once  again  along  the  Niagara  and 
up  Lake  Erie,  and  away  through  the  forest,  sped  his  lithe  red- 
skinned  messenger,  to  summon  the  sons  and  the  allies  of 
France.  D'Aubrey  at  Venango  heard  the  call  and  responded 
with  his  most  zealous  endeavours.  Gathering  all  the  troops 
he  could  from  far  and  near,  stripping  bare  with  desperate 
energy  the  little  French  forts  at  the  west,  and  mustering  every 
red  man  he  could  persuade  to  follow  his  banner  to  set  forth  to 
relieve  Niagara. 

Thus  it  was  about  the  20th  of  July,  1759,  that  the  largest 
European  force  which  had  yet  been  seen  in  this  region  at  any 
one  time,  came  coasting  down  the  lake  from  Presque  Isle,  past 
the  mouth  of  the  Cattaraugus  and  along  the  shores  of  Brant  and 
Evens,  and  Hamburgh,  to  the  foot  of  the  lake.  Fifty  or  sixty 
batteaux  bore  near  a  thousand  Frenchmen  on  their  mission  of 
relief,  while  a  long  line  of  canoes  were  freighted  with  four 
hundred  of  the  dusky  warriors  of  the  west. 

History  has  preserved  but  a  slight  record  of  this  last  struggle 
of  the  French  for  dominion  in  these  regions,  but  it  has  rescued 
from  oblivion  the  names  of  D'Aubrey,  the  commander,  De 
Lignery,  his  second,  of  Monsieur  Marini,  the  leader  of  the 
Indians,  and  of  Captains  De  Villie,  Pepentine,  Martini  and 

The  Seneca  warriors,  snuffing  the  battle  from  their  homes 
on  the  Genesee  and  beyond,  were  roaming  restlessly  through 
Erie  and  Niagara  counties  and  along  the  shores  of  the  river, 
uncertain  how  to  act,  more  friendly  to  the  French  than  the 
English,  and  yet  unwilling  to  engage  in  conflict  with  their 
brethren  of  the  Six  Nations. 

D'Aubrey  led  his  flotilla  past  the  site  of  Buffalo  and  past 
Grand  island  and  only  halted  on  reaching  the  shores  of  Navy 
island.  After  staying  there  a  day  or  two,  to  communicate  with 
the  fort,  he  passed  over  to  the  main  land  and  marched  forward 
to  battle.  But  Sir  William  Johnson,  who  had  succeeded  to 
the  command  on  the  death  of  Prideaux,  was  not  the  kind  of 
man  likely  to  meet   with   the  fate  of   Braddock.     Apprised  of 


the  approach  of  the  French,  he  retained  men  enough  before 
the  fort  to  prevent  an  outbreak  of  the  garrison,  and  stationed 
the  rest  in  an  advantageous  position  on  the  east  side  of  the 
Niagara,  just  below  the  whirlpool.  After  a  battle  an  hour 
long  the  French  were  utterly  routed,  several  hundred  being 
slain  on  the  field,  and  a  large  part  of  the  remainder  being  cap- 
tured, including  the  wounded  D'Aubrey. 

On  the  receipt  of  this  disastrous  news,  the  garrison  at  once 
surrendered.  The  control  of  the  Niagara  river,  which  had 
been  in  the  hands  of  the  French  for  over  a  hundred  years, 
passed  into  those  of  the  English.  For  a  little  while  the 
French  held  possession  of  the  fort  at  Schlosser,  and  even 
repulsed  an  English  force  sent  against  it.  Becoming  satisfied, 
however,  that  they  could  not  withstand  their  powerful  foe, 
they  determined  to  destroy  their  two  armed  vessels  laden  with 
military  stores.  They  accordingly  took  them  into  an  arm  of 
the  river  separating  Buckhorn  from  Grand  island,  at  the  very 
northwesternmost  limit  of  Erie  county,  burned  them  to  the 
waters'  edge  and  sunk  the  hulls. 

Soon  the  life-bought  victory  of  Wolfe  gave  Quebec  to  the 
triumphant  Britons.  Still  the  French  clung  to  their  colonies 
with  desperate  but  failing  grasp,  and  it  was  not  till  September, 
1760,  that  the  Marquis  de  Vaudreuil,  the  Governor-General  of 
Canada,  surrendered  Montreal,  and  with  it  Detroit,  Venango, 
and  all  the  other  within  his  jurisdiction.  This  surrender  was 
ratified  by  the  treaty  of  peace  between  England  and  France 
in  February,  1 763,  which  ceded  Canada  to  the  former  power 
and  thus  ended  the  long-  contest. 




Pontiac's  League — The  Seneca's  Hostile — The  Devil's  Hole — Battle  Near  Buf- 
falo— Treaty  at  Niagara — Bradstreet's  Expedition — Israel  Putnam — Lake 
Commerce — Wreck  of  the  Beaver — Tryon  County. 

The  celebrated  Indian  Chief  Pontiac,  united  several  western 
tribes  against  the  British  soon  after  their  advent.  In  May, 
1763,  the  league  surprised  nine  out  of  twelve  English  forts  and 
massacred  their  garrisons.  Detroit,  Pittsburgh  and  Niagara 
alone  escaped  surprise  and  each  successfully  resisted  a  siege. 
There  is  no  positive  evidence,  but  there  is  little  doubt  that  the 
Senecas  were  involved  in  Pontiac's  league  and  were  active  in 
their  attack  on  Niagara. 

In  the  September  following  occurred  the  awful  tragedy  of 
the  Devil's  Hole,  when  a  band  of  Senecas,  of  whom  Honaye- 
wus,  afterwards  celebrated  as  Farmers  Brothers,  was  one  and 
Cornplanter  probably  another,  ambushed  a  train  of  English 
army  wagons,  with  an  escort  of  soldiers,  the  whole  numbering 
ninety-six  men,  three  and  a  half  miles  below  the  Falls,  and 
massacred  every  man  except  four. 

A  few  weeks  later,  on  the  19th  of  October,  1763,  there 
occurred  the  first  hostile  conflict  in  Erie  county,  of  which 
there  is  any  record,  in  which  white  men  took  part.  It  occurred 
probably  at  or  near  Black  Rock.  Si.x  hundred  British  soldiers, 
under  one  Major  Wilkins,  were  on  their  way  in  boats  to  rein- 
force their  comrades  in  Detroit.  A  hundred  and  sixty  of  them, 
who  were  a  half  mile  astern  of  the  others,  were  suddenly  fired  on 
by  a  band  of  Senecas  in  a  thicket  on  the  shore.  So  close  was 
their  aim  that  thirteen  men  were  killed  or  wounded  at  the  first 
fire.  Yihy  soldiers  landed  and  attacked  the  Indians.  Three 
more  soldiers  were  killed  and  twelve  badh-  wounded.  It  does 
not  appear  that  the  Indians  suffered  near  as  heavily  as  the 

In  the  Summer  of  1764,  General  Bradstreet,  with  twelve  hun- 
dred British   and  Americans   came  bv  water  to   Fort  Niagara. 


accompanied  by  the  indefatigable  Sir  William  Johnson.  A  grand 
council  of  friendly  Indians  was  held  at  the  fort,  among  whom 
Sir  William  exercised  his  customary  skill,  and  satisfactory  treaties 
were  made.  But  the  Senecas  held  aloof,  and  were  said  to  be 
meditating  a  renewal  of  the  war.  At  length  General  Bradstreet 
ordered  their  immediate  attendance,  under  penalty  of  the 
destruction  of  their  settlements.  They  came,  ratified  the  treaty 
and  thenceforward  adhered  to  it  pretty  faithfully,  notwithstand- 
ing the  peremptory  manner  in  which  it  was  obtained.  In  the 
meantime  a  fort  had  been  erected  on  the  site  of  Fort  Erie,  the 
first  ever  built  there. 

In  August,  Bradstreet's  army  increased  to  nearly  three  thou- 
sand men,  came  up  the  river  and  proceeded  up  the  south  side  of 
the  lake,  for  the  purpose  of  bringing  the  western  Indians  to 
terms,  a  task  which  was  successfully  accomplished  without  blood- 
shed. (The  journey  was  made  in  open  boats  rigged  with  sails.) 
Now  there  was  peace  for  awhile.  The  British  coming  up  the 
Niagara  usually  landed  at  Fort  Erie,  where  a  post  was  all  the 
while  maintained,  and  going  thence  in  open  boats  to  Detroit, 
Mackinaw  and  other  western  forts. 

The  commerce  of  the  upper  lakes  consisted  of  supplies  for  the 
military  posts,  goods  to  trade  with  the  Indians  and  furs  received 
in  return.  The  trade  was  carried  on  mostly  in  open  boats,  pro- 
pelled by  oars,  with  the  occasional  aid  of  a  temporary  sail. 
There  were,  however,  at  least  two  or  three  English  trading  ves- 
sels on  Lake  Erie  before  the  Revolution.  One,  called  the 
Beaver,  is  known  to  have  been  lost  in  a  storm,  and  is  believed 
by  the  best  authorities  to  have  been  wrecked  near  the  mouth  of 
Eigteen-Mile  creek,  and  to  have  furnished  the  relics  found  in 
that  vicinity  b)'  early  settlers. 

All  the  western  part  of  the  Colony  of  New  York  was  nomin- 
ally a  part  of  Albany  county  up  to  1772.  In  that  year  a  new 
county  was  formed  embracing  all  that  part  of  the  colony  west 
of  the  Delaware  river,  and  of  a  line  running  northeastward  from 
the  head  of  that  stream  through  the  present  Count}'  of  Scho- 
harie, thence  northward  along  the  east  line  of  Montgomer)', 
Fulton  and  Hamilton  counties,  and  continuing  in  a  straight  line 
to  Canada.  It  was  named  Tryon  in  honor  of  William  Tr\'on, 
then    the    Royal    Governor   of    Ne\\'   York.     Guy  Johnson,  Sir 


William's  nephew  and  son-in-law,  was  the  earliest  "  first  Judge" 
of  the  Common  Pleas,  with  the  afterward  celebrated  John  But- 
ler as  one  of  his  associates.  Sir  William  Johnson,  an  able  mili- 
tary commander  and  Indian  agent  long  in  the  employ  of  the 
British  government,  died  suddenly,  at  Johnstown,  near  the 
Mohawk  in  1774.  Much  of  his  influence  over  the  Six  Nations 
descended  to  his  son,  Sir  John  Johnson,  and  his  nephew.  Col. 
Guy  Johnson.  The  latter  became  his  successor  in  the  ofifice  of 
Superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs. 



Four  Iroquois  Tribes  Hostile — The  Oswego  Treaty — Scalps — Brant — Guien- 
gwahtoh  — Wyoming  —  Cherry  Valley  —  Sullivan's  Expedition — Senecas 
Settle  in  Erie  County — Gilbert  Family — Pence. 

In  1775,  the  Revolution  began.  Tlie  new  Superintendent 
made  good  his  influence  over  all  of  the  Six  Nations  except  the 
Oneidas  and  Tuscaroras.  John  Butler  established  himself  at 
Fort  Niagara  and  organized  a-  regiment  of  Tories,  known  as 
Butler's  Rangers,  and  he  and  the  Johnsons  used  all  their  influ- 
ence to  induce  the  Indians  to  attack  the  Americans.  The  Sen- 
ecas held  aloof  for  a  while,  but  the  prospect  of  both  blood  and 
pay  was  too  much  for  them  to  withstand,  and  in  1777  they,  in 
common  with  Cayugas,  Onondagas  and  Mohawks,  made  a  treaty 
with  the  British  at  Oswego,  agreeing  to  serve  the  King  through- 
out the  war. 

Fort  Niagara  became,  as  it  had  been  during  the  French  war 
the  key  of  all  this  region,  and  to  it  the  Iroquois  constantly 
looked  for  support  and  guidance.  Their  raids  kept  the  whole 
frontier  for  hundreds  of  m.iles  in  a  state  of  terror,  and  were 
attended  by  the  usual  horrors  of  savage  warfare. 

Among  the  celebrated  Iroquois  Chiefs  in  the  Revolution  was 
Theyendenega  (or  Joseph  Brant),  a  Mohawk,  and  Guiengwah- 
toh  and  Honayewus  (or  Farmer's  Brother),  Cornplanter,  and 
Governor  Blacksnake,  of  the  Senecas. 

The  slaughter  and  devastation  in  the  \\'\-oming  valley,  in 
Pennsylvania,  and  the  massacre  at  Cherry  Valley,  in  the  State 
of  New  Yot"k,  and  other  events  of  a  similar  kind  on  a  smaller 
scale,  induced  Congress  and  Cieneral  Washington  to  send  an 
army  against  the  Six  Nations  in  the  Summer  of  1779.  General 
Sullivan,  the  commander,  marched  up  the  Susquehana  to  Tioga 
Point,  where  he  was  joined  by  a  brigade  under  Gen.  James 
Clinton  (father  of  DeWitt  Clinton),  and  then  with  a  force  of 
about  4,000  men,  moved  up  the  Chemung  to  near  the  site  of 
Klmira-     There  Colonel  Butler,  with   a  small   body  of   Indians 

THK    SKNF.CAS    IX    l-.RIK    (■()rNI\'.  21 

and  Tories,  x'ariousK'  estimated  at  from  six  lumdred  to  fifteen 
hundred  men,  had  thrown  up  intrenchments,  and  a  battle  was 
foui^ht.  Butler  was  defeated,  retired  with  considerable  loss,  and 
made  no  further  resistance.  Sullivan  advanced  and  destroyed 
all  the  Seneca  villages  on  the  Genesee  and  about  Cieneva,  burn- 
iuL;-  wii^wams  and  cabins,  cuttint;^  down  orchards,  cuttint:^  up 
<;"rowin;^  corn  and  utterl)'  clewistatins^  the  country. 

The  Senecas  fled  in  great  disma\'  to  fort  Niagara.  The 
Onondaga  village  had  iti  the  meantime  been  destroyed  by 
another  force,  but  it  is  plain  that  the  Senecas  were  the  ones 
who  were  chiefly  feared,  and  against  whom  the  vengeance  of 
the  Americans  was  chiefly  directed.  After  thoroughly  lading 
waste  their  country,  the  Americans  returned  to  the  east. 

The  Senecas  had  not  only  cornfields,  but  gardens,  orchards 
and  sometimes  comfortable  houses.  They  were  the  most  pow- 
erful and  warlike  of  all  the  Six  Nations,  but  their  spirits  were 
much  broken  by  this  disaster.  It  was  with  difficult}'  that  the 
British  authorities  procured  sufficient  rations  to  sustain  the 
Indians  through  the  severe  Winter  of  1779-80,  at  Niagara. 

As  Spring  approached  the  English  made  earnest  efforts  to 
reduce  the  expense,  by  persuading  the  Indians  to  make  new- 
settlements  and  plant  crops. 

In  the  Spring  of  1780,  a  considerable  body  of  Senecas  came 
up  from  Fort  Niagara  and  established  themselves  on  Buffalo 
Creek,  about  four  miles  above  its  mouth.  This  as  far  as  known 
A\as  the  first  permanent  settlement  of  the  Senecas  in  Erie 
county.  They  had  probably  had  huts  here  to  use  while  hunt- 
ing and  fishing,  but  no  regular  villages.  In  fact,  this  settle- 
ment of  the  Senecas  in  the  Spring  of  1780,  was  probably  the 
first  permanent  occupation  of  the  count}'  since  the  destruction 
of  the  Neuter  Nation,  a  hundred  and  thirty-five  years  before. 
The  same  Spring  another  band  located  themselves  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Cattaraugus. 

The  Indians  who  settled  on  Buffalo  creek  brought  with  them 
several  members  of  a  Quaker  family  b}'  the  name  of  (iilbert 
who  had  been  captured  a  few  months  prexious  on  the  borders 
of  Pennsylvania.  After  the  war,  this  family  published  a  narra- 
tive of  their  capti\'it}',  which  gives  valuable  information  regard- 
ing this  period  of  our  history. 


Immediately  on  the  arrival  of  the  Indians  the  squaws  began 
to  clear  the  land  and  prepare  it  for  corn,  while  the  men  built 
some  log  huts  and  then  went  out  hunting.  In  the  beginning  of 
the  Winter  of  1780-81,  two  British  officers.  Captain  Powell  and 
Lieutenant  Johnston,  came  to  the  settlement  on  Buffalo  creek 
and  remained  until  toward  Spring.  They  were  probably  sent 
by  the  British  authorities  at  Fort  Niagara  to  aid  in  putting  the 
new  settlement  on  a  solid  foundation.  They  made  strenuous 
efforts  to  obtain  the  release  of  Rebecca  and  Benjamin,  two  of 
the  younger  members  of  the  Gilbert  family,  but  the  Indians 
were  unwilling  to  give  them  up.  This  Lieutenant  Johnston 
afterward  located  at  Buffalo,  and  was  known  to  the  early  settlers 
as  Capt.  William  Johnston.  It  must  have  been  about  this  time 
that  Johnston  took  unto  himself  a  Seneca  wife,  for  his  son, 
John  Johnston,  was  a  young  man  when  Buffalo  was  laid  out,  in 
1803.  Captain  Powell  had  married  Jane  Moore,  a  girl  who, 
with  her  mother  and  others  of  the  family,  had  been  captured  at 
Cherry  Valley. 

Captain  (afterwards  Colonel)  Powell  is  frequently  and  honor- 
ably mentioned  in  several  accounts  as  doing  everything  in  his 
power  to  ameliorate  the  condition  of  the  captives  among  the 
Indians.  Through  his  influence  and  exertions,  several  of  the 
Gilbert  family  were  released  from  captivity  and  sent  to  Mon- 
treal. In  the  Spring  of  1781,  Captain  Powell  was  sent  to  dis- 
tribute provisions,  hoes  and  other  implements  among  the 
Indians.  At  the  distribution,  the  Chiefs  of  every  band  came 
for  shares,  each  having  as  many  sticks  as  there  were  persons 
in  his  band,  in  order  to  insure  a  fair  division.  In  October, 
1 78 1,  Cornwallis  surrendered,  and  thenceforth  there  were  no 
more  active  hostilities. 

Rebecca  Gilbert  and  Benjamin  Gilbert,  jr.,  were  released  the 
next  year.  This  appears  to  have  been  managed  by  Colonel 
Butler,  who,  to  give  him  his  due,  always  seemed  willing  to 
befriend  the  captives,  though  constantly  sending  out  his  sav- 
ages to  make  new  ones.  Not  until  the  arrangements  were  all 
made  did  the  Indians  inform  Rebecca  of  her  approaching 
freedom.  With  joyful  heart  she  prepared  for  the  journey, 
making   bread   and  doing  other  needful  work  for  her  captors. 

PEACK    l••()RM.\I.I.^■    DKCl.ARKI).  23 

Then  by  canoe  and  on  foot  she  aiid  her  brother  were  taken  to 
Fort  Niai^ara,  and,  after  a  conference,  the  last  two  of  tlie  ill-fated 
Gilbert  family  were  released  from  captivity  in  June,    I7<S2. 

In  the  fall  of  1783,  peace  was  formally  declared  between 
Great  Britain  and  the  revolted  colonies  henceforth  to  be 
acknowledt^ed  by  all  men  as  the  United  States  of  America. 



The  Treaty  of  Fort  Stanwix,  1784 — Phelps  and  Gorham's  Purchase  in  17S8 — 
Council  at  Buffalo  Creek  in  178S — Phelps'  Large  Mill  Site  on  the  Genesee 
River — Robert  Morris — The  Holland  Land  Company— Treaty  of  1826 — 
Treaty  of  1842 — Buffalos  and  Buffalo  Creek. 

In  October,  1784,  a  treaty  was  made  at  Fort  Stanwix  (Rome) 
between  three  Commissioners  of  the  United  States  and  the 
Sachems  of  the  Six  Nations. 

The  eastern  boundary  of  the  Indian  lands  does  not  seem  to 
have  been  in  dispute,  but  the  United  States  wanted  to  extin- 
guish whatever  claim  the  Six  Nation:  might  have  to  the  west- 
ern territory,  and  also  to  keep  open  the  right  of  way  around  the 
Falls  of  Niagara,  which  Sir  William  Johnston  had  obtained  for 
the  British. 

In  1788,  Massachusetts  sold  all  her  land  in  New  York,  about 
six  million  acres,  to  Oliver  Phelps  and  Nathaniel  Gorham  act- 
ing on  behalf  of  themselves  and  others,  for  one  million  dollars, 
in  three  equal  annnal  payments,  the  purchasers  being  at  liberty 
to  pay  in  certain  stocks  of  that  State,  then  worth  about  twenty 
cents  on  the  dollar;  the  purchase  was  subject  to  the  rights  of 
the  Indians. 

Phelps  procured  the  calling  of  a  council  at  Buffalo  Creek, 
which  met  July  5,  1788.  Phelps  had  secured  the  influence  of 
Butler,  Brant,  and  other  influential  persons,  and  the  proceed- 
ings were  very  harmonious.  The  east  line  of  this  purchase  ran 
from  Pennsylvania  due  north  to  Lake  Ontario  and  crossing 
•Seneca  lake  ;  the  west  line  ran  from  Avon  south,  along  the 
Genesee  river  to  the  mouth  of  Canaseraga  creek,  thence  due 
south  to  the  Pennsylvania  line.  This  was  "  Phelps  and  Gorham 
purchase."  It  included  about  two  million  six  hundred  thousand 
acres,  for  which  they  paid  five  thousand  dollars  in  hand,  and  five 
hundred  dollars  annually  for  e\^er;  this  was  about  equal  to  half 
a  cent  an  acre.  During  the  negotiations,  Phelps  suggested  that 
he  wanted  to  build  some  mills  at  the  falls  of  the  Genesee  (now 
Rochester),  which  would  be  very  convenient  for  Indians  as  well 
as  whites;  and  he  wished    the   Indians  to  give  him   a  mill  site 


and  the  necessary  aiiKHint  ()f  land  to  l;<)  with  it.  The  red  men 
thought  mills  woidd  be  a  good  thing,  and  their  white  brotlier 
should  have  a  mill-site — how  much  land  did  he  want  for  this 
purpose?  Phelps  replied  that  he  thought  a  strip  about  twelve 
miles  wide,  extending  from  Avon  to  the  mouth  of  the  river, 
tw^enty-eight  miles,  would  be  about  right.  The  Indians  thought 
that  a  pretty  large  mill-site,  but  they  gave  him  the  land.  The 
mill-site  contained  about  two  hundred  thousand  acres. 

The  adoption  of  the  Federal  constitution  had  caused  a  great 
rise  in  Massachusetts  stocks,  so  that  Phelps  and  Gorham  were 
unable  to  make  the  payments  they  had  agreed  on  and  Massa- 
chusetts released  them  from  their  contract  as  to  all  the  land 
except  that  to  which  they  had  extinguished  the  Indian  title,  to 
wit,  "  Phelps  and  Gorham  Purchase;"  of  that  the  State  gave 
them  a  deed  in  full. 

Massachusetts  then  sold  the  released  lands  in  five  tracts  to 
Robert  Morris,  the  merchant  prince  of  Philadelphia,  and  the 
celebrated  financier  of  the  revolution.  '  The  easternmost  of 
these  tracts  Mr.  Morris  sold  out  in  small  parcels.  The  remain- 
ing four  constituted  the  "  Holland  Purchase."  Mr.  Morris  sold 
it  by  conveyances  made  in  1792  and  1793,  to  several  Ameri- 
cans, who  held  it  in  trust  for  a  number  of  Hollanders,  who, 
being  aliens,  could  not  hold  it  in  their  own  name  at  that  time. 
These  Hollanders  were  known  as  the  Holland  company  after- 
wards. In  September,  1797,  a  council  was  held  at  Geneseo,  at 
which  Robert  Morris  bought  of  the  Indians  the  whole  of  the 
remaining  Seneca  lands  in  New  York,  except  eleven  reserva- 
tions of  various  sizes. 

At  a  council  held  in  August,  1826,  the  Senecas  ceded  to  the 
Ogden  compan)-  thirt)--three  thousand  six  hundred  and  thirty- 
seven  acres  of  the  Buffalo  Creek  reservation,  thirty-three 
thousand  four  hundred  and  nine  acres  of  the  Tonawanda  reser- 
\-ation,  five  thousand  one  hundred  and  twent}'  of  the  Catta- 
augus  reser\^ation,  besides  one  thousand  fi\e  hundred  acres  in 
the  Genesee  valley. 

From  the  Buffalo  Creek  reser\-ation,  a  strip  a  mile  and  a  half 
wide  was  sold  off  on  the  north  side  commencing  at  a  point 
one  and  one  half  miles  east  of  where  the  Cayuga  creek  crossed 
the  reservation  line  in  the  town  of  Chautauqua,  thence  to  the 

26  THE  ( ;attakau(;us  reservation. 

east  end  of  the  reservation,  also  a  strip  three  miles  wide  across 
the  east  end.  And  finally  a  strip  a  mile  wide  extending  the 
whole  length  of  the  south  side  of  the  reservation  called  the 
"  Mile  Strip." 

Of  the  Cattaragus  reservation,  there  was  ceded  in  Erie 
county  a  strip  six  miles  long  and  a  mile  wide  from  the  north 
side  called  the  "  Mile  Strip,"  and  a  mile  square  called  the 
"  Mile  Block,"  south  of  the  east  end  of  that  strip.  Both  are 
in  the  present  town  of  Brant. 

In  the  year  1838,  the  Ogden  company  made  strong  efforts 
to  obtain  possession  of  all  the  Indian  lands  in  Western  New 
York.  A  treaty  was  made  and  sanctioned  by  the  President  and 
ratified  by  the  Senate  to  accomplish  that  object.  The  Indians 
were  to  receive  nearly  two  million  acres  of  land  in  Kansas, 
and  a  considerable  amount  of  money  in  exchange  for  their 
reservation.  But  the  facts  brought  to  light  in  regards  to  the 
means  used  to  obtain  the  signatures  of  some  of  the  chiefs 
caused  so  much  popular  feeling,  and  the  determination  of 
the  Indians  was  so  strong  not  to  go  west,  that  the  company 
did  not  try  to  remove  them. 

In  May,  1842,  a  new  agreement  was  made  by  which  the 
Ogden  company  allowed  the  Senecas  to  retain  the  Cattaraugus 
and  Allegany  reservations  and  the  Indians  gave  up  the  Buffalo 
creek  and  Tonawanda  tracts  on  condition  of  receiving  their 
proportionate  value.  This  was  satisfactory  to  the  Buffalo 
Creek  Indians,  but  not  to  those  on  the  Tonawanda  reservation. 
Arbitrators  duly  chosen  decided  that  the  proportionate  value 
of  the  Indian  title  to  those  two  reservations  was  seventy-five 
thousand  dollars,  and  that  of  the  improvements  on  them  fifty- 
nine  thousand  dollars.  They  also  awarded  the  portion  of  the 
fifty-nine  thousand  dollars  due  to  each  Indian  on  the  Buffalo 
creek  reservation,  but  could  not  do  it  on  the  Tonawanda  one, 
because  the  inhabitants  of  the  latter  refused  to  let  them  come 
on  the  reservation  to  make  an  appraisal.  After  some  two  years 
one  of  the  claimants  undertook  to  expel  one  of  the  Tonawanda 
Indians  by  force,  whereupon  he  sued  him  and  recovered  judg- 
ments, the  court  deciding  that  the  proper  steps  had  not  been 
taken  to  justify  the  claimant's  action. 

Finally  to  end  the  controversy  the   United    States   Govern- 


ment  bought  the  claim  of  the  O^den  Company  to  the  Tona- 
wanda  Reservation  and  gave  it  to  the  Indians  residing  there. 
They  now  hold  it  by  the  same  title  by  which  white  men  own 
their  lands,  except  that  the  fee  is  in  the  whole  tribe  and  not  in 
any  individual  members. 

Meanwhile  the  Buffalo  Indians  quietly  received  the  money 
alloted  to  them  and  after  a  year  or  two  allowed  them  for  prep- 
aration, they  in  1843-4  abandoned  their  reservation.  Most 
of  them  joined  their  brethren  on  the  Cattaraugus  reserva- 
tion, some  went  to  that  on  the  Allegany,  and  a  few  removed 
to  lands  allotted  them  in  Kansas. 

The  treaty  of  Fort  Stanwix  was  the  first  public  document 
containing  the  name  of  Buffalo  creek,  as  applied  to  the  stream 
which  empties  into  the  foot  of  Lake  Erie.  The  narrative  of 
the  Gilbert  family,  published  just  after  the  war,  was  the  first 
appearance  of  the  name  in  writing  or  printing. 

The  question  has  been  often  debated,  whether  the  original 
Indian  name  was  "Buffalo"  creek.  This  almost  of  necessity 
involves  the  further  question,  whether  the  buffalo  ever  ranged 
on  its  banks;  for  it  is  to  be  presumed  that  Indians  would  not 
in  the  first  place  have  adopted  that  name,  unless  such  had 
been  the  case. 

Numerous  early  travelers  and  later  hunters,  mention  the 
existence  of  buffalo  in  the  vicinity,  or  not  far  away.  A  strong 
instance  is  the  account  of  the  Missionaries  Chaumonot  and 
Breboeuf,  which  declares  that  the  Neuter  Nation,  who  occu- 
pied the  County  of  Erie,  and  a  portion  of  Canada  across  the 
Niagara  river  were  in  the  habit  of  hunting  the  buffalo,  together 
with  other  animals. 

Mr.  Ketchum  in  his  history  of  "  Buffalo  and  the  Senccas," 
says  that  all  the  oldest  Senecas  in  1820,  declared  that  buffalo 
bones  had  been  found  within  their  recollection,  at  the  salt  licks 
near  Sulphur  Springs.  The  same  authorities  produce  evidence 
that  white  men  had  killed  buffaloes  within  the  last  one  hundred 
and  twenty  years,  not  only  in  Ohio,  but  Western  Pennsylvania. 
Albert  Gallatin  who  was  a  surve}'or  in  Western  Virginia  in 
1784,  declared  in  a  paper  published  by  the  American  Ethno- 
logical Society,  that  they  were  at  that  time  abundant  in  the 
Kenhawa    \'alle\-,    and    that    he    had    for    eight    months    lived 


principally  on  their  flesh.  This  is  positive  proof  and  the  Kenhawa 
valley  is  onl)'  three  hundred  miles  from  here  and  oni\-  one  hun- 
dred miles  further  west,  and  is  as  well  wooded  a  country  as  this. 

The  narrative  of  the  Gilbert  family  is  very  strong  evidence 
that  from  the  first  the  Senecas  applied  the  name  of  Buffalo  to 
the  stream  in  question.  Although  the  book  was  not  published 
until  after  the  war,  yet  the  knowledge  then  given  to  the  public 
was  acquired  in  1 780,  '81  and  '82.  At  least  six  of  the  family 
were  among  the  Senecas  on  Buffalo,  creek.  Some  of  them 
were  captives  for  over  two  years,  and  must  have  acquired  con- 
siderable knowledge  of  the  language.  It  is  utterly  out  of  the 
question  that  they  could  all  have  been  mistaken  as  to  the  name 
of  the  stream  on  which  they  lived,  which  must  have  been  con- 
stantly referred  to  by  all  the  Senecas  in  talking  about  their  peo- 
ple domiciled  there,  as  well  as  by  the  scores  of  British  ofificers 
and  soldiers  with  whom  the  Gilberts  came  in  contact. 

If  then  the  Neuter  Nation  hunted  buffalos  across  in  Canada 
in  1640,  if  they  were  killed  by  the  whites  in  Ohio  and  Penn- 
sylvania within  the  last  century,  if  Albert  Gallatin  found  them 
abundant  on  the  Kenhawa  in  1784,  if  the  old  Senecas  of  1820 
declared  they  had  found  their  bones  at  the  salt  licks,  and  if  the 
Indians  called  the  stream  on  which  they  settled  in  1780,  Buffalo 
creek,  there  can  be  no  reasonable  doubt  that  they  knew  what 
they  were  about,  and  did  so  because  that  name  came  down 
from  former  times  when  the  monarch  of  the  western  prairie 
strayed  over  the  plains  of  the  county  of  Erie. 

KARI.V    LAND    (i RANIS.  29 

C  H  A  P  r  E  R   VII. 


King    James'    Grant — Grant   of  Charles    [. — Conflicting    Claims — Phelps     and 
(jorham's  Purchase — Sale  to  Robert  Morris. 

James  the  b'irst,  Kin<;"  of  Great  Britain,  in  the  year  1620, 
granted  to  the  Ph'inouth  company  a  tract  of  countr\'  called 
New  Ent;iand.  This  tract  extended  through  several  degrees  of 
latitude  north  and  south,  and  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific 
ocean,  east  and  west. 

Charles  the  First,  in  1663,  granted  to  the  Duke  of  York  and 
Albany  the  province  of  New  York,  including  the  present  State 
of  New  Jersey.  The  tract  thus  granted  extended  from  a  line 
twenty  miles  east  of  the   Hudson   river  westward  indefiniteh'. 

By  these  grants,  each  of  the  colonies  (afterward  states)  laid 
claim  to  the  jurisdiction  as  well  as  to  the  pre-emption  right  of 
the  same  land,  including  a  portion  of  the  State  of  New  York, 
and  a  tract  farther  west  sufficiently  large  to  fornj  several  states. 

The  State  of  New  York,  how^ever,  in  1781,  and  Massachu- 
setts in  1785,  ceded  to  the  United  States  all  their  rights,  both 
of  jurisdiction  and  of  proprietorship,  to  all  the  territor)'  l}'ing 
west  of  the  meridian  line  running  south  from  the  westerly  end  of 
Lake  Ontario.  This  left  about  twenty  thousand  square  miles 
of  territory  in  dispute,  but  this  controversy  was  finall\-  settled 
by  a  convention  of  commissioners  appointed  by  Massachusetts 
and  New  York,  held  at  Hartford,  Conn.,  on  the  i6th  day  of 
December,  1786. 

According  to  the  stipulation  entered  into  by  the  convention 
Massachusetts  ceded  to  the  State  of  New  York  all  her  claim  to 
the  government,  sovereignt}'  and  jurisdiction  of  all  the  terri- 
tory lying  west  of  the  present  east  line  of  the  State  of  New- 
York,  and  New  York  ceded  to  Massachusetts  the  pre-emption 
right  or  fee  of  the  land,  subject  to  the  title  of  the  Indians,  of 
all  that  part  of  the  State  of  New  York  lying  west  of  a  line 
beginning  at  a  point  in  the  north  line  of  Pennsylvania,  eighty- 
two    miles    west    of    the    northeast   corner  of    said  state,  and 


running  from  there  due  north  through  Seneca  lake  to  Lake 
Ontario ;  excepting  and  reserving  to  the  State  of  New  York  a 
strip  of  land  east  of  and  adjoining  the  eastern  bank  of  Niagara 
river,  one  mile  wide,  and  extending  its  whole  length  (called  the 
state  mile  strip).  The  land,  the  pre-emption  right  of  which 
was  thus  ceded,  amounted  to  about  six  millions  of  acres. 

In  April,  1788,  Massachusetts  contracted  to  sell  to  Nathaniel 
Gorham  and  Olivier  Phelps,  of  said  state  (who  were  acting  for 
themselves  and  their  associates),  their  pre-emption  right  to  all 
the  lands  in  Western  New  York,  amounting  to  about  six 
million  acres,  for  the  sum  of  one  million  dollars,  to  be  paid  in 
three  annual  installments,  for  which  a  kind  of  scrip  Massa- 
chusetts had  issued,  called  consolidated  securities,  was  to  be 
received,  which  was  then  in  the  market  much  below  par. 

In  July,  1788,  Messrs.  Gorham  and  Phelps,  purchased  of  the 
Indians,  by  a  treaty  at  a  convention  held  at  Buffalo  creek,  the 
Indian  title  to  about  two  millions  six  hundred  thousand  acres  of 
the  eastern  part  of  their  purchase  from  Massachusetts.  This 
purchase  of  the  Indians  being  bounded  west  by  a  line  running 
due  south  from  the  mouth  of  Canaseraga  creek  to  the  Pennsyl- 
vania line,  and  northerly  from  the  mouth  of  said  creek  along 
the  waters  of  the  Genesee  river  to  a  point  two  miles  north  of 
Cannawagas  village,  thence  running  west  twelve  miles,  thence 
running  northwardly  so  as  to  be  twelve  miles  distant  from  the 
west  side  of  said  river  to  the  shore  of  Lake  Ontario. 

On  the  2 1st  day  of  November,  1788,  the  State  of  Massachu- 
setts conveyed  and  forever  quitclaimed  to  Gorham  and  Phelps, 
their  heirs  and  assigns  forever,  all  the  right  and  title  of  said 
state  to  all  that  tract  of  country  of  which  Messrs.  Phelps  and 
Gorham  had  extinguished  the  Indian  title.  This  tract,  and 
this  only,  has  since  been  designated  as  the  "  Phelps  and  Gor- 
ham purchase." 

Messrs.  Phelps  and  Gorham,  who  had  paid  about  one-third 
of  the  purchase  money  of  the  whole  tract  purchased  by  Massa- 
chusetts, in  consequence  of  the  rise  of  the  value  of  Massach- 
setts  consolidated  stock  (in  which  the  payments  for  the  land 
were  to  be  received)  from  twenty  per  cent,  to  par.  were  unable 
further  to  comply  with  their  engagements  on  their  part  and 
Massachusetts  commenced  suits  on  their  bonds.     After  a  long 

TlIK    MORRIS    RKSKRVK.  3 1 

negotiati()n  between  the  parties,  the  v\  hole  transaction  relative 
to  the  purchase  of  those  land  was  settled  and  finally  closed  on 
the  loth  day  of  March,  1791,  Phelps  and  Gorham  relinquished 
to  Massachusetts  that  portion  of  the  land  since  known  as  the 
"Holland  Purchase"  and  the  "Morris  Reserve,"  and  Massa- 
chusetts relinquished  to  the  said  Phelps  and  Gorham  their 
bonds  for  the  payment  of  the  purchase  money  therefor. 

The  whole  of  said  lands,  released  by  Phelps  and  Gorham  to  the 
State  of  Massachusetts,  as  above  stated,  were  sold  by  said  state, 
to  Robert  Morris  on  the  i  ith  day  of  May,  1791,  in  five  different 
deeds.  The  first  deed  included  all  the  land  on  said  tract  l>'inij 
east  of  a  meridian  line  beginning  at  a  point  in  the  north  line  of 
Pennsylvania,  twelve  miles  west  of  the  southwest  corner  of 
Phelps  and  Gorham's  tract  and  running  due  north  to  Lake 
Ontario,  supposed  to  contain  about  five  hundred  thousand 
acres.  The  above  tract  took  the  name  of  "  The  Morris 
Reserve."  from  the  fact  that  he  retained  that  tract  in  the  sale 
which  he  afterwards  made  to  the  Holland  company. 



Historical  Deduction  of  the  Holland  Company's  Title — A  Curious  Fact — 
Indian  Council  at  Geneseo — Indian  Reservation^Joseph  Ellicott  the 
Principal  Surveyor — Other  Surveyors — The  Transit  Instrument — Run- 
ning the  East  Transit  Line — Running  the  Mile-Sirip  Line  a  ong  the 
Niagara  River — Buffalo  Creek — Williamsburg — "Transit  Store  House" 
—  The  First  Wagon  Track  on  the  Holland  Purchase— Buffalo  in  179S — 
First  Crops  Raised  on  the  Holland  Purchase  —The  Three  Taverns 
Located — The  First  Woman  on  the   Holland  Purchase. 

The  last  four  tracts  described  in  the  conveyances  of  the 
land  purchased  of  Massachusetts,  by  Robert  Morris,  were  con- 
veyed by  him,  by  four  separate  deeds,  as  follows:  First  deed 
from  Robert  Morris  and  wife,  to  Herman  Le  Roy  and  John 
Linklaen,  for  one  and  a  half  million  acres,  dated  December  24, 
1 792.  Second  deed  from  Robert  Morris  and  wife,  to  Herman  Le 
Roy,  John  Linklaen  and  Gerrit  Boon  for  one  million  acres, 
dated  February  27,  1793.  Third  deed  from  Robert  Morris  and 
wife,  to  Herman  Le  Roy,  John  Linklaen  and  Gerrit  Boon,  for 
eight  hundred  thousand  acres,  dated  July  20,  1793.  Fourth 
deed  from  Robert  Morris  and  wife,  to  Herman  Le  Ro}%  William 
Bayard  and  Matthew  Clarkson,  for  three  hundred  thousand 
acres,  dated  July  20,  1793. 

These  tracts  were  purchased  with  the  funds  of  certain  gen- 
tlemen in  Holland,  and  held  in  trust  b\'  the  several  grantees 
for  their  benefit,  as  they,  being  aliens,  could  not  purchase  and 
hold  real  estate  in  their  own  names,  according  to  the  then 
existing  laws  of  the  State.  After  several  changes  in  the  trus- 
tees, and  transfers  of  portions  of  the  land,  sanctioned  b}'  the 
Legislature,  the  whole  tract  was  conveyed  by  the  trustees,  by 
three  separate  deeds  to  the  Holland  compan\',  or  rather  to  the 
individuals  in  their  own  names,  composing  three  separate 
branches  of  the  company. 

Although  these  deeds  of  con\'e\'ance  were  given  to  three 
distinct  companies  of  proprietors,  their  interests  were  so  closely 
blended,  several  ot  the  same  persons,  having  large  interests  in 
each  of  the  three  different  estates;  they  appointed  one  general 

'11 1 1'-.    DITCH    I'kol'RIKl'okS.  33 

agent  for  the  whole,   who   manaj^ed  the    coneerns   of  the  tract 
generally,    as    though    it    belonged    to    the    same    proprietors, 
making  no  distinction  which  operated  in  the  least  on  the  settlers 
and  purchasers,  but  sinii)l\-  keeping  the  accounts  of  each  separate, 
when  practicable,  and  apportioning /n^  /v^/c?,  all  expenses  when 
blended  in  the  same  transaction,  for  the  benefit  of  the  whole. 
The  general  agent  likewise  appointed  the  same  local  or  resident 
agent  for  the  three  companies  owning  this   tract    in   Western 
New  York.     The  onl)-  difference  between  its  consisting  of  one 
or  more  tracts  discernable   by  the   purchaser   of  lands,  was,   in 
executing  contracts  or  conveyances,  the  agents  used  the  names 
of  the  respective  proprietors  of  each  tract.     Under  this  state 
of  things,   we  shall  denominate  the  whole  of  the  proprietors 
holding  under  these  three   deeds,  "The    Holland   Company," 
and  the  lands  conveyed  by  those  deeds  the  "Holland  Purchase.'' 
It  is  a  curious  fact  that  when  the  Dutch  proprietors  were  par- 
celing out  the  tract  among  the  three  different  branches  of  the 
company,     it    was    mutually    agreed    among    the    whole,    that 
Messrs.    Wilhem    Willink,    Jan   Willink,  Wilhem    VVillink    the 
younger,    and    Jan    Willink    the    younger,    should    have    three 
hundred  thousand  acres,  located  in  such  part  of  the  whole  tract 
as  they  should  select.     In  making  their  selection   they  located 
their  three  hundred  thousand  acres  in  nearl)-  a  square  form,   in 
the  south-east  corner  of  the   tract,    for  the  reason   that  it  was 
nearest   Philadelphia,    the   residence    of    their    general     agent. 
This  selection  contained  the  territory  now  comprising  the  towns 
of  Bolivar,  Wirt,  Friendship,  the  east  part  of  Belfast,  (ienesee, 
Clarksville  and  Cuba,   in  Allegany  county;    Portville  and  the 
east  parts   of    Ischua    and    Hinsdale,    in    Cattaraugus    county. 
This  location  will  give  the  reader  who  is  acquainted  with  the 
geography    of    the  country,  some  idea  of  the  knowledge,    or 
rather    want  of    knowledge,  of    the   Dutch   proprietors,  of  the 
situation  and  relative  advantages   of    the  different  portions  of 
their  vast  domains. 

This  sale  by  Robert  Morris  to  the  Holland  company  was 
made  before  the  Indian  title  to  the  land  was  extinguished, 
accompanied  by  an  agreement  on  his  part  to  extinguish  that 
title,  with  the  assistance  of  the  company,  as  soon  as  practicable  ; 
therefore  at  a  council  of  the   Seneca   Indi.uis,  hekl  at  Geneseo, 




on  the  Genesee  river,  in  the  month  of  September,  1797,  at  which 
Jeremiah  Wadsworth  attended  as  commissioner  for  the  United 
States,  and    William    Shepherd    as    agent    for  Massachusetts, 
Robert  Morris  in   fulfilment  of  his  several  contracts  with  the 
Holland  company,  and  to  other  persons  to  whom  he  had  sold 
land  on  this  tract,  acting  by  his    agents,  Thomas  Morris  and 
Charles  Williamson,  extinguished  the   Indian   title   to  all  the 
land,  the  pre-emption  right  of  which  he  had  purchased  of  Mas- 
sachusetts, except  the  following   Indian  reservations,  viz ;  The 
Cannawagus  reservation,  containing  two  square  miles,  lying  on 
the  west  bank  of  Genesee  river,  west  of  Avon.     Little  Beard's 
and   Big  Tree    reservations,  containing    together    four  square 
miles,  lying  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Genesee  river,  opposite 
Geneseo.      Squakie    Hill    reservation,    containing    two    square 
miles,  lying  on  the  north   bank  of   the  Genesee  river,  north  of 
Mount  Morris.     Gardeau  reservation,  containing  about  twenty- 
eight  square  miles,  lying  on  both  sides  of  Genesee  river,  two 
or  three  miles  south  of  Mount  Morris.     The  Canadea  reserva- 
tion, containing  sixteen   square  miles,   lying   each  side  of,  and 
extend  eight  miles  along   the   Genesee  river,  in  the  county  of 
Allegany.     The  Oil  Spring  reservation,  containing  one  square 
mile,    lying  on   the  line   between    Allegany   and   Cattaraugus 
counties.      The    Allegany   reservation,    containing    forty-two 
square  miles,  lying  on  each  side    of    the  Allegany  river    and 
extending  from  the   Pennsylvania  line  northeaswardly    about 
twenty-five    miles.      The   Cattaraugus    reservation,  containing 
forty-two  square  miles,  lying  on  each  aide  and  near  the  mouth 
of  the  Cattaraugus  creek,  on  Lake  Erie.     The   Buffalo  reserva- 
tion,  containing  one  hundred  and  thirty  square  miles,  lying  on 
both   sides  of  Buffalo  creek,  and    extending    east    from   Lake 
Erie   about   seven   miles  wide.      The  Tonawanda  reservation, 
containing    seventy    square    miles,    lying    on     both    sides    of 
Tonawanda    creek,    beginning    about    twenty-five    miles  from 
its  mouth,  and    extending  eastwardly  about  seven  miles  wide ; 
and  the   Tuscarora  reservation,    containing   one    square    mile, 
being  about    three  miles  east  of  Lcwiston    on  the    Mountain 

Theophilus  Cazenove,    the    general    agent    of    the    Holland 
company,  resident  at  Philadelphia,  in  July,  1797,  had  engaged 

11  IK    srK\  i:\'   Co.MMKXCKI). 

Mr.  loscpli  ICllicott,  as  principal  surveyor  of  the  conii^any's 
lands  in  Western  New  York,  whenever  their  title  should  be 
[jcrfected  and  possession  obtained,  and  likewise,  to  attend  the 
before-mentioned  council,  and  assist  Messrs.  W.  Bayard  and  J. 
Linklaen,  who  were  to  attend  and  act  as  assents  for  the  corn- 
pan}'  [sill)  rasa)  for  the  purpose  of  promoting-  the  interests  of 
their  principals  in  an\-  treaty  which  mi<;ht  be  made  with  the 
Indians.  Mr.  Ellicott  attended  the  council  accordingly,  and 
rendered  valuable  services  to  the  purchasers.  This  period  was 
the  commencement  of  upwards  of  twenty  years"  re<;ular  active 
service  rendered  by  Mr.  Ellicott  to  the  Holland  company,  in 
conducting  their  affairs  and  executing  laborious  enterprises  for 
their  benefit. 

As  soon  as  the  favorable  result  of  the  proceedings  of  this 
council  was  known,  Mr.  Ellicott  proceeded  immediately  to 
prepare  for  the  traverse  and  survey  of  the  north  and  northwest 
bounds  of  the  tract.  As  soon  as  the  necessary  preparatory 
steps  could  be  taken,  Mr.  Ellicott,  as  surveyor  for  the  Holland 
company,  and  Augustus  Porter,  in  the  same  capacity,  for 
Robert  Morris,  for  the  purpose  of  estimating  the  quantity  of 
land  in  the  tract,  started  a  survey  at  the  northeast  corner  of 
Phelps  and  Gorham's  tract,  west  of  Genesee  river,  and  trav- 
ersed the  .south  shore  of  Lake  Ontario  to  the  mouth  of  Niagara 
riv^er,  thence  up  the  eastern  shore  of  Niagara  river  to  Lake 
Erie,  thence  along  the  southeast  shore  of  Lake  Erie  to 
the  west  bounds  of  the  State  of  New  York  being  a  meridian 
line  running  due  south  from  the  west  end  of  Lake  Ontario, 
which  had  been  previously  established  by  Andrew  Ellicott, 
Surveyor-General  of  the  United  States,  assisted  b\-  Joseph 
Ellicott.  All  which  was  perfected  by  the  middle  of  Novem- 
ber following. 

Before  Mr.  Ellicott  left  Western  New  York  for  Philadelphia, 
he  contracted  with  Thomas  Morris  to  deliver  on  the  Genesee 
river  or  shore  of  Lake  Ontario  near  the  mouth  of  that  river, 
one  hundred  barrels  of  pork,  fifteen  barrels  of  beef,  and  two 
hundred  and  seventy  barrels  of  flour,  for  the  supply  of  the 
surveyors  and  their  assistants  the  ensuing  season.  Mr.  Ellicott, 
at  the  request  of  the  Agent-General,  made  a  list  of  articles  to 
be  provided   for  the   next   .season's  campaign,   consisting  of  a 


diversity  of  articles,  from  pack-horses  to  horse-shoes,  nails  and 
gimlets — from  tents  to  towels — from  barle}'  and  rice  to  choco- 
late, coffee  and  tea,  and  from  camp-kettles  to  teacups  ;  esti- 
mated to  amount  to  $7,213.33.  This  statement,  however,  did 
not  include  medicine,  "  or  wine,  spirits,  loaf-sugar,  &c.,  for 
headquarters."  Mr.  EUicott  likewise  calculated  the  wages  of 
surveyors  and  other  hands,  for  six  months  of  the  next  season, 
at  $19,830. 

Although  the  great  divisions  of  the  Holland  Purchase  was 
intended  to  consist  of  townships  six  miles  square,  the  division 
of  the  tract  among  the  three  sets  of  proprietors,  the  Indian 
reservations  which  were  not  included  in  the  townships,  as  well 
as  the  offsets  and  sinuosities  existing  in  most  of  the  boundaries, 
prevented  a  large  portion  of  the  townships  conforming  to  this 
standard.  The  townships  are  situated  in  ranges  running  from 
south  to  north.  The  townships  in  each  range  of  townships 
beginning  to  number  one  at  the  south,  rising  regularly  in 
number  to  the  north,  and  the  ranges  of  townships  beginning 
to  number  one  at  the  east,  and  proceeding  regularly  west,  to 

The  first  plan  of  the  Agent-General  of  the  compan}-,  relative 
to  the  subdivision  of  the  townships,  was  to  divide  each  town- 
ship, which  was  six  miles  square,  into  sixteen  portions  one  and 
a  half  miles  square,  to  be  called  sections,  and  each  section 
again  subdivided  into  twelve  lots,  each  lot  to  be  three-fourths 
of  a  mile  long  (generally  north  and  south),  and  one-fourth  of  a 
mile  wide,  containing  about  one  hundred  and  twent}'  acres 
each  ;  presuming  that  a  wealthy  farmer  would  buy  a  section, 
whereon  to  locate  himself  and  his  progeny.  Twenty-four 
townships  were  surveyed  or  commenced  to  be  surveyed  in  con- 
formity to  that  plan,  although  the  uniformity  of  the  size  and 
shape  of  lots  was  often  departed  from,  where  large  streams, 
such  as  the  Tonawanda,  running  through  the  townships,  were, 
for  convenience,  made  boundaries  of  lots.  From  experience, 
however,  it  was  ascertained  that,  in  the  purchase  of  land,  each 
individual,  whether  father,  son,  or  son-in-law,  would  locate  him- 
self according  to  his  own  choice  or  fancy.  That  this  formal 
and  regular  division  of  land  into  farms,  seldom  was  found  to  be 
in   conformity  to  the  topography   of  the  country,  nor  to  the 

■|"IIE    SUR\  KNORS.  37 

different  iXHjuireinents  as  to  ciuaiitit}',  likewise  that  tlie  addition 
of  sections  to  townships  and  lots,  rendered  the  description  of 
farms  more  complex,  and  increased  the  liability  to  err  in  defin- 
ing any  particular  location  ;  for  which  reasons,  the  practice  of 
dividing  townships  in  sections  was  abandoned,  and  thereafter, 
the  townships  were  simply  divided  into  lots  of  about  sixty 
chains  or  three-fourths  of  a  mile  square,  which  could  be  divided 
into  farms  to  suit  the  topography  of  the  land  and  quantity 
required  by  the  purchasers.  In  those  townships  which  the  sur- 
veys had  commenced  to  divide  into  sections,  and  not  com- 
pleted, the  remaining  sections  were  divided  into  four  lots  only 
of  three-fourths  of  a  mile  square  each.  These  lots  conse- 
quently contained  about  three  hundred  and  sixty  acres  each, 
but  could  not  be  laid  off  exactly  uniform  in  shape  and  area,  for 
the  same  reason  heretofore  given  in  a  note,  why  the  townships 
could  not  be  laid  off  exactly  uniform. 

Early  in  the  Spring  of  1788,  Mr.  Ellicott  dispatched  Adam 
Hoops,  jr.,  a  nephew  of  Major  Adam  Hoops,  from  Philadelphia, 
to  Western  New  York,  with  general  powers  to  prepare  for 
opening  the  approaching  campaign  of  surveying  the  Holland 
Purchase,  and  to  co-operate  with  Augustus  Porter,  who  had 
previously  been  engaged  to  procure  horses,  employ  hands,  and 
transport  stores  from  the  places  of  their  delivery  by  the  con- 
tractor, Mr.  Morris,  to  the  places  where  they  would  be  required 
for  consumption. 

The  principal  surve)^ors  engaged  during  the  active  season  of 
1798,  in  township,  meridian  line  and  reservation  surveys,  and  in 
lake  and  river  traverses,  were  as  follows:  Joseph  and  Benjamin 
Ellicott,  JohnTompson,  Richard  M.  Stoddard,  George  Burgess, 
James  Dewey,  David  Ellicott,  Aaron  Oakford,  jr.,  Augustus 
Porter,  Seth  Pease,  James  Smedly,  William  Shepherd,  Geo. 
Eggleston.  In  addition  to  these,  were  two  P'renchmen,  MM. 
Haudecaur  and  Autrechy,  who  were  employed  in  some  surveys 
of  Niagara  river  and  the  Falls.  The  last  were  rather  engineers 
than  surveyors.  Mr.  James  Brisbane,  then  in  his  minority, 
came  from  Philadelphia,  with  Mr.  Tompson,  as  clerk  and  store- 

Mr.  Ellicott  and  his  assistants  having  arrived  on  the  territory, 
his  first  business  was  to  ascertain  and  correctly  establish  the 

38  Till-:    "TRANSIT    IXSTRrMKXr." 

c;ist  line  of  the  Purchase.  He  caused  the  PennsyKania  Hne  to  be 
accurateh'  measured  from  the  southwest  corner  of  Phelps  and 
Gorham's  purchase,  on  the  eighty-second  mile-stone,  twelve 
miles  west,  and  there  erected  a  stone  monument  for  the  south- 
east corner  of  the  Holland  Purchase.  The  whole  company 
was  then  divided  into  parties,  to  prosecute  the  undertaking  to 
advantage.  The  principal  surveyor,  Joseph  Ellicott,  assisted 
by  Benjamin  Ellicott,  one  other  surveyor  and  the  requisite 
number  of  hands,  undertook  to  run  the  eastern  boundary  line. 
The  other  surveyors,  each  with  his  c[uota  of  hands,  were 
assigned  to  run  different  township  lines. 

A  line  running  due  north  from  the  monument  established  as 
the  south-east  corner  by  Mr.  Ellicott,  to  the  boundary  line 
between  the  United  States  and  the  dominions  of  the  King  of 
Great  Britain,  in  Lake  (3ntario,  according  to  the  deeds  of  con- 
veyance from  Robert  Morris  to  the  company,  constitutes  the 
east  line  of  their  purchase.  To  run  a  true  meridian  by  the  sur- 
veyor's compass  Mr.  Ellicott  knew  to  be  impracticable,  he  there- 
fore determined  to  run  this  line  by  an  instrument,  having  for 
its  basis  the  properties  of  the  "  Transit  instrument  "  (an  instru- 
ment made  use  of  to  observe  the  transits  of  the  heavenly 
bodies),  improved  for  this  purpose  by  a  newly-invented  manner 
of  accurately  arriving  at  the  same ;  to  effect  this  object,  an 
instrument  possessing  all  these  qualities,  was  manufactured  in 
Philadelphia  by  his  brother,  Benjamin  Ellicott,  as  no  instru- 
ment possessing  all  the  qualities  desired,  was  then  to  be  found 
in  the  United  States. 

This  instrument  had  no  magnetic  needle  attached  to  it,  but 
its  peculiar  qualities  and  prominent  advantages  are,  that  by 
means  of  its  telescopic  tube  and  accurate  manner  of  reversing, 
by  it,  a  straight  line  can  be  correctly,  and  comparatively  speak- 
ing, expeditiously  run.  But  such  an  instrument,  by  reason  of 
its  magnifying  powers,  is  as  ill  calculated  to  run  a  line  through 
the  woods  and  underbrush,  as  would  be  a  microscope  to  observe 
the  transits  of  the  satellites  of  Herschel.  Therefore  it  became 
necessary  to  cut  a  vista  through  the  woods  on  the  highlands 
and  on  level  ground,  sufficient!}'  wide  to  admit  a  clear  and 
uninterru})ted  view. 

Mr,  Ellicott  having  provided  himself  with  such  an  instrument. 

SUKVKV(JRS    ARRIN'K    .\r   \V1  LMAMSliURO.  39 

caused  the  vista  to  be  cut,  some  three  or  four  rods  wide, 
ahead  of  the  transit  instrument,  in  a  north  direction  as  indi- 
cated by  the  compass,  which  sometimes  led  the  axmen  more 
than  the  width  of  the  vista  from  the  meridian  sought ;  there- 
fore the  true  meridian  hne,  called  the  transit  line,  from  the 
name  of  the  instrument  with  which  it  was  run,  being  of  no 
width,  runs  sometimes  on  one  side  of  the  middle  of  the  vista 
cut  in  advance,  and  sometimes  on  the  other. 

Thus  prepared  with' a  suitable  instrument,  Mr.  Ellicott 
assisted  by  his  brother,  Benjamin  Elllicott,  together  with  sur- 
veyors and  their  assistants,  established  a  true  meridian  line  north 
from  the  corner  monument,  by  astronomical  observations,  and 
pursued  it  with  the  transit  instrument,  taking  new  astronomical 
observations  at  different  stations,  to  guard  against  accidental 

The  progress  in  running  this  line  was  slow,  as  it  could  not  be 
otherwise  expected,  considering  the  great  amount  of  labor  nec- 
essary to  be  performed  in  clearing  the  vista,  and  taking  other 
preparatory  measures,  and,  above  all,  the  vast  importance  of 
having  it  correctly  established,  which  rendered  anything  like 
precipitance  or  haste,  an  experiment  too  hazardous  to  be  per- 
mitted. June  1 2th,  the  party  on  this  line  had  advanced  so  far 
north,  that  they  established  their  store-house  at  Williamsburg 
(about  three  miles  south  of  the  village  of  Geneseo),  and  soon  after 
Mr.  Ellicott  made  it  his  headquarters  at  Hugh  M'Nair's,  in  that 
vicinity.  On  the  22d  day  of  November,  following,  eighty-one 
and  a  half  miles  of  the  line  was  established,  which  brought  them 
within  about  thirteen  miles  of  the  shore  of  Lake  Ontario.  The 
precise  date  of  its  completion  is  unknowns. 

This  line  defined  the  west  bounds  of  Mr.  Church's  one  hun- 
dred thousand  acres,  but  passed  through  the  Cotringer,  Ogden 
and  Cragie  tracts,  about  two  miles  from  their  west  boundaries, 
as  described  in  the  deeds  of  conveyance  from  Robert  Morris  to 
the  several  grantees  ;  but  as  their  titles  were  of  a  later  date  than 
the  conveyance  to  the  Holland  Company,  no  deviation  from  the 
first  established  meridian  was  made  by  Mr.  Ellicott. 

On  arriving  at  the  south  line  of  the  one  hundred  thousand 
acre  tract,  conveyed  by  Robert  Morris  to  Leroy  Bayard  and 
M'Evers,  now  called  the  Connecticut  tract  (the  conveyance  of 

40  DIFFICULT    WORK    Acro.MI'LISHK] ). 

which,  from  Robert  Morris,  claimed  seniority  over  that  to  the 
Holland  Company).  Mr.  Ellicott  found  that  his  meridian  inter- 
sected the  south  line  of  that  tract,  one  hundred  and  sixty-six 
chains  thirty  links  east  of  its  southwest  corner,  on  which  he 
moved  his  position  that  distance  to  the  west,  from  which  point 
he  ran  the  transit  due  north  to  Lake  Ontario. 

Although  the  eastern  bank  of  the  Niagara  river  had  been 
traversed,  the  east  bounds  of  the  New  York  mile  strip  had  not 
been  ascertained,  and  the  state  would  participate  in  it  no 
further  than  to  give  the  proprietors  of  the  land  adjoining,  to 
wit :  the  Holland  Company  liberty  to  run  the  line  at  their  own 
expense,  and  if  so  run  as  to  be  approved  by  the  Surveyor  Gen- 
eral of  the  state,  it  should  be  established  as  permanently  located, 
and  passed  a  law  to  that  effect.  This  was  undoubtedly  the 
most  difficult  piece  of  surveying  ever  performed  in  the  state. 

At  the  north  end  where  the  river  disembogued  itself  into  the 
lake,  at  almost  right  angles  with  its  shores,  there  could  no 
doubts  arise,  but  at  the  south  end  of  the  straits  or  river,  a  dif- 
ferent state  of  things  existed,  Lake  Erie  narrowed  gradually  and 
became  a  river  ;  where  the  lake  ends  and  the  river  begins  may 
be  considered  a  difficult  question,  but  it  was  finally  agreed 
between  the  parties  interested,  the  river  should  be  deemed  to 
extend  to  where  the  water  was  one  mile  wide  and  there  cease  ; 
the  line  of  the  strip  east  of  this  point  extending  to  the  shore 
of  Lake  Erie,  on  an  arc  of  a  circle  of  one  mile  radius,  the  center 
being  on  the  eastern  bank  at  the  termination  of  the  lake  and 
head  of  the  river,  giving  to  the  strip  all  the  land  lying  within 
a  mile  of  the  river,  whether  east  or  south. 

For  this  arc  of  the  circle,  which  could  not  be  practically  run, 
a  repetition  of  short  sides,  making  a  section  of  a  regular  poly- 
gon, was  substituted.  Seth  Pease,  a  scientific  surveyor  and 
astronomer,  was  engaged  in  the  fall  of  1788,  to  run  this  line, 
who  executed  the  survey  in  a  masterly  manner,  and  to  the  satis- 
faction of  all  the  parties  concerned. 

During  the  year  1799  and  1800,  few  events  transpired  relative 
to  the  settlement  of  the  Holland  Purchase,  which  require  a  cir- 
cumstantial detail,  or  would  admit  of  one  which  would  be  inter- 
esting to  the  reader.  The  surveyors  and  their  assistants,  under 
the  direction  of  their  principal,  Joseph   Ellicott,  continued  the 

CAl'l'.   WILLIAM    J(  )II\S'r(  )\.  41 

same  stead}-  routine  of  encamping  in  the  woods,  pitchinL(  their 
tents,  transportini,^  provisions,  surveyin^r  lines  and  striking  their 
tents  and  removing  to  new  positions  ;  and  although  at  times 
many  individuals,  undoubtedly,  suffered  pain  and  endured  hard- 
ships, such  incidents  must  have  been  caused  by  accidental 
occurrences,  unforeseen  events  or  carelessness  and  imprudence 
in  themselves  or  their  companions,  as  the  well-supplied  coffers 
of  the  company,  accompanied  by  their  liberality,  furnished 
sufficient  means,  and  the  provident  care  of  Mr.  Ellicott  kept 
their  storehouses  well  supplied  with  the  best  kind  of  provisions 
for  that  service,  as  well  as  other  necessaries  and  many  of  the 
comforts  of  life. 

This  might  be  seen  from  Mr.  Ellicott's  catalogue  of  items 
for  the  outfit  of  the  first  campaign,  and  its  cost,  heretofore 
referred  to,  which  was  adopted  and  its  contents  provided. 

(3f  those  events,  however,  the  following  deserve  notice: 

The  Indian  treaty  of  1797,  in  which  the  Indian  title  to  the 
Holland  Purchase  was  extinguished,  except  to  certain  reserva- 
tions, as  has  been  before  stated,  prescribed  the  quantities  con- 
tained in,  and  general  shape  and  location  of  each  reservation, 
leaving  the  precise  locations  of  the  boundary  lines  to  be  deter- 
mined thereafter. 

The  Indians  reserved  200,000  acres,  one  indefinite  portion  of 
which  was  to  be  located  on  Buffalo  creek,  at  the  east  end  of 
Lake  Erie,  and  the  remainder  on  Tonawanda  creek. 

As  the  New  York  reservation  excluded  the  Holland  com- 
pany's land  from  the  waters  of  Niagara  river,  and  from  the 
shore  of  Lake  Erie  one  mile  southerly  from  the  river,  it  became 
very  important  to  the  company  to  secure  a  landing  place  and 
harbor  at  the  mouth  of  Buffalo  creek,  and  sufficient  ground 
whereon  to  establish  a  commercial  and  manufacturing  village 
or  city. 

Capt.  William  Johnston,  an  Indian  trader  and  interpreter, 
settled  himself  at  the  mouth  of  Buffalo  creek  at  an  early  period 
under  the  auspices  of  the  British  government,  and  remained 
there  until  the  Holland  company  had  effected  their  purchase. 
His  dwelling  house  stood  south  of  Exchange  and  east  of  Wash- 
ington streets.  Captain  Johnston  had  procured  of  the  Indians, 
by  gift  or  purchase,  two  square  miles  of  land  at  the  mouth  of 


Buffalo  creek,  including  a  large  portion  of  the  territory  on 
which  now  stands  the  City  of  Buffalo.  He  had  also  entered 
into  an  agreement  with  the  Indians  which  amounted  to  a  life 
lease  of  a  certain  mill  site  and  the  timbered  land  in  its  vicinity, 
on  condition  of  supplying  the  Indians  with  all  the  boards  and 
plank  they  wanted  for  building  at  and  near  the  creek.  This 
site  was  about  six  miles  east  of  the  mouth  of  the  creek.  Al- 
though Johnston's  title  to  this  land  was  not  considered  to  have 
the  least  validity,  yet  the  Indians  had  the  power  and  the  inclina- 
tion to  include  it  within  their  reservation,  unless  a  compromise 
was  made  with  Johnston,  and,  taking  into  consideration  his  influ- 
ence with  them,  the  agents  of  the  company  concluded  to  enter 
into  the  following  agreement  with  him,  which  was  afterwards 
fully  complied  with  and  performed  by  both  of  the  parties : 

Johnston  agreed  to  surrender  his  right  to  the  said  two  square 
miles  and  use  his  influence  with  the  Indians  to  have  that  tract 
and  his  mill  site  left  out  of  their  reservation,  in  consideration 
of  which  the  Holland  company  agreed  to  convey  by  deed  to 
said  Johnston,  640  acres,  including  the  said  mill  site  and  adja- 
cent timbered  land,  together  with  forty-five  and  one-half  acres, 
being  part  of  said  two  square  miles,  including  the  buildings  and 
improvements,  then  owned  by  Johnston,  four  acres  of  which 
were  to  be  on  the  "point." 

These  lands,  as  afterward  definitely  located,  were  a  tract  of 
forty-one  and  a  half  acres,  bounded  :  north,  by  Seneca  street, 
west  by  Washington  street,  and  south  by  the  Little  Buffalo 
creek  ;  the  other  tract  was  bounded,  east  by  Main  street,  south- 
westerly by  the  Buffalo  creek,  and  northwesterly  by  Little 
BulTalo  creek,  containing  about  four  acres. 

This  matter  will  again  be  referred  to,  in  connection  with 
some  further  notice  of  early  events  in  Buffalo. 

Mr.  Ellicott,  before  leaving  Philadelphia — in  the  time  that 
intervened  between  his  appointment  and  his  departure — was 
activel}^  engaged  in  making  all  the  necessary  preparations  for 
the  campaign.  David  Rittenhouse,  the  eminent  American 
philosopher,  was  then  of  the  firm  of  Rittenhouse  &  Potts, 
mathematical  and  astronomical  instrument  makers,  in  Philadel- 
phia; orders  were  given  for  compasses,  chains  and  staffs — all 
things  in   their   line   necessary   to   surveyors'  outfits.     Letters 

i)i;i'.\Kri'i<i-.  iRoM   i'iiii.Ai)i:i.nii.\.  43 

were  written  to  AuL;ustus  Porter,  at  Canandait;ua,  to  have 
ready  such  provisions,  pack  horses,  axe-nien  and  chain-men,  as 
lie  had  been  ordered  to  provide;  to  Thomas  Morris,  at  the 
same  place,  recjuestin^  his  promj^t  performance  of  some  agen- 
cies that  had  been  entrusted  to  him;  to  different  persons  at 
New  York,  iVlbany,  h'ort  Schu)der  and  Oueenston,  containing 
orders  to  facilitate  the  transportation  of  stores  and  aid  the  sur- 
veying [)arties  in  getting  upon  the  ground,  and  in  supplying 
themselves  with  all  things  necessary  for  going  into  the  woods. 
All  things  requisite  were  remembered  and  provided  for.  Clark 
and  Street,  at  Chippewa,  were  ordered  to  have  read\-  two  yoke 
of  oxen  and  a  stout  lumber  wagon  (that  was  undoubtedly  the 
pioneer  ox  team  upon  the  Holland  Purchase,  other  than  such 
as  had  been  used  upon  the  portage);  even  axe-handles  and 
tent-poles  were  not  forgotten. 

To  each  principal  surveyor  or  sub-agent  starting  from  Phila- 
delphia or  elsewhere,  written  orders  were  issued  what  route  to 
pursue,  where  to  first  rendezvous,  where  to  draw  his  supplies 
and  where  to  commence  operations.  P'ormulas  were  made  out 
for  each  surveyor  prescribing  definitely  the  manner  of  his 
duties,  of  marking  lines,  keeping  field  notes  and  generally 
embracing  all  the  minuta,'  of  his  operations.  It  was  as  if  the 
general  of  an  army  was  acting  as  his  own  commissary  and  put- 
ting a  force  into  the  field,  distributing  it  and  making  all  things 
ready  for  a  campaign,  and  the  records  of  our  war  department 
would  hardly  furnish  better  examples  of  systematic  and  well 
ordered  enterprises. 

Embraced  in  these  preliminary  proceedings,  was  a  corre- 
spondence with  Mr.  Williamson,  in  reference  to  a  road  from 
the  west  branch  of  Susciuehaiinah  to  the  "  Genesee  country  ;" 
and  with  the  Surveyor-General  of  this  state  in  reference  to  the 
laying  out  of  towns  at  Lewiston  and  Fort  Schlosser. 

Mr.  Ellicott  arrived  at  Canandaigua  on  the  12th  of  June, 

The  reader  will  best  be  enabled  to  catch  glimpses  of  early 
events — those  that  attended  the  surveys  and  preceded  land 
sales  and  the  commencement  of  settlement — by  occasional 
references  to  and  extracts  from  his  correspondence,  the  only 
existing  records. 


A  letter  from  Mr.  Thompson  to  Mr.  Ellicott,  dated  Buffalo 
Creek,  states  the  stores  had  all  arrived  safely  at  Schlosser. 
except  what  had  been  left  with  Mr.  Brisbane,  at  the  "  Chene- 
see"  river;  that  Mr.  Hoops,  who  had  arrived  in  advance  of 
him,  had  gone  on  to  "Chetawque,"  where  he  had  been  joined 
by  Mr.  Stoddard  ;  that  he  himself  was  engaged  in  getting 
"  axes  ground  and  handled,  and  in  sundry  other  things,  prepara- 
tory to  going  to  the  woods." 

Letters  followed  this  very  soon,  by  which  it  would  seem 
that  the  camp  was  erected  at  "Chautauqua  Creek,"  and  all 
things  prepared  for  active  operation  as  early  as  the  19th  of 

Messrs.  Smedley  and  Egleston  were  located  at  Buffalo 
Creek  with  surveying  parties.  In  a  letter  to  Mr.  Ellicott,  writ- 
ten from  there,  under  date  June  27th,  Mr.  Egleston  says  the 
goods  have  arrived,  and  that  the  "  family  in  the  house  on  the 
hill"  are  about  to  move  out  to  make  room  for  the  surveyors. 
Mr.  Ellicott,  it  would  seem,  had  arrived  at  Schlosser.  Antici- 
pating his  arrival  at  Buffalo,  Mr.  Egleston  very  providently 
suggests  that  he  had  better  bring  with  him  room  boards  to 
make  a  mapping  table,  as  there  were  none  to  be  had  in  their 
new  location,  "  Mr.  Winne  having  carried  off  those  that  were  in 
the  partition." 

The  first  principal  stations  of  the  surveyors — their  head- 
quarters or  depots — were  at  Buffalo  Creek  and  Williamsburgh ; 
before  the  close  of  1798,  however,  the  principal  establishments 
were  located  at  the  Transit  Line  (Stafford,  the  locali^ty  desig- 
nated as  "Transit  Storehouse"). 

Mr.  James  Brisbane,  moving  his  quarters  from  Williams- 
burgh, continued  as  the  principal  Clerk  or  Agent. 

While  upon  the  purchase,  in  1798.  Mr.  Flllicott's  time  was 
principally  spent  at  Buffalo  Creek,  Williamsburgh,  and  upon 
the  Transit  Line. 

In  the  Spring  of  1798,  when  the  surveys  of  the  Holland  Pur- 
chase first  commenced,  all  the  travel  between  the  Phelps  and 
Gorham  tract  and  Buffalo  was  an  old  Indian  trail.  The  Win- 
ter previous,  however,  the  Legislature  of  this  State  passed  an 
act  appointing  Charles  Williamson  a  Commissioner  to  la}-  out 

Bn-'IAI.o    IN    ITS    I'.Akl.N'    D.WS.  45 

and  open  a  State  road  from  C'anncwagus  on  Genesee  river  to 
Buffalo  Creek  on  Lake  Krie  and  to  Lewiston,  on  the  Niagara 

To  defra\'  the  ex]:)ense  of  cutting;-  out  these  roads,  the  Hol- 
land Compan}'  subscribed  fi\'e  thousand  dollars.  Mr.  William- 
son laid  out  and  established  the  roads  in  1798,  generally 
adhering"  to  the  course  of  old  Indian  trails;  but  they  were  not 
opened  throughout  according  to  contract,  under  his  superin- 
tendence. The  first  wagon  track  opened  upon  the  Holland,  was  by  Mr.  Ellicott,  as  a  preliminary  step  in  com- 
mencing operations,  early  in  the  season  of  1798.  He  employed 
a  gang"  of  hands  to  improve  the  Indian  trail,  so  that  wagons 
could  pass  upon  it,  from  the  east  transit  to  Buffalo  creek. 

In  1 801  he  opened  the  road  from  transit  line  as  far  west  as 
Vandeventer's".  The  whole  road  was  opened  to  LeRoy  before 
the  close  of  1802.  But  little  reference  can  be  had  to  the  order 
of  time  in  noting  the  events  of  this  period;  up  to  the  period 
of  the  commencement  of  land  sales  and  settlements,  our 
sketches  must  necessarily  be  desultory. 

Mr.  Brisbane  first  saw  Buffalo  in  October,  1798.  There  was 
then  the  log  house  of  Middaugh  and  Lane — a  double  log  house 
— about  two  squares  from  Main  street,  a  little  north  of  the 
present  line  of  Exchange  street.  Captain  Johnston's  half  log 
and  half  framed  house,  stood  a  little  east  of  the  main  building^ 
of  the  present  Mansion  House,  near  Washington  street.  There 
was  a  two-story  hewed  log  house,  owned  by  Captain  Johnston, 
about  where  Exchange  street  now  is,  from  six  to  eight  rods 
west  of  Main  street,  where  a  tavern  was  kept  by  John  Palmer. 
Palmer  afterwards  moved  over  to  Canada  and  kept  a  tavern 

Asa  Ransom  lived  in  a  log  house  west  of  Western  Hotel. 
Winne  had  a  log  house  on .  bank  of  Little  Buffalo,  south  of 
Mansion  House.  A  Mr.  Maybee,  who  afterwards  went  to 
Cattaraugus,  kept  a  little  Indian  store  in  a  log  building  on  west 
side  of  Main  street,  about  twenty  rods  north  of  Exchange 
.street.  There  was  also  a  log  house  occupied  by  a  man  named 

The  flats  were  open  ground  ;  a  portion  of  them  had  been 
cultivated.     Such  was  Buffalo,  and  all  of  Buffalo  in  1798. 

46  FIRST    CROPS    ON    THE    IK  »1. 1. AND    I'ljRCIIASE. 

The  first  crojis  raised  upon  the  Holland  purchase,  were  at 
the  transit  store  house.  In  the  spring  of  1799,  Mr.  James 
Dewey  was  waiting  there  with  a  gang  of  hands,  to  start  upon  a 
surveying  expedition  as  soon  as  the  weather  would  permit.  At 
the  request  of  Mr.  Brisbane,  he  cleared  ten  acres  upon  either 
side  of  the  present  road,  twenty  rods  west  of  the  Transit,  which 
was  mainly  sowed  with  oats ;  though  some  potatoes  and  garden 
vegetables  were  planted.  The  early  tavern  keeper  there — Mr. 
Walthers — reported  by  letter  to  Mr.  Ellicott,  that  the  yield 
was  a  good  one,  and  fully  demonstrated  the  goodness  of  the 
soil  of  the  region  he  was  surveying  for  a  settlement. 

In  the  summer  of  1799,  there  not  being  a  house  on  the  road 
from  the  eastern  Transit  line  to  Buffalo,  Mr.  Busti,  the  agent 
general  of  the  company,  authorized  Mr.  Ellicott  by  a  letter 
dated  June  ist,  1799,  to  contract  with  six  reputable  individuals 
to  locate  themselves  on  the  road  from  the  eastern  Transit  to 
Buffalo  creek  ;  about  ten  miles  asunder,  and  open  houses  of  en- 
tertainment for  travelers,  at  their  several  locations,  in  considera- 
tion of  which  they  were  to  have  a  quantity  of  land,  from  fifty 
to  one  hundred  and  fifty  acres  each  ;  "  at  a  liberal  time  for  pay- 
ment, without  interest,  at  the  lowest  price  the  company  will 
sell  their  lands,  when  settlements  shall  be  begun." 

Three  persons  accepted  of  this  offer,  to  wit  :  Frederick  Wal- 
thers who  was  then  residing  on  the  land,  took  one  hundred  and 
fifty  acres  in  township  number  twelve,  range  one,  west  of  and 
adjoining  the  eastern  Transit,  including  the  Company's  store 
house,  and  being  where  the  village  of  Stafford  now  stands.  Asa 
Ransom  located  himself  Sept.  ist,  1799,  on  one  hundred  and 
fifty  acres  in  township  number  twelve,  range  six.  at  what  is 
now  known  as  Ransom's  Gro\e  or  Clarence  Hollow.  Garrett 
Davis  located  himself  Sept.  16,  1799,  in  township  number  thir- 
teen, range  two,  on  one  hundred  and  fifty  acres,  on  the  south 
line  of  said  township;  (the  Buffalo  road  then  run  through  the 
reservation,  some  distance  north  of  its  present  location.)  These 
lots  were  severally  laid  out  and  surveyed  for  the  purchasers, 
before  the  several  townships  in  which  they  are  located  were 
surveyed.  These  three  persons  erected  and  furnished  comfort- 
able houses  for  the  purposes  intended,  as  soon  as  practicable  ; 
which  although  not  as  splendid,  yet  were  more  eagerly  sought. 

rill-.  1'1()m:i;i<  womiix.  47 

and  cheerfully  cnj(i}'ccl  b)-  the  forest  traxeler  and  land  explorer 
than  any  of  the  "  Astor  Mouses,"  "  Americans,"  or  "  Mansions" 
of  the  present  day. 

With  the  exceptions  of  those  residint:^  at  Buffalo,  Mrs.  Gar- 
rett Davis  and  Mrs.  Walthers,  were  the  pioneer  women  upon 
the  Holland  Purchase.  In  1800,  Asa  Ransom  and  Garrett 
Davis  raised  summer  crops,  which  were  second  to  those  raised 
at  the  Transit  store  house  the  vear  before. 

4<S  a(;exts  of  the  Holland  (■o^^^\^'v 


Biographical  Sketches  or  Agents  of  the  Holland  Company,  and  others. 

Theophilus  Cazenove. 

He  was  the  first  agent  of  the  Holland  Company  ;  but  little 
is  known  of  his  personal  histor}^-  When  the  company  made 
their  first  purchases  of  land  in  this  state  and  Pennsylvania,  soon 
after  1790,  he  had  arrived  in  this  country,  and  acted  as  their 
agent.  In  all  the  negotiations  and  preliminary  proceedings 
connected  with  the  large  purchase  of  Mr.  Morris,  of  this  region, 
the  interest  of  the  company  were  principally  confided  to  him 
His  name  is  intimately  blended  with  the  whole  history  of  the 
title.  When  the  purchase  was  perfected,  he  was  made  the 
general  agent,  and  under  his  auspices  the  surveys  commenced. 

In  all  the  embarrassments  that  attended  the  perfection  of  the 
title,  he  would  seem  to  have  been  actuated  b}'  honorable  and 
praise-worthy  motives,  and  to  have  assisted  with  a  good  deal 
of  ability,  the  legal  managers  of  the  compan\-'s  interests.  He 
returned  to  Europe  in  1799,  ending  then  his  connection  with 
the  company.  He  resided  for  a  considerable  period  after  this 
in  London,  after  which  he  lived   in  Paris,  where  he  died. 

Paul  Bustl 

He  was  a  native  of  Milan,  in  Italy;  was  born  on  the  17th  of 
October,  1749.  After  receiving  his  education  in  his  native 
country,  he  entered  the  counting-house  of  his  uncle,  in  Amster- 
dam, where  he  afterwards  established  himself  in  business,  mar- 
ried, and  acquired  a  high  reputation  for  business  talents,  indus- 
try and  integrity. 

About  retiring  from  commercial  life  and  connected  with  one 
who  was  interested  in  the  Holland  Company  purchase,  he  was 
induced  to  accept  the  general  agency  at  Philadelphia,  in  the 
place  of  Mr.  Cazenove;  and  most  faithfully  and  satisfactorily 
did  he  perform  its  duties  for  a  period  of  24  years,  up  to  the  day 
of  his  death,  July  23,  1824.      He  left  no  children. 

The   original    proprietors — the   eleven    who    constituted   the 

I'AUi.  ijus'ii.  49 

priniitix'c  Hollaiul  Company,  were  merchants  in  the  City  of 
Amsterdam  (then  in  the  RepubHc  of  Batavia).  They  had  little 
of  the  spirit  of  speculation ;  had  acquired  wealth  by  careful 
investments  and  fair  profits.  They  had  spare  capital  and  wished 
to  invest  it ;  their  highest  anticipations  were  perhaps  a  realization 
of  something  near  the  per  cent,  interest  which  was  generally 
fixed  upon  money  in  this  country,  instead  of  the  then  low  per 
cent,  money  yielded  in  Europe.  And  here  it  may  be  remarked, 
that  considering  the  period  of  investment — 1792  and  1793, — 
but  ten  years  after  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  war — these 
Dutch  merchants  were  far  in  advance  of  the  prevailing  senti- 
ment in  Europe,  as  to  the  success  and  permanency  of  the  experi- 
ment of  free  government.  We  should  respect  their  memories 
for  such  an  earnest,  at  that  early  period,  of  confidence  in  the 
stability  of  our  system. 

Mr.  Busti's  agency,  as  will  be  observed,  commenced  before 
the  completion  of  surveys  and  the  opening  of  sales  ;  conse- 
quently it  was  under  his  auspices  that  settlements  began.  In 
his  early  instructions  to  Mr.  Ellicott,  he  proposed  liberal  meas- 
ures— seems  to  have  started  on  the  basis  that  the  interests  of 
his  principals  and  the  interest  of  the  settlers  were  mutual. 
While  he  guarded  strictly  and  with  rigid  economy  the  one,  his 
views  and  munificence  were  liberal  in  reference  to  the  other. 

Mr.  Ellicott  acted  under  general  instructions  from  him  as  to 
the  opening  of  roads,  building  of  mills  and  public  buildings; 
but  when  he  advised,  as  he  often  did,  additional  measures  of 
improvement  or  increased  outlays,  he  was  quite  sure  to  be  sec- 
onded by  his  principal. 

Next  to  Mr.  Ellicott  Mr.  Busti  was  more  closely  identified 
with  the  settlement  of  the  Holland  purchase  than  any  other 
individual.  His  administration  of  the  general  agency,  embraced 
almost  the  entire  period  of  pioneer  settlement.  The  records  of 
the  company  furnish  conclusive  evidence  of  clear  judgment, 
great  integrity  of  purpose  and  a  disposition  to  promote  the 
interests  of  the  wild  region  he  was  aiding  to  settle  and  improve. 

Joseph  Ellicott. 
No  man  has  ever,  perhaps,  been  so  closely  identified  with  the 
history  of  any  region,  as  he  is  with  the  history  of  the  Holland 

50  j')si:i'ii  Kr.Licoir. 

rurcliasc.  He  was  not  onl}-  the  land-ag^cnt,  superintending 
from  the  start,  surve\-s  and  settlement — exercising  locally,  a 
one-man-power  and  influence — but  for  a  long  period,  he  was  far 
more  than  this.  In  all  the  early  years  of  settlement,  especially 
— in  all  things  hax'ing  reference  to  the  organizing  of  towns, 
counties,  erection  of  public  buildings,  the  la\'ing  out  of  roads, 
the  establishment  of  post-offices — in  all  that  related  to  the 
prosperit}'  and  convenience  of  the  region  over  which  his  agency 
extended,  he  occupied  a  prominent  position,  a  close  identity, 
that  few,  if  any,  patrons  of  new  settlements  have  ever  attained. 

As  early  as  1770,  Joseph  Ellicott's  father  and  his  brothers 
purchased  a  tract  of  wild  land  on  the  Patapoca,  in  Maryland, 
and  erecting  mills  and  machinery,  became  the  founders  of  what 
was  long  known  as  '•  Ellicott's  Mills,"  now,  for  the  sake  of 
brevity,  termed  "  Ellicott's." 

Andrew,  the  eldest  brother,  became  an  eminent  surveyor ; 
surveyed  the  Spanish  boundary  line  under  the  administration 
of  Mr.  Jefferson  :  \\as  afterwards  Surveyor-General  of  the  U.  S.: 
and  died  the  Professor  of  Mathematics  at  West  Point,  in  1 820 
or  '21. 

Bexjamix,  entered  the  service  of  the  Holland  Company  at 
an  early  period,  as  the  assistant  of  his  brother  Joseph.  He 
was  at  an  early  period,  one  of  the  Judges  of  Genesee  county, 
and  a  representative  in  Congress,  from  the  district.  He  was 
a  bachelor;  died  a  resident  of  W'illiamsville,  Erie  count}-, 
in  1827. 

David,  the  )-ounger  brother,  a  somewhat  erratic  genius,  was 
in  some  of  the  earliest  \-ears,  a  sur\e\-or  upon  the  Purchase. 
He  went  south  and  no  tidings  ever  came  of  him. 

There  were  five  sisters,  three  of  whom  married  three  brothers 
by  the  name  of  Evans.  In  this  circumstance,  the  reader  will 
find  the  explanation  of  the  numerous  heirs  of  Joseph  Ellicott. 
bearing  that  name. 

Joseph  Ellicott's  earh*  lessons  in  surveying,  were  gi\-en  him 
by  his  elder  brother,  Andrew.  His  first  practical  surveying, 
was  as  an  assistant  of  his  brother,  in  the  survey  of  the  City  of 
Washington,  soon  after  that  site  had  been  selected  for  the 
national  capital.  In  1791,  he  was  appointed  by  Timothy 
Pickering,    then  Secretary  of   War,  to  run  the  boundary  line 

JOSEI'lI    KL1.I(()|-|-.  51 

between  Geoi-oiu  and  the  Creek  Indians.  After  completini;- this 
survey,  he  was  employed  by  Mr.  Cazenove,  to  survey  the 
Holland  Company's  lands  in  Pennsylvania. 

This  completed,  he  was  engaged  for  a  short  time  in  Maryland, 
in  business  with  his  brothers,  and  then  enlisted  in  the  Holland 
Company's  service  in  this  region. 

The  active  years  of  his  life  were  those,  principally,  inter- 
vening between  the  years  1790  and  1 821 — a  period  of  about 
thirty  years.  At  least  ten  or  twelve  years  were  spent  in  the 
arduous  duties  of  a  surveyor  ;  and  when  he  left  the  woods  and 
settled  down  in  the  discharge  of  his  duties  as  local  agent,  his 
place  was  no  sinecure,  as  the  records  of  the  of^fice  will  abund- 
antly testif)^  He  was  a  man  of  great  industry;  careful,  system- 
atic in  all  his  business,  and  recjuired  of  all  under  his  control  a 
prompt  and  faithful  discharge  of  all  their  duties. 

Jacob  S.  Otto. 

This  gentleman  was  the  successor  to  Mr.  Ellicott  in  the  local 
agency.  He  was  previously  a  resident  of  Philadelphia  ;  had 
been  engaged  in  mercantile  and  commercial  pursuits. 

The  period  of  his  agency  was  from  1821  to  his  death,  in  1826. 

It  was  during  Mr.  Otto's  administration,  that  the  plan  of 
receiving  cattle  and  grain  from  the  settlers,  that  had  previously 
been  entertained,  was  effectually  commenced.  Depots  were 
designated  in  different  parts  of  the  Purchase,  for  the  delivery 
of  wheat;  where  the  settler  could  carry  it,  and  have  its  value 
endorsed  upon  his  contract.  Agents  were  appointed  to  receive 
cattle.  They  advertised  yearly,  the  times  and  places,  when 
and  where  the  cattle  would  be  received,  fixed  upon  their  price, 
and  endorsed  it  upon  contracts.  It  was  one  among  the 
measures  of  relief,  and  its  operation  was  highly  beneficial. 

David  E.  E\'ans. 
During  the  administration  of  Mr.  Otto,  Mr.  Evans  had  been 
appointed  as  his  associate,  to  give  the  incumbent  the  advantage 
of  his  long  experience  and  familiarity  with  the  details  of  the 
business.  Yet  he  did  not  to  any  considerable  degree  partici- 
pate in  the  joint  administration  proposed,  his  time  being  chiefly 
occupied  with  his  own  private  affairs,  and  the  duties  of  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Senate  of  this  state. 

52  D.WIl)    K.    KNAXS. 

Upon  the  death  of  Mr.  Otto,  he  entered  upon  tlie  dischart^e 
of  the  duties  of  the  local  agency.  Earl\-  in  life  he  had  been 
a  clerk  in  the  office,  under  his  uncle,  Joseph  Ellicott,  and  had 
for  a  long  period  occupied  the  desk  of  the  cashier  and  accountant 
of  the  agency.  Few,  therefore,  could  have  been  more  familiar 
with  the  wants,  interest  and  welfare  of  the  settlers.  They  were 
old,  familiar  acquaintances,  and  his  interests  were  identified 
with  theirs. 

It  was  during  the  second  year  of  Mr.  Evans'  administration 
(in  September,  1827,)  that  a  general  plan  for  the  modification 
of  land  contracts  was  adopted.  It  was  regarded  at  the  time  as 
a  very  decided  measure  of  relief  to  the  settlers,  and  its  opera- 
tions were  highh'  beneficial  to  a  very  large  class  of  the  debtors 
of  the  Holland  compan\'. 

Mr.  Evans'  agency  continued  until  1837.  It  embraced  the 
large  sales  of  the  Holland  company's  interest ;  in  fact,  before 
it  closed  the  entire  business  and  interests  of  the  company  had 
progressed  nearly  to  a  termination. 

Having  served  one  term  as  State  Senator,  Mr.  Evans  had 
been  elected  a  Representative  in  Congress  at  the  period  of  Mr. 
Otto's  death.  He  resigned  to  take  upon  himself  the  duties  of 
the  agency. 

R(^BERT    Morris. 

A  short  biography  of  one  eminently  useful  in  our  revolution- 
ary struggle  is  suggested  by  his  after-identity  with  our  local 
region.  He  was,  as  will  have  been  seen,  at  one  period  the  pro- 
prietor of  the  whole  of  Western  New  York  west  of  Phelps  and 
Gorham's  purchase,  by  purchase  from  Massachusetts  and  the 
Seneca  Indians. 

In  the  attempt  of  feeble  colonies  to  throw  off  oppression 
there  was  work  to  be  done  in  council  as  well  as  in  the  field — at 
the  financier's  desk  as  well  as  in  the  more  conspicuous  conflicts 
of  arms.  If  raw  troops  called  from  the  field  and  workshop 
were  to  be  enrolled  and  disciplined,  upon  a  sudden  emergency 
provisions  were  to  be  made  for  their  equipment  and  sustenance  ; 
J^oth  were  tasks  surrounded  with  difficulty  and  embarrassment; 
both  required  men  and  minds  of  no  ordinary  cast.  Fortun- 
ately they  were  found.     Washington  was  the  chief,  the  leader 

RoiiKki'  MORRIS  — i:aki.n    I. hi:.  53 

of  our  armies,  the  master-spirit  that  conducted  the  stru<j^le  to 
glorious  termination.  Morris  was  the  financier.  The}'  were 
heads  of  co-ordinate  branches  in  a  i^reat  crisis,  and  e(|uall}-  well 
performed  their  parts. 

Robert  Morris  was  born  in  Lixerpool,  in  1733.  His  father 
emif^rated  to  the  United  States  in  1745,  and  settled  at  Port 
Tobacco,  in  Marylanci,  en<^af^intr  extensively  in  the  tobacco 

Previous  to  the  death  of  his  father,  Robert  Morris  had  been 
placed  in  the  counting-house  of  Mr.  Charles  Willing,  an 
eminent  merchant  of  Philadelphia,  where  he  soon  acquired  a 
proficiency  in  mercantile  afTairs  that  recommended  liim  as  a 
partner  of  the  son  of  his  employer. 

When  the  first  difficulties  occurred  between  the  colonies  and 
the  mother  countr}-,  though  extensively  engaged  in  a  mercan- 
tile business  that  was  to  be  seriously  affected  by  it,  he  was  one 
of  other  patriotic  Philadelphia  merchants  who  promoted  and 
signed  the  non-importation  agreement,  which  restricted  com- 
mercial intercourse  with  Great  Britain  to  the  mere  necessaries 
of  life. 

When  the  news  of  the  Battle  of  Lexington  reached  Philadel- 
phia, Mr.  Morris  was  presiding  at  a  dinner  usuall}^  given  on  the 
anniversary  of  St.  George.  He  participated  in  putting  a  stop 
to  the  celebration  in  honor  of  an  English  saint,  and  helped  to 
upset  the  tables  that  had  been  spread.  His  resolution  was 
fixed  ;  it  was  one  of  devotion  to  the  cause  of  the  colonies,  and 
well  was  it  adhered  to. 

In  1775  and  '76,  he  w^as  a  Member  of  Congress,  and  became 
a  signer  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence. 

When  Washington  had  re-crossed  the  Delaware  for  the 
second  time,  in  December,  1777,  the  time  of  service  of  nearly 
all  the  Eastern  troops  had  expired.  To  induce  them  to  engage 
for  another  si.x  weeks,  he  promised  a  bounty  of  ten  dollars 
each,  and  for  the  necessary  funds  applied  to  Mr.  Morris.  In 
the  answer  of  Mr.  Morris  accompanying  the  sum  of  fifty 
thousand  dollars,  he  congratulated  the  Commander-in-Chief 
upon  his  success  in  retaining  the  men,  and  assured  him  that 
"  if  farther  occasional  supplies  of  money  are  wanted  you  may 
depend  upon  m)'  exertions  either  in  a  public  or  private  capacity." 

54  ELECTED    MEMISER    OF    (( ).\(  IRESS. 

In  March,  1777,  he  was  chosen,  with  l-5enjamin  Franklin  and 
others,  to  represent  the  Assembly  of  Pennsylvania  in  Congress, 
and  in  November  following  was  associated  with  Mr.  Gerry  and 
Mr.  Jones  to  repair  to  the  army  and  confidentially  consult  with 
the  Commander-in-Chief  upon  the  best  plan  of  conducting  the 
Winter  campaign. 

In  August,  1778,  he  was  appointed  a  member  of  the  stand- 
ing Committee  of  Finance. 

The  years  1778  and  '79  were  the  most  distressing  periods  of 
the  war.  The  finances  were  in  a  wretched  condition,  and  Mr. 
Morris  not  only  advanced  his  money  freely,  but  put  in  requisi- 
tion an  almost  unlimited  individual  credit. 

In  1781  (a  period  of  despair),  in  addition  to  other  contribu- 
tions of  money  and  credit,  Mr.  Morris  supplied  the  almost  fam- 
ishing troops  with  several  thousand  barrels  of  flour.  This  timely 
aid  came  w^ien  it  was  seriously  contemplated  to  authorize  the 
seizure  of  provisions  wherever  they  could  be  found  ;  a  measure 
which  would  have  been  unpopular  with  the  whole  country,  and 
probably  turned  back  the  tide  of  public  feeling  flowing  in  favor 
of  the  Revolution. 

There  is  upon  record  a  long  catalogue  of  transactions  simi- 
lar to  those  which  have  been  related.  Not  only  the  Comman- 
der-in-Chief but  Generals  of  divisions  found  Mr.  Morris  the 
dernier  resort  when  money  and  provisions  were  wanted.  To 
private  means,  which  must  have  been  large,  and  a  large  credit, 
he  added  astonishing  faculties  as  a  financier.  When  he  had 
no  other  resources,  he  would  compel  others  to  use  their  money 
and  credit.  In  financial  negotiations,  with  him,  to  will  a  thing 
was  to  do  it. 

He  was  appointed  to  the  office  of  Financier,  or  what  was 
equivalent  to  the  now  office  of  Secretary  of  the  Treasury. 
Never,  perhaps,  in  any  country,  was  a  minister  of  finance  placed 
over  a  treasury,  the  conditions  of  which  were  worse.  To  use  a 
phrase  of  the  play-house,  it  was 

"  Beggarly  account  of  empty  boxes." 

It  had  not  a  dollar  in  it  and  was  two  millions  and  a  half  in  debt. 
Those  who  have  seen  Gen.  Washington's  military  journal  of  the 
first  of  May,  1781,  can  form  some  idea  of  the  condition  of  the 
army  and  the  finances'. 

Ai'i'oiN  ii:i)  iiN.\\(  ii;r.  55 

It  was  the  proxincc  of  Mr.  Morris  to  financier  for  Con<^rcss 
and  a  coiintr\-  and  cause  in  such  a  crisis.  He  be<^an  by  restor- 
in<;'  credit  and  estabHshin^'  confidence;  promuli^ated  the  assur- 
ance that  all  his  official  enL^a^ements  would  be  punctuall)'  met, 
and  j)ut  in  rccjinsition  his  ])ri\'ate  means,  the  means  of  his 
friends,  to  fulfill  the  promises  he  iiad  held  out.  When  apprised 
of  his  ap|)ointment  to  the  manat^ement  of  financial  affairs,  he 
replied  :  "  In  acceptini;;  the  office  bestowed  upon  me,  I  sacrifice 
much  of  m\-  interest,  my  ease,  nn-  domestic  enjo\-ment  and 
internal  traiK[uilit)'.  If  I  know  m}"  own  heart,  I  make  these 
.sacrifices  with  a  disinterestetl  \iew  to  the  ser\ice  of  m\-  countr\-. 
I  am  willing  to  go  further,  and  the  United  States  ma)'  com- 
mand everything  I  have  e.Kcej)t  my  integrity,  and  the  loss  of 
that  would  efTectualh'  dissable  me  from  serving  them  more." 
Among  his  financial  expedients  to  resuscitate  public  credit,  was 
the  establishment  of  the  Bank  of  North  America.  Collateral 
security  was  given  for  the  ])erformance  of  engagements  of  the 
institution,  in  f(M-m  of  bonds,  signed  by  wealth}-  individuals. 
Mr.  Morris  heading  the  list  with  a  subscription  of  iJ"io,000. 

In  a  private  interview  with  Washington,  the  subject  of  an 
attack  on  New  York  was  broached.  Mr.  Morris  dissented, 
assuming  that  it  would  be  too  great  a  sacrifice  of  men  and 
mone)- ;  that  the  success  of  the  measure  was  doubtful;  that 
even  if  successful  the  triumph,  as  to  results,  would  be  a  barren 
one  ;  the  enemy  having  command  of  the  sea  could,  at  anytime, 
land  fresh  troops  and  re-take  it,  &c."  A.ssenting  to  these  objec- 
tions, the  Commander-in-Chief  said  :  "  What  am  I  to  do?  The 
country  calls  on  me  for  action  ;  and  moreox-er,  m\-  arm}-  cannot 
be  kept  together  unless  .some  bold  enterprise  is  undertaken." 
To  this  Mr.  Morris  replied:  "Why  not  lead  \-our  forces  to 
Yorktown  ?  There  Cornwallis  ma}'  be  hemmed  in  b}-  the 
French  fleet  b}'  sea  and  the  American  and  French  armies  by 
land,  and  will  ultimately  be  compelled  to  surrender."  "  Lead 
ni}-  troops  to  Yorktow  n  I"  said  Washington,  appearing  sur- 
prised at  the  suggestion,  "  How  am  I  to  get  them  there  ?  One 
of  my  difficulties  about  attacking  New  York  arises  from  the 
want  of  funds  to  transport  them  thither.  How,  then,  can  I 
.  muster  the  means  that  will  be  requisite  to  enable  them  to  march 
to  Yorktown  ?"     "  You   must  look  to  me  for  funds,"   rejoined 


Mr.  Morris.  ''And  how  are  you  to  provide  them  ?"  said  Wash- 
ington. "  That,"  said  Mr.  Morris,  "  I  am  unable  at  this  time  to 
tell  you,  but  I  will  answer  with  my  head,  that  if  you  will  put 
your  army  in  motion,  I  will  supply  the  means  of  their  reaching 
Yorktown."  After  a  few  minutes  reflection,  Washington  said: 
"On  this  assurance  of  yours,  Mr.  Morris,  such  is  my  confidence 
in  your  ability  to  perform  any  engagement  you  make,  I  will 
adopt  your  suggestion." 

When  the  army  arrived  at  Philadelphia  Mr.  Morris  had  the 
utmost  difificulty  in  furnishing  the  supplies  he  had  promised, 
but  at  last  he  hit  upon  the  expedient  of  borrowing  twenty 
thousand  crowns  from  the  Chevalier  de  Luzerne,  the  French 
Minister.  The  Chevalier  objected  that  he  had  only  funds 
enough  to  pay  the  French  troops,  and  could  not  comply  unless 
two  vessels  with  specie  on  board  for  him  arrived  from  France. 
Fortunately,  about  the  time  the  troops  were  at  Elk,  preparing 
to  march  to  Yorktown,  the  ships  arrived,  the  money  was  pro- 
cured and  especial  pains  taken  to  parade  the  specie  in  open 
kegs  before  the  army.  The  troops  were  paid,  and  cheerfully 
embarked  to  achieve  the  crow^ning  triumph  of  the  Revolution. 

John  Hancock,  President  of  Congress,  writing  to  Mr.  Mor- 
ris in  a  severe  crisis  of  the  Revolution,  says:  "  I  know,  how- 
ever, you  will  put  things  in  a  proper  way  ;  all  things  depend 
upon  you,  and  you  have  my  hearty  thanks  for  your  unremitting 
labor."  Gen.  Charles  Lee  said  to.  him  in  a  letter,  when  he 
assumed  the  duties  of  Secretary  of  an  empty  treasury:  "  It  is 
an  office  I  cannot  wish  you  joy  of ;  the  labor  is  more  than  her- 
culean ;  the  filth  of  that  Augean  stable  is,  in  my  opinion,  too 
great  to  be  cleared  away  even  by  your  skill  and  industry." 

During  the  Revolution,  the  commercial  house  in  which  he 
continued  a  partner,  was  prosecuting  a  successful  business. 
The  close  of  the  Revolution  must  have  found  him  in  possession 
of  immense  wealth,  exceeding  by  far  that  of  any  individual  cit- 
izen of  the  United  States.  But  he  was  destined  to  a  sudden 
reverse  of  fortune.  There  followed  the  revolution  a  mania  for 
land  speculation.  Mr.  Morris  participated  largely  in  it,  in- 
vesting in  large  tracts  of  wild  land  as  they  came  into  market 
in  different  parts  of  the  United  States,  realizing  for  a  time  vast 
profits   up(^n    sales.     A  reaction    ensued,   which    found  him    in 

ii.i.-iouruNK  AM)  i»i;.\iii.  57 

possession  of  an  immense  landed  estate,  and  lart^ely  in  debt 
for  purchase  money.  Trom  the  opulence  we  ha\e  been  speak- 
ing of,  he  was  reduced  to  poverty  ;  and  ultimately  some  mer- 
ciless creditors  made  him  for  a  long  time  the  tenant  of  a 

Upon  Mr.  Morris  had  devolved  the  financiering  for  our  coun- 
try in  a  period  of  peril  and  embarrassment.  When  the  army 
of  Washington,  unpaid,  were  lacking  food  and  raiment,  mur- 
muring as  they  well  might  be,  it  was  his  purse  and  credit  that 
more  than  once  prevented  its  dispersion  and  the  failure  of  the 
glorious  achievement  of  independence.  His  ships  were  upon 
the  ocean,  his  notes-of-hand  forming  a  currency,  his  drafts  hon- 
ored everywhere  among  capitalists  in  his  own  country  and  in 
many  of  the  marts  of  commerce  in  Europe. 

A  reverse  of  fortune  occurred,  which  is  saddening  to  those 
who  are  now  enjoying  the  blessings  to  which  he  so  eminently 
contributed,  and  who  wish  that  no  cloud  had  gathered  around 
the  close  of  his  useful  life. 

Mr.  Morris  died  at  Morrisiana,  N.  J.,  Nov.  6,  1806,  aged  sev- 
enty-three years. 

Makv  Jemison. 

In  the  Summer  of  1755,  during  the  P^rench  and  Indian  wars, 
Mary  Jamison's  father's  house,  situated  on  the  western  frontier 
of  Pennsylvania,  was  surrounded  by  a  band,  consisting  of  six 
Indians  and  four  Frenchmen.  They  plundered  and  carried 
away  whate\-er  the)'  could  that  was  \'aluable,  and  took  the 
whole  family  captive,  with  two  or  three  others,  who  were  stay- 
ing there  at  the  time.  They  were  all  immediately  hastened 
away  into  the  wilderness,  murdered  and  scalped,  with  the 
exception  of  Mary  and  a  small  boy,  who  were  carried  to  Fort 
Du  Quesne.  Little  Mary  was  there  given  to  two  Indian  sisters, 
who  came  to  that  place  to  get  a  captive  to  .supply  the  place  of 
a  brother  that  had  been  slain  in  battle.  They  took  her  down 
the  Ohio  to  their  home,  and  adopted  her  as  their  sister,  under 
the  name  of  Dehhewamis — a  word  signifying  "  a  beautiful  girl." 
The  sorrow  and  regret  which  so  sudden  and  fearful  a  change  in 
her  condition  produced,  gradually  yielded  under  the  influence 
of    time  ;    and  she   began  to  be  quite  reconciled  to  her  fate. 


when  an  incident  occurred,  wliich  once  more  revix'cd  her  hopes 
of  being  redeemed  from  captivit}-  and  restored  to  her  friends. 
When  Fort  Pitt  fell  into  the  possession  of  the  British,  Mary 
was  taken  with  a  part)^  who  went  there  to  conclude  a  treaty  of 
peace  with  the  English.  She  immediately  attracted  the  notice 
of  the  white  people,  who  showed  great  anxiety  to  know  how 
one  so  young  and  delicate  came  among  the  savages.  Her 
Indian  sisters  became  alarmed,  and  fearing  that  they  might  lose 
her,  suddenly  fled  away  with  her,  and  carried  her  back  to  their 
forest  home.  Her  disappointment  was  painful  and  she  brooded 
over  it  for  many  days,  but  at  length  gained  her  usual  cheerful- 
ness and  contentment.  As  soon  as  she  was  of  sufficient  age, 
she  was  married  to  a  young  Delaware  Indian  named  Sheninjee. 
Notwithstanding  her  reluctance  at  first  to  become  the  wife 
of  an  Indian,  her  husband's  uniform  kind  treatment  and 
gentleness,  soon  won  her  esteem  and  affection,  and  she  says: 
"  Strange  as  it  may  seem,  I  loved  him  !  "  and  she  often  spoke 
of  him  as  her  "kind  husband."  About  1759,  she  concluded  to 
change  her  residence.  With  a  little  child,  on  foot,  she  traveled 
to  the  Genesee  river,  through  the  pathless  wilderness,  a  distance 
of  near  six  hundred  miles,  and  fixed  her  home  at  Little  Beard's 
Town.  When  she  came  there,  she  found  the  Senecas  in  alliance 
with  the  French  ;  they  were  making  preparation  for  an  attack 
on  Fort  Schlosser ;  and  not  a  great  while  after,  enacted  the 
tragedy  at  the  Devil's  Hole.  Some  time  after  her  arrival,  she 
received  intelligence  of  the  death  of  her  husband,  Sheninjee, 
who  was  to  have  come  to  her  in  the  succeeding  Spring.  They 
had  lived  happily  together,  and  she  sincerely  lamented  his 
death.  When  the  war  between  England  and  France  ended, 
she  might  have  returned  to  the  English,  but  she  did  not.  She 
married  another  Indian,  named  Hiakatoo,  two  or  three  years 
after  the  death  of  Sheninjee.  When  General  Sullivan  invaded 
the  Genesee  country,  her  house  and  field  shared  a  common  fate 
with  the  rest.  When  she  saw  them  in  ruins,  with  great  energy 
and  perseverance,  she  immediately  went  to  making  prepara- 
tion for  the  coming  W^inter.  Taking  her  two  youngest  children 
on  her  back,  and  bidding  the  other  three  follow,  she  sought 

Till':  (;.\Ri)i;.\i'   ki':sKk\Ari()\.  59 

cniploynicnt.  She  found  an  ()j)|)()rlunit\-  to  husk  corn,  and 
secured  in  tliat  way  t\\ent\'-fi\'e  busliels  of  slielled  corn,  which 
kept  tliem  through  the  Winter. 

After  the  close  of  the  Revolution,  slie  obtained  the  ^rant  of 
a  lar^^e  tract  of  huul,  called  the  "  Gardeau  Reservation,"  which 
was  about  six  miles  in  length  and  five  in  breadth. 

In  1 83  I,  preferrin<^  to  i)ass  the  remainder  of  her  da}'s  in  the 
midst  of  those  with  w^hom  her  youth  and  middle  age  had  been 
spent,  she  sold  the  rest  of  the  land  at  Gardeau  Flats,  purchased 
a  farm  on  the  BufTalo  Reservation,  where  the  Senecas,  among 
whom  she  had  li\ed,  had  settled  some  five  years  j^revious.  She 
passed  the  remainder  of  her  days  in  peace  and  Cjuietness, 
embraced  the  Christian  religion,  and  on  the  19th  of  Sept.,  1833, 
ended  a  life  that  had  been  marked  by  vicissitudes  such  as  it  is 
the  lot  of  but  few  to  experience. 

6o  ■  PREPARATIONS    OF    WAR. 


WAR  OF   1812-15— CAMPAIGN  OF   1812. 

War  Declared — Troops  Called  For — Colonel  Swift — First  Detachment  of  Mili- 
tia— Council  with  the  Indians  ■ —  Excitement,  Bustle,  Confusion  and 
Flight —Active  Preparations  on  the  Canada  Side — General  Brock — Fear 
of  the  Indians — The  Caledonia  and  Detroit — The  Defeat  of  General 
Van  Rensselaer— General  Smyth  and  His  Failures — Disgust  of  the  Sol- 
diers and  the  Public. 

After  a  debate  of  several  days"  duration,  an  act  declaring 
war  against  Great  Britain  was  passed  by  Congress,  and  was 
approved  by  the  President  on  the  i8th  of  June,  1812.  On  the 
19th  the  President  issued  a  proclamation  declaring  that  war 
existed  between  the  United  States  and  Great  Britain  and  her 

Congress  authorized  the  President  to  enlist  25,000  men  for 
the  regular  army,  to  raise  a  force  of  50,000  volunteers,  and  to 
call  out  100,000  militia. 

On  the  17th  of  May,  Colonel  Swift,  of  Ontario  county,  came 
to  Buffalo  to  assume  command  on  the  frontier.  On  the  i8th, 
the  first  detachment  of  militia  marched  through  that  village  on 
their  way  to  Lewiston.  They  were  from  the  south  towns,  and 
were  commanded  by  Major  Benjamin  Whale}'. 

On  the  26th  of  May,  Indian-Superintendent  Granger  held  a 
council  with  the  Chiefs  of  the  Six  Nations  of  Indians,  living  on 
this  side  of  the  Niagara.  He  did  not  seek  to  enlist  their  ser- 
vices in  the  war,  but  urged  them  to  remain  neutral.  To  this 
they  agreed. 

On  the  23d  of  June,  Colonel  Swift,  whose  headquarters  were 
at  Black  Rock,  was  in  command  of  600  militia ;  besides  there 
was  a  small  garrison  of  regulars  at  Fort  Niagara.  There  was 
no  artillery  except  at  the  fort. 

The  preparations  for  war  on  the  other  side  were  somewhat 
better,  there  being  six  or  seven  hundred  British  regulars  along 
the  Niagara  and  a  hundred  pieces  of  artillery. 

.  On  the  morning  of  the  26th  of  June,  a  small  vessel,  which  had 
just  left  Black  Rock,  was  noticed  entering  Lake   Eric  b\' some 

\.\\    ri;nssi;i,.\i;r    iaki^s  ((i.m.m.\m».  6i 

of  the  citizens  of  Buffalo,  aiul  preseiitK'  a  British  armed  xx-ssel 
from  Fort  Kric  was  seen  makint^  its  \va\-  toward  the  /Vmerican 
ship.  The  hitter  was  soon  overtaken  and  boarded,  and  then 
both  vessels  turned  their  prows  toward  the  British  stron<^hold. 
The  vessel  was  captured,  and  a  few  hours  later  an  express-rider 
from  the  east  arri\'ed  bearing  the  President's  proclamation  of 
war.  The  Canadians  had  received  the  news  the  earliest.  The 
express-riders  spread  the  news  as  they  passed  upon  the  main 
roads;  thence  it  spread  rapidh'  in  every  direction  from  settle- 
ment to  settlement. 

The  usual  avocations  of  life  w  ere  temporarily  suspended  ; 
here  and  there  in  all  the  detached  neighborhoods  were  small 
collections  of  citizens  deliberating  and  consulting  upon  meas- 
ures of  safety,  defense  or  flight.  Many  made  hasty  prepara- 
tions and  were  soon  on  their  wa\'  seeking  asylums  beyond  the 
Genesee  river.  Many  families  who  left,  returned  after  a  few 
weeks'  absence.  All  was  bustle  and  confusion  ;  soldiers  were 
mustering,  volunteers  and  drafted  militia  were  marching  to  the 
frontiers  from  the  back  settlements  in  small  squads  and  larger 
companies.  By  the  4th  of  July,  the  aggregate  militia  force 
upon  the  frontier  was  about  three  thousand.  Soon  after  the 
declaration  of  war,  Gen.  William  Wadsworth,  of  Geneseo, 
assumed  command.  On  the  28th  of  July,  the  command 
devolved  upon  Gen.  Amos  Hall,  of  Ontario  count}',  and  on  the 
I  ith  of  August  upon  Major-General  Van  Rensselaer,  of  Albany 
(these  were  not  officers  of  the  regular  army  but  of  the  New 
York  State  militia).  General  Van  Rensselaer  established  his 
headquarters  at  Lewi.ston. 

War  preparations  were  as  active  in  Canada  as  upon  this  side 
of  the  lines.  The  militia  in  the  Upper  Province  were  ordered 
out  en  masse.  P"ort  Erie  was  put  in  repair;  a  redoubt  was 
thrown  up  opposite  Black  Rock,  a  battery  erected  at  Chippewa 
and  another  below  the  falls  ;  defences  were  also  erected  on 
Oueenston  heights  directly  opposite  Lewiston  village,  and  Fort 
George  was  strengthened.  One  of  the  incipient  steps  in  Canada 
was  to  secure  the  services  of  the  Indians  in  the  Pro\-ince.  This 
had  been  too  long  a  favorite  policy  of  England  to  be  aban- 
doned. General  Brock,  the  acting  Governor  of  the  Province, 
assumed  the  immediate  command  of  the  troops. 


After  the  first  turmoil  and  bustle  were  over,  there  succeeded 
comparative  quiet — weeks  and  months  of  inactivity  upon  the 
lines.  The  usual  avocations  were  partially  resumed  in  the 
settlements,  though  frequently  disturbed  by  militia  drafts  and 
harrassing,  unfounded  rumors  of  actual  or  contemplated  incur- 
sions of  the  British  and  Indians. 

There  was  little  real  cause  for  anticipating  danger  of  this 
nature,  for  the  preparations  on  the  other  side  were  wholly 
defensive,  and  the  state  of  alarm  among  the  inhabitants  there 
was  as  great  as  here.  Among  the  inhabitants  on  each  side 
of  the  lines  there  was  mutual  fear  of  invasion. 

One  of  the  most  fruitful  sources  of  apprehension  and  alarm 
in  the  earlier  stages  of  the  war  was  the  fear  that  the  Seneca 
Indians  would  become  allies  of  the  British  and  Canadian 
Indians.  Their  neutrality,  however,  was  early  secured  by  a 
talk  in  council.  This  position  of  neutrality,  taken  in  the  first 
stages  of  the  war,  was  not  long  maintained.  The  Senecas 
rightly  determining  their  true  position  and  interests,  soon 
became  fast  friends  of  the  United  States,  and  useful  armed 
allies.  On  the  8th  of  October,  a  detachment  of  sailors  arrived 
on  the  frontier  from  New  York,  and  were  placed  under  the 
command  of  Lieut.  Jesse  D.  Elliott,  stationed  at  Black  Rock. 
Two  British  armed  vessels,  the  brig  Detroit  and  the  schooner 
Caledonia,  had  just  come  down  the  lake,  and  were  at  anchor 
near  Fort  Erie.  About  one  o'clock,  on  the  morning  of  the  9th 
of  October,  three  boats  put  out  from  the  American  shore  with 
their  prows  directed  toward  Fort  Erie.  The  first  contained 
fifty  men  under  Lieutenant  Elliott  in  person  ;  the  second  forty- 
seven,  under  Sailing-Master  Watts,  while  the  third  was  manned 
by  six  Buffalonians  under  Dr.  Chapin.  The  boats  moved 
stealthily  across  the  river  in  the  darkness.  Arriving  at  the  side 
of  their  prey,  the  three  crews  boarded  both  vessels  almost  at 
the  same  time.  In  ten  minutes,  the  enemy  was  overpowered, 
the  cables  cut,  and  the  vessels  on  their  way  down  the  river. 
The  Caledonia  was  brought  to  anchor  near  Black  Rock,  but  the 
Detroit  was  carried  by  the  current  on  the  west  side  of  Squaw 
island,  and  ran  aground.  The  prisoners  taken  in  this  gallant 
affair  numbered  seventy-one  officers  and  men ;  besides  these, 
the  captors  released  about  forty  American   prisoners  who  were 

DKKKAI'    Oh'    \A.\    KllNSSKl.Al'.k.  63 

ca])turctl  at  the  I\i\cr  Raisin,  and  were  on  their  \va)'  to  (.)ue- 
bec.  This  was  the  first  hostile  enterprise  which  took  phice  in 
or  started  from  Flrie  count}'  during-  the  War  of  1812. 

If  the  settlers  on  the  Holland  purchase  were  somewhat 
cheered  by  the  achiex-ement  of  Lieutenant  Klliott  and  his  com- 
mand, the}'  were  at  once  cast  down  attain  b}-  the  news  of  the 
defeat  of  General  \'an  Rensselaer  at  Oueenston.  He  had  col- 
lected a  force,  i)rincipally  New  \'ork  militia,  at  Lewiston,  on 
the  Niagara  ri\er.  At  Oueenston,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
river,  a  British  force  was  stationed.  On  the  13th  of  October 
(ieneral  Van  Rensselaer  crossed  a  force  under  Col.  Solomon 
Van  Rensselaer  (his  nephew),  and  attacked  the  British  fort  and 
captured  it.  General  Brock  now  arriv^ed  with  a  reinforement 
of  600  men  and  endeavored  to  regain  the  fort,  but  was  defeated 
and  killed.  General  Van  Rensselaer  hastened  back  to  the 
American  side  to  bring  over  more  troops,  but  his  men  refused 
to  obey  his  orders,  alleging  that  they  could  not  be  ordered  out 
of  the  state  without  their  consent.  The  British  were  heavily 
reinforced,  and  the  Americans  were  attacked  and  defeated,  all 
who  crossed  to  the  Canada  side  being  killed  or  captured. 

General  Van  Rensselaer  was  succeeded  in  command  on  the 
Niagara  frontier  by  Brigadier-Gen.  Alexander  Smyth,  of  the 
regular  army,  who  had  been  on  the  lines  a  short  time  as  Inspec- 
tor-General. Immediatel}'  on  taking  command  he  began  con- 
centrating troops  at  Buffalo  and  Black  Rock,  preparatory  to  an 
invasion  of  Canada.  On  the  1 2th  of  November,  he  issued  a 
flaming  address  to  the  men  of  New  York,  calling  for  their  ser- 
vices and  declaring  that  in  a  few  da}'s  the  troops  under  his 
command  would  plant  the  American  standard  in  Canada.  A 
considerable  force  came  to  Buffalo  ;  a  brigade  of  militia  arrived 
from  Pennsylvania;  three  or  four  hundred  New  York  militia 
reported  themselves.  Peter  B.  Porter  was  assigned  to  the  com- 
mand of  these  New  \'ork  volunteers.  On  the  27th  of  Novem- 
ber the  General  commanding  issued  orders  to  cross  the  river 
the  next  da}'.  There  were  then  about  four  thousand  men  at  and 
near  Black  Rock,  but  as  a  large  portion  of  them  were  militia,  it 
is  not  certain  how  man}-  he  could  ha\'e  depended  on  to  enter 
the  enemy's  countr}-.  There  were  boats  sufficient  to  carry  at 
least  3,000  men. 


About  one  o'clock  the  next  morninij  two  detachments  were 
sent  across  the  river,  one  under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Boerstler 
and  the  other  under  Captain  King,  with  whom  was  Lieutenant 
Angus  of  the  Navy  and  fifty  or  sixty  seamen.  Bcerstler 
returned  without  accomplishing  anything  of  consequence,  but 
the  forces  of  King  and  Angus  behaved  with  great  gallantry. 
They  landed  at  three  o'clock  in  the  morning.  Angus  attacked 
and  dispersed  a  force  of  the  enemy  stationed  at  what  was  called 
"The  Red  House,"  spiking  two  field-pieces  and  throwing  then,i 
into  the  river.  The  sailors  and  some  of  the  soldiers  then 
returned,  bringing  a  number  of  prisoners,  but  througli  some 
blunder  no  boats  were  left  to  bring  over  Captain  King,  who 
with  sixty  men  remained  behind.  King  and  his  men  then 
attacked  and  captured  two  batteries,  spiked  their  guns  and  took 
thirty-four  prisoners.  Having  found  two  boats,  capable  of  hold- 
ing about  sixty  men,  the  gallant  Captain  sent  over  his  prisoners, 
half  his  men  and  all  his  officers,  remaining  himself  with  thirty 
men.  He  doubtless  expected  Smyth's  whole  army  in  an  hour 
or  two,  and  thought  he  would  take  care  of  himself  until  that 
time.  The  general  embarkation  commenced  but  went  on  very 
slowly.  About  one  o'clock  I'.  M.,  the  regulars,  the  twelve- 
months volunteers  and  a  body  of  militia,  the  whole  making  a 
force  variously  estimated  at  from  fourteen  hundred  to  two 
thousand  men  were  in  boats  at  the  navy-yard,  at  the  mouth  of 
Scajaquada  creek.  General  Smyth  then  ordered  the  troops  to 
disembark  and  dine.  He  then  called  a  council  of  war,  to  see 
whether  he  had  better  cross  the  river  or  not.  It  is  not  surpris- 
ing that,  with  such  a  commander,  several  of  the  officers  con- 
sulted were  opposed  to  making  the  attempt.  It  was  at  length 
de'cided  to  postpone  the  invasion  until  more  boats  could  be 
made  ready.  Late  in  the  afternoon  the  troops  were  ordered  to 
their  quarters.  The  gallant  Captain  King  was  left  to  his  fate 
and  was  taken  prisoner  with  all  his  remaining  men. 

The  next  day  was  spent  in  preparation.  On  Sunday,  the 
30th,  the  troops  were  ordered  to  be  ready  to  embark  at  nine 
o'clock  the  following  morning.  General  Porter  advocated  post- 
poning the  expedition  till  Monday  night,  when  the  troops 
should  embark  in  the  darkness  and  land  about  five  miles  below 
the  navy-yard,  where  the  stream  and  the  banks  were  favorable. 


These  views  were  seconded  by  Colonel  Winder  and  adopted 
by  General  Smyth,  his  intention  being  to  assault  Chipi)ewa  and 
march  through  Oueenston  to  Fort  George. 

Then  it  was  found  that  the  Quarter-Master  had  ncjt  rations 
enough  for  two  thcnisand  five  hundred  men  for  four  days.  Never- 
theless, the  embarkation  commenced  at  three  o'clock  on  Tues- 
day' morning.  Again  some  fifteen  hundred  men  were  placed  in 
boats.  It  was  arranged  that  General  Porter  was  to  lead  the 
van  and  direct  the  landing,  on  account  of  his  knowledge  of  the 
river  and  the  farther  shore. 

Hut  the  embarkation  of  the  regulars  was  greatl}'  delayed  and 
daylight  appeared  before  the  flotilla  was  under  way.  Then  the 
redoubtable  Smyth  called  another  council  of  war,  composed  of 
four  regular  officers,  to  decide  whether  Canada  should  be  in- 
vaded ihat  season.  They  unanimously  decided  it  should  not.  So 
the  *'fH>»ps  were  again  ordered  ashore  and  the  militia  and  most 
of  th^' volunteers  sent  home,  and  the  regulars  put  into  winter 

The  breaking  up  of  the  command  was  attended  by  scenes  of 
the  wildest  confusion  ;  four  thousand  men  firing  off  their  guns, 
cursing  General  Smyth,  their  officers,  the  service,  and  every- 
thing connected  with  their  military  experience.  The  disgust 
of  the  public  was  equally  great.  Smyth  became  the  object  of 
universal  derision.  The  mere  fact  of  his  twice  waiting  till  his 
men  were  in  boats  for  the  purpose  of  invading  Canada  before 
calling  a  council  of  war  to  decide  whether  Canada  should  be 
invaded,  showed  him  to  be  entirely  deficient  in  the  qualifica- 
tions of  a  general. 

On  the  22nd  of  December,  Smyth  resigned  his  command  to 
Col.  Moses  Porter,  and  retired  to  Virginia  on  leave  of  absence. 
Before  his  leave  expired.  Congress  legislated  him  out  of  office. 


CAMPAIGN  OF   1813. 

Arrival  of  Captain  Perry,  of  the  Navy — Fitting  out  a  fleet — General  Dearborn 
in  command  of  the  northern  frontiers — Toronto  captured— Fort  George 
evacuated  by  the  British — Americans  occupy  it — Americans  occupy  the 
whole  Canadian  side  of  the  Niagara — Fortifying  in  Holland,  Hamburg 
and  Boston — Chapin's  gallant  exploit — The  Senecas  take  part  in  the  war 
— Battle  at  Black  Rock,  the  British  defeated — Perry's  victory  on  Lake 
Erie  —  Harrison's  victory  on  the  Thames  —  General  McCiure  —  Fort 
Niagara  captured — General  Hall. 

Early  in  March,  Capt.  Oliver  Hazard  Perry,  of  the  United 
States  Navy,  a  young  man  twenty-six  years  of  age,  of  hand- 
some features  and  gallant  bearing,  arrived  in  Buffalo  from  the 
East,  and  after  a  brief  stay,  went  forward  to  Erie  to  superin- 
tend the  fitting  out  of  a  naval  armament  there.  During  the 
Winter,  the  Government  had  purchased  a  number  of  merchant 
vessels,  for  the  purpose  of  converting  them  into  men-of-war, 
and  the  construction  of  several  new  ones  had  been  begun. 
Erie,  from  its  comparatively  secure  harbor,  had  been  selected 
as  the  naval  headquarters. 

Five  vessels,  however,  were  fitted  out  in  Scajaquada  creek, 
and  for  several  months  Perry  flitted  back  and  forth  between 
the  two  places,  urging  forward  the  work. 

In  the  fore  part  of  April,  soldiers  began  to  arrive  on  the 
frontier.  On  the  17th  of  that  month,  Major-General  Lewis 
and  Brigadier-General  Boyd  arrived  in  Buffalo  to  assume  com- 
mand according  to  their  respective  ranks.  General  Dearborn 
took  cominand  on  the  n'hole  northern  frontier.  The  British 
force  on  the  other  side  of  the  Niagara  was  very  weak. 

The  campaign  in  the  north  was  commenced  by  an  expedi- 
tion from  Sacket's  Harbor,  under  General  Dearborn  and 
Commodore  Chauncy,  by  which  York  (now  Toronto)  was  cap- 
tured b\-  a  dashing  attack,  the  gallant  General  Pike  being  killed 
by  the  explosion  of  the  enemy's  magazine.  This  triumph  pre- 
vented the  sending  of  re-enforcements  to  the  British  forts  on 


the  Niai^ara.  and  when  our  fleet  appeared  off  Fort  George, 
about  the  25th  of  Ma)',  it  was  immediately  evacuated.  The 
Americans,  under  General  Lewis,  crossed  and  occupied  it. 

The  same  day,  the  commander  at  Fort  Erie  received  orders 
under  which  he  kept  up  a  heavy  cannonade  on  Black  Rock 
until  the  following  morning,  when  he  blew  up  his  magazines, 
destroyed  his  stores,  and  dismissed  his  men.  All  other  public 
stores,  barracks,  and  magazines,  from  Chippewa  to  Point  Abino, 
were  likewise  destroyed.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Preston,  the 
commandant  at  Black  Rock,  immediately  crossed  over  and 
took  possession.  So  at  length  the  Americans  had  obtained 
possession  of  the  Canadian  side  of  the  Niagara,  and  it  would 
not  seem  that  it  need  to  have  been  difficult  to  retain  it. 

But  the  lack  of  success  in  this  respect,  and  in  fact  the  greater 
part  of  the  disasters  of  the  war  of  1812,  were  attributable  no 
doubt  to  the  blundering  of  the  Government,  the  weakness  of 
the  Commanders,  to  loose  dicipline  and  to  the  excessive  short 
term  of  service  of  the  drafted  men  and  volunteers.  As  a  gen- 
eral rule,  if  a  volunteer  of  18 12  stayed  on  the  line  three  months 
he  thought  he  had  done  something  wonderful. 

In  the  fore  part  of  18 13,  the  inhabitants  on  the  upper  part 
of  Cazenova  creek  combined  and  built  a  stockade  of  consider- 
able magnitude,  on  the  farm  of  Arthur  Humphrey,  in  Holland. 
About  the  same  time  Captain  Bemis'  barn,  in  Hamburg,  was 
surrounded  by  a  similar  stockade.  There  was  also  a  block- 
house built  in  that  vicinity.  Job  Palmer's  barn,  in  Boston,  was 
likewise  stockaded,  and  there  may  have  been  other  fortifica- 
tions of  the  kind  in  the  county. 

On  the  23d  of  June,  18 13,  a  force  of  Americans  started  up 
the  river  from  Fort  Geoi-ge.  It  consisted  of  four  or  five  hun- 
dred regular  infantr\-,  twenty  regular  dragoons  and  Chapin's 
company  of  forty-four  mounted  riflemen,  the  whole  under 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Bctrstler.  On  the  24th,  when  nine  miles 
west  of  Queenston  at  a  place  called  Beaver  Dams,  it  was 
attacked  by  a  force  of  British  and  Indians.  After  some  skir 
mishing  and  marching,  accompanied  with  slight  loss,  the  assail, 
ants  sent  a  flag  to  Colonel  Bcerstler,  and  on  the  mere  statement 
of  the  bearer  that  the  British  regular  force  was  double  the 
American,    besides    700    Indians,   that    officer  surrendered   his 


whole  command.  Chapin  and  his  Erie  county  volunteers  were 
sent  to  the  head  of  Lake  Ontario  (now  Hamilton),  whence  the 
Colonel,  two  officers  and  twenty-six  privates  were  ordered  to 
Kingston  by  water,  under  guard  of  a  Lieutenant  and  fifteen 
men.  They  were  all  in  two  boats.  When  about  twenty  miles 
out  on  Lake  Ontario  Chapin  and  his  comrades  arose,  captured 
the  guard  and  rowed  them  to  Fort  George  and  delivered  them 
as  prisoners  to  the  commandant.  The  British  men-of-war  still 
commanded  the  lake.  About  the  15th  of  June  the  five  vessels 
which  had  been  fitted  up  in  Scajaquada  creek,  stole  out  of 
Black  Rock  and  joined  Perry  at  Erie. 

The  Queen  Charlotte  and  other  British  vessels,  this  year  as 
last,  hovered  along  the  lake  shore  and  occasionally  sent  a  boat's 
crew  ashore  to  depredate  on  the  inhabitants  of  Hamburg  and 

In  the  earl}'  part  of  July,  a  skirmish  took  place  near  Fort 
George,  in  which  an  American  Lieutenant  and  ten  men  were 
captured,  who  were  never  heard  of  more,  and  were  supposed  to 
have  been  slain  by  the  savages.  Then  General  Boyd  accepted 
the  services  of  the  warriors  of  the  Six  Nations.  Those  then 
enrolled  numbered  400,  and  there  were  550  in  the  ser\'ice  in  all. 

General  Dearborn  had  withdrawn  all  the  regular  soldiers  from 
Buffalo  and  Black  Rock,  leaving  a  large  amount  of  public  stores 
entirely  undefended.  Being  advised,  however,  of  the  danger 
of  a  raid,  he  ordered  ten  artillerists  to  be  stationed  at  the  block- 
house at  Black  Rock,  and  called  for  500  militia  from  the 
neighboring  counties.  Between  a  hundred  and  fifty  and  two 
hundred  of  these  arrived  at  the  threatened  point  earl}-  in  Jul)-, 
and  were  stationed  at  the  warehouses  at  Black  Rock,  being 
under  the  command  of  Maj.  Parmenio  Adams,  of  Genesee 
County.  They  had  three  pieces  of  field  artillery  and  near  by 
was  a  battery  of  four  heavy  guns.  Nearly  a  hundred  recruits 
for  the  regular  infantry  and  dragoons  on  their  way  to  Dear- 
born's headquarters,  under  Captain  Cummings,  were  ordered 
to  stop  at  Buffalo.  Judge  (Granger  was  directed  to  engage  as 
many  Seneca  warriors  as  he  could,  and  General  Porter  who 
was  then  staying  at  his  residence  at  Black  Rock,  was  requested 
to  take  command  of  the  whole.  By  the  loth  of  July  Judge 
Granger  had  received  such  positive  information  of  an  immediate 


attack,  accompanied  by  sjiccial  threats  a^^ainst  himself,  that 
he  iinited  some  Indians  to  come  to  his  house  north  of  the 
Scajaquada  creek.  Thirt\'-seven  of  them  arrived  at  II  o'clock 
that  (Saturday)  ni<^dit  under  the  lead  of  I^\'u-mer's  Brother.  As 
the\-  were  not  all  armed,  and  as  the  Judt^e  was  confident  that 
the  enemy  would  be  over  the  next  day,  he  sent  to  the  village 
and  yot  a  full  supply  of  arms  and  ammunition  for  his  braves 
that  niL^ht.  The  British  headcjuarters  were  at  Lundy's  Lane, 
close  by  the  Falls,  where  their  expedition  was  fitted  out.  The 
commander  was  Lieutenant-Colonel  Bishop.  He  had  under 
him  a  part  of  the  forty-first  regiment  of  the  British  army,  and 
a  detachment  of  Canadian  militia,  commanded  by  Colonel 
Clark.  They  took  boat  at  Chippewa,  on  the  night  of  the  loth, 
and  after  rowing  against  the  current  in  the  darkness  several 
hours,  landed  just  after  daylight  a  mile  below  the  mouth  of  the 
Scajac]uada.  Forming  his  men,  Colonel  Bishop  led  them 
rapidl)^  up  the  river  bank.  There  was  a  single  sentinel  at  the 
Scajaquada  bridge  ;  he  flung  away  his  musket,  dodged  into  the 
woods,  and  took  a  bee-line  for  Williamsville.  Major  Adams' 
men  attempted  no  resistance,  but  fled.  General  Porter  had 
barely  time  to  escape  from  his  house,  and  without  his  arms. 
The  victors,  supposing  no  resistance  would  be  made,  set  to 
work  burning  the  block-houses  and  barracks,  while  the  ofificers 
ordered  breakfast  at  General  Porter's.  But  a  storm  was  gather- 
ing. When  the  militia  first  began  to  retreat,  a  messenger  was 
sent  to  Buffalo,  on  whose  arrival.  Captain  Cummings  mustered 
his  recruits  and  marched  towards  the  scene  of  action.  On  his 
wa)'  he  met  (General  Porter,  who  ordered  him  to  proceed  to  a 
piece  of  open  ground  not  far  from  the  site  of  the  reservoir, 
and  await  re-enforcements. 

Taking  a  horse,  sword  and  other  eciui{)ments  from  one  of 
Cumming's  dragoons,  the  general  galloped  down  to  the  village, 
where  he  found  everything  in  confusion ;  the  women  and 
children  in  a  state  of  terror,  and  the  men  in  the  streets  with 
arms  in  their  hands,  but  doubtful  whether  to  fight  or  flee. 
Being  assured  there  was  a  chance  of  success,  forty  or  fifty  of 
them  formed  ranks  under  Caj)tain  Bull,  the  commander  of  the 
Buffalo  volunteer  company,  and  marched  to  join  Cummings. 
About    a    hundred  of    the    retreating    militia    had    been    kept 

70  farmer's  brother  and  his  warriors. 

together  by  Lieutenant  Phineas  Staunton,  the  adjutant  of  the 
battalion.  Meanwhile,  Major  King,  of  the  regular  army,  who 
was  accidentally  at  Black  Rock,  on  seeing  the  sudden  retreat  of 
the  militia,  hurried  through  the  \\-oods  to  Judge  Granger's 
(who  lived  beyond  Cold  Springs,  on  Main  street),  \\hence  the 
alarm  was  speedily  carried  to  the  scattered  inhabitants  of 
"  Buffalo  Plains."  F"armer's  Brother  at  once  gathered  his  war- 
riors and  made  them  a  little  speech,  telling  them  that  they 
must  now  go  and  fight  the  red-coats ;  that  their  country  was 
invaded  ;  that  they  had  a  common  interest  with  the  people  of 
the  United  States,  and  they  must  show  their  friendship  for 
their  American  brethren  b}'  deeds,  not  words.  The  old  chief- 
tain then  led  his  little  band  to  join  his  friend,  General  Porter. 
Volunteers,  too,  came  hurrying  to  the  village  from  the  Plains 
and  Cold  Springs,  until  about  thirty  were  gathered,  who  were 
placed  under  the  command  of  Capt.  William  Hull,  of  the  militia. 

General  Porter  now  felt  able  to  cope  with  the  enemy. 
Bringing  together  his  forces,  numbering  but  about  three  hun- 
dred all  told,  at  the  open  ground  before-mentioned,  he  made 
his  dispositions  for  an  attack.  As  the  foe  held  a  strong 
position  at  Major  Adams'  encampment.  Porter  determined  to 
attack  him  on  three  sides  at  once,  to  prevent  the  destructive 
use  of  artillery  on  a  column  in  front. 

The  regulars  and  Captain  Bull's  Buff  volunteers  formed  the 
center.  The  Genesee  militia,  under  Staunton,  were  on  the  left. 
Captain  Hull's  men  and  the  Indians  were  in  the  woods  on  the 
right  front.  Farmer's  Brother  and  his  braves  prepared  for 
action  ;  they  cjuickly  ranged  themselves  in  line  with  their  chiefs, 
a  few  yards  in  front.  At  eight  o'clock  the  signal  for  attack  was 
given.  The  militia,  gallantly  led  on  by  Staunton,  and  ashamed 
of  their  recent  flight,  dashed  forward  against  the  enemy.  A 
fight  of  some  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes  ensued,  in  which  the 
militia  stood  up  against  the  British  regulars  without  flinching. 
The  right  flank  of  the  Americans  came  up  ;  the  Indians  raised 
the  war-whoop  and  opened  fire.  Colonel  Bishop  was  severely 
wounded,  and  fell  from  his  horse  ;  his  men  became  demoral- 
ized, and  when  the  regulars  appeared  in  front,  the  enemy  fled 
towards  the  water's  edge.  The  whole  American  force  then 
pressed  forward  together,  the  Indians  making  the  forest  resound 


with  Scivage  yells.  The  chief,  Younc^  ^i'li^-  'intl  another  warrior 
were  wounded.  Part  of  the  British  wounded  were  carried  off, 
but  part  were  left  on  the  field. 

.\t  the  Black  Rock  landing,  the  British  rallied,  but  on  the 
approach  of  the  Americans,  hastily  retreated  into  some  boats 
which  they  found  there,  leaving  fifteen  prisoners  in  the  hands 
of  their  pursuers.  Many  were  killed  and  wounded  after  enter- 
ing the  boats,  but  tlie  chief  loss  fell  on  the  last  one.  It  contained 
sixty  men  and  most  of  the  officers,  including  Colonel  Bishop, 
who,  notwithstanding  his  wounds,  had  insisted  on  remaining  to 
the  last.  The  whole  American  force  came  up  to  the  bank  and 
opened  fire  on  this  boat  inflicting  terrible  injury.  Two  or  three 
Indians  even  sprang  into  the  water,  siezed  the  boat  by  the  gun- 
wale and  endeavored  to  direct  it  ashore,  but  were  compelled 
to  desist  by  the  fire  of  their  friends  in  the  rear.  Captain 
Saunders,  of  the  British  Forty-first,  was  severely  wounded  at 
the  water's  edge  and  left  a  prisoner.  Colonel  Bishop  was  pierced 
with  several  bullets,  receiving  wounds  of  which  he  died,  and 
several  other  ofificers  were  killed  or  wounded.  The  enemy  were 
said  at  the  time  to  have  acknowledged  a  total  loss  in  killed, 
wounded  and  prisoners  of  nearly  a  hundred.  The  Americans 
lost  three  killed  and  seven  wounded. 

The  militia  were  in  the  front  of  the  fray  throughout,  and 
gallanth"  retrieved  their  tarnished  reputation.  Their  good 
conduct  was  doubtless  due  largely  to  the  example  of  Adjutant 
Staunton,  who  also  distinguished  himself  on  several  other  oc- 
casions in  tlie  war  of  1812.  All  accounts  speak  in  high  terms 
of  the  conduct  of  the  Seneca  warriors.  iMthough  the  numbers 
engaged  in  this  affair  were  not  large,  it  was  cjuite  an  exciting 
conflict,  and  is  of  importance  as  showing  the  value  of  one  or 
two  resolute  ofificers,  in  rallying  and  inspiriting  a  body  of  raw 
troops,  utterly  demoralized  by  less  ef^cient  leadership. 

Just  before  this  event.  General  Dearborn  had  resigned  the 
chief  command  on  the  northern  frontier,  and  soon  after  General 
Wilkinson  was  appointed  in  his  ])lace.  General  Porter  and 
Colonel  Chapin  gathered  up  another  bod\'  of  volunteers  and 
went  down  to  Fort  (ieorge,  taking  a  hundred  or  so  Indians 
with  them. 

A  plan  was  concerted  to  cut  off  one  of  the  enemy's  pickets 


on  the  morning  of  the  17th  of  August,  Chapin  and  Porter  went 
out  west  from  Fort  George  for  the  purpose.  A  heavy  rain  re- 
tarded their  progress,  so  the  picket  was  not  captured,  but  a  fight 
ensued  in  wliich  the  volunteers  and  Indians  captured  sixteen 
prisoners  and  killed  a  considerable  number  of  the  enemy  who 
were  left  on  the  field.  Chapin  and  his  volunteers  and  most  of 
the  Indians  continued  to  operate  in  the  vicinity  of  Fort  George 
until  the  7th  of  September,  when  they  returned  to  Buffalo. 

A  few  days  later  came  the  news  of  "  Perry's  Victory"  on 
Lake  Erie,  which  caused  great  rejoicing  among  the  people. 
Immediately  succeeding  Perry's  victory,  came  that  of  Harrison 
over  Proctor  and  Tecumseh.  It  being  supposed  that  the  upper 
peninsula  was  pretty  well  cleared  of  foes,  General  Wilkinson's 
forces  were  nearly  all  withdrawn  to  the  lower  end  of  Lake 

The  force  left  behind  by  Wilkinson,  was  under  the  command 
of  Gen.  George  McClure,  of  Steuben  county,  a  brigadier- 
general  of  the  New  York  militia,  who  made  his  headquarters 
at  Fort  George.  On  the  6th  of  October,  Colonel  Chapin  had  an 
all-day  skirmish  with  some  British  outposts  near  Fort  George. 

On  the  24th  of  October,  Harrison  and  Perry  with  their  vic- 
torious army  and  fleet,  came  down  the  lake  to  Buffalo.  On 
the  25th  a  dinner  was  given  to  the  two  commanders  at  "  Pome- 
roy's  Eagle."  The  next  day  Harrison  and  his  army  crossed 
the  river  and  went  down  to  Fort  George  and  thence  in  a  short 
time  to  Sackett's  Harbor.  General  McClure  was  thus  left  with 
about  a  thousand  militia,  two  hundred  and  fifty  Indians  and 
sixty  regulars.  The  terms  of  the  militia  were  fast  expiring,  and 
they  would  not  stay  a  day  longer. 

Another  draft  was  ordered  about  the  middle  of  November 
of  six  hundred  men  from  Hopkins'  brigade,  under  Lieutenant 
Colonel  Warren.  These  marched  to  Fort  George  and  remained 
nearly  a  month. 

When  the  term  of  Warren's  regiment  was  about  to  expire, 
McClure  determined  to  abandon  Fort  George.  In  this  he  was 
unquestionably  justifiable,  as  his  remaining  force  would  have 
been  entirely  inadequate  to  defend  it.  But  he,  at  the  same 
time,  took  a  step  cruel  in  itself  and  fraught  with  woe 
to    the    American  frontier.     He    ordered  the  burning  of    the 

CAl'TURK    OK    FDRl"    \lA(,.\kA. 


lloun'sliin^"  xilla^c  of  Newark,  situated  close  to  the  fort  aiul 
containin<^  about  one  hundred  and  fift\'  liouses.  'Ilie  inhabit- 
ants were  turned  out  in  the  snow,  and  the  torch  ai)j)hed  to 
every  buildini;"  in  tlie  phice.  McClure  nio\ed  tlie  remnant  of 
his  force  across  tlie  river,  closely  ])ressed  b}- the  enrai;ed  British, 
leavin<^  Fort  Niagara  defended  by  a  hundred  and  fift)'  ret^ulars, 
he  called  two  hundred  others  from  Canandaigua  to  Buffalo 
On  the  morning  of  December  19th,  h\^rt  Niagara  was  surprised 
and  captured  by  a  small  British  force  through  the  criminal 
negligence  of  its  commander,  who  was  at  his  residence  four 
miles  away. 

Before  leaving  Buffalo,  McCIure  called  out  the  men  of  Gen- 
esee, Niagara  and  Chautauqua  counties  en  masse,  and  on  arriving 
at  Batavia,  on  the  22d  of  December,  he  turned  over  the  com- 
mand to  Major  General  Hall,  the  commander  of  this  division 
of  militia.  That  ofificer  who  manifested  no  lack  of  zeal, 
sent  forward  all  the  troops  he  could  raise  and  proceeded  to  Buf- 
falo himself,  on  the  25th,  leaving  McClure  to  organize  and  for- 
ward r  e  i  n  f  o  re  e  m  e  n  t  s . 



Number  of  Troops — The  Enemy's  Approach — Movements  in  Defense — Attack 
and  Repulse — Battle  of  Black  Rock — The  Retreat  — The  Flight — Univer- 
sal Confusion — The  Indians — Chapin's  Negotiation — Mrs.  St.  John — The 
Village  in  Flames  -  Murder  of  Mrs.  Lovejoy — The  Enemy  Retire  -  The 
Slain — Calvin  Cary^McClure  to  Blame — The  Flight  in  the  Country — 
The  Buffalo  Road— The  Big  Tree  Road— Exaggerated  Reports — Return 
of  the  British- — More  Burning — The  Scene  at  Reese's — Building  Relief. 

On  the  27th  of  December,  General  Hall  reviewed  the  forces 
at  Buffalo  and  Black  Rock,  \\hich  were  thus  described  in  his 
report.  At  Buffalo  there  were  a  hundred  and  twenty-nine 
mounted  volunteers  under  Colonel  Broughton,  of  Ontario 
county,  four  hundred  and  thirty-three  Ontario  county  volun- 
teers under  Colonel  Blakeslie,  one  hundred  and  thirty-six  Buf- 
falo militia  under  Colonel  Chapin,  ninety-seven  Canadian  vol- 
unteers under  Colonel  Mallory,  and  three  hundred  and  eighty- 
two  Genesee  county  militia  under  Major  Adams.  At  Black 
Rock  there  were  three  hundred  and  eighty-two  under  Colonel 
Warren  and  Churchill,  thirty-seven  mounted  men  under  Captain 
Ransom,  eighty-three  Indians  under  Colonel  Granger,  one  piece 
of  field  artillery  under  Lieutenant  Seeley.  The  aggregate 
force  at  both  places  according  to  the  re[)ort  was  about  seven- 
teen hundred.  Colonel  Warren  lived  in  Aurora  and  his  regi- 
ment was  from  the  south  towns  of  Erie  county.  On  the  29th, 
there  arrived  a  regiment  of  Chautaucjua  count}'  militia  under  Col- 
onel McMahan,  numbering  about  three  hundred  men,  bringing 
the  aggregate  force  to  about  tw^o  thousand. 

Besides  Seeley's  field-piece,  there  were  seven  other  cannon 
at  the  two  villages,  but  none  of  them  mounted  on  carriages. 
Several  of  them  were  in  a  battery  at  the  top  of  the  hill  over- 
looking Black  Rock,  and  with  them  was  May  Dudley  with  a 
part  of  Warren's  regiment  ;  the  rest,  \\  ith  Churchill's  detach- 
ment, were  in  the  Village  of  Black  Rock.  >\bout  midnight  of 
the   29th,  a  detachment  of  the  enemy  landed   a  little    below 

r.HNKRAi,  iiAi.i,  ()KI)i;rs  ax  at  tack.  75 

Scajaquada  creek.  The  news  was  at  <Jiice  carried  to  Colonels 
Warren  antl  Cluircliill  at  IMack  Rock,  and  tlien  to  (ieneral  Hail 
at  Buffalo.  Tiie  i^eneral  ordered  out  his  men,  but,fearinir  tliat 
the  enemy's  movement  was  a  feint,  and  that  he  would  land  in 
force  above  Buffalo  and  march  down,  he  did  not  send  an\-  con- 
siderable force  down  the  river.  Colonels  Warren  and  Churchill 
endeavored  to  reach  Scajaquada  creek  before  the  invaders  and 
hold  it  ai^ainst  them,  but  the  J-^ritish  arri\'ed  there  first  and  got 
possession  of  the  bridge.  Warren  and  Churchill  deemed  it 
impracticable  to  dislodge  the  enemy  in  the  darkness  but  deter- 
mined to  take  a  position  at  a  small  run  between  the  village  and 
the  bridge,  and  there  oppose  his  further  advance.  The  enemy 
did  not  advance,  but  in  the  course  of  an  hour  or  so  Colonel 
Chapin  arri\-ed  with  a  body  of  mounted  men,  and  delivered 
General  Hall's  order  that  they  should  immediately  make  an 
attack.  Chapin  led  the  way,  Warren  and  Churchill  followed. 
All  was  silent  as  death.  Suddenly  from  the  darkness  flashed 
a  volley  of  musketry  almost  in  the  faces  of  the  head  of  the 
column.  They  instantly  broke  and  fled,  rushing  back  through 
the  ranks  of  Warren's  men,  who  became  utterly  demoralized 
withcHit  receiving  a  shot.  As  the  horsemen  stampeded  through 
them  they  broke  up,  scattering  through  the  woods  or  retreat- 
ing toward  Buffalo.  Warren  retired  to  the  main  battery  to 
endea\'or  to  ralh'  some  of  the  fugitives  ;  Churchill,  with  at 
least  part  of  his  men,  remained  below  the  village.  When 
General  Hall  received  news  of  this  failure,  he  ordered  Major 
Adams,  with  his  Genesee  militia,  to  march  against  the  enemy. 
This  movement  was  equally  futile.  The  general  then  ordered 
Colonel  Blakeslie,  with  his  Ontario  County  militia  to  ach'ance 
to  the  attack.  Hall  then  gathered  his  remaining  forces  and 
started  for  Black  Rock.  .Vs  he  approached  that  village  the 
day  began  to  dawn,  and  he  discovered  the  enemy's  boats  cross- 
ing the  river  in  the  direction  of  General  Porter's  house. 
Blakeslie's  command  was  ordered  to  meet  the  approaching 
force  at  the  water's  edge.  That  force  consisted  of  the  Ro}'al 
Scots  under  Colonel  Gordon,  and  was  estimated  at  four  hun- 
dred men.  The  invasion  was  under  the  general  superintendence 
of  Lieutenant-General  Drummond,  but  the  troops  were  under 
the  immediate  command  of  Major-General  Riall.    The  artillery 


in  battery  fired  on  them  as  they  advanced,  and  Blakeshe's 
men  opened  fire  when  they  landed.  They  returned  it,  and  a 
battery  on  the  other  side  sent  shells  and  balls  over  their  heads 
among  the  Americans.  For  half  an  hour,  the  forest  and  river- 
side re-echoed  with  the  thunder  of  artillery  and  ceaseless  rattle 
of  small  arms. 

All  accounts  agree  that  Blakeshe's  men  did  the  most  of  the 
fighting,  and  sustained  the  attack  of  the  Ro\'al  Scots  with  con- 
siderable firmness.  Had  all  the  regiments  been  kept  together, 
and  met  the  enemy  at  his  landing  the  result  might  have  been 
far  different. 

Meanwhile,  the  hostile  force  at  Scajaquada  creek,  consisting 
of  regulars  and  Indians,  moved  up  the  river,  easily  dispersing 
Churchill's  meagre  force,  and  marched  against  Blakeshe's  right. 
It  is  not  believed  there  were  then  over  six  hundred  men  in  our 
ranks,  and  these  thus  assailed  on  two  sides  were  entirely  unable 
to  maintain  their  ground.  Large  numbers  were  already  scat- 
tered through  the  woods  toward  home,  when  General  Hall 
ordered  a  retreat,  hoping  to  make  another  stand  at  the  edge  of 
Buffalo.  This,  as  might  be  supposed,  was  utterly  hopeless  ; 
once  the  men  got  to  running,  there  were  few  that  thought  of 
anything  else.  In  a  few  moments  all  were  in  utter  route.  A 
part  hurried  towards  Buffalo  ;  others  rushed  along  the  Guide- 
board  road  (North  street)  to  Hodge's  tavern,  and  thence  took 
the  Williamsville  road,  while  many  fled  through  the  woods 
without  regard  to  roads  of  any  kind.  Fugitives  were  rushing 
through  Buffalo  and  striking  out  for  Williamsville,  Willink  or 
Hamburgh.  The  Buffalo  volunteers  came  hurrying  up  to  take 
care  of  their  families.  They  declared  that  the  Americans  were 
whipped,  that  the  British  were  marching  on  the  town,  and, 
most  terrible  of  all,  that  the  Indians  were  coming.  Then  all 
was  confusion  and  dismay.  Teams  w^ere  at  a  premium  ;  horses, 
o.xen,  sleighs,  sleds,  wagons,  carts — nearly  everything  that  had 
feet,  wheels  or  runners,  were  pressed  into  service.  Many  who 
neither  had  nor  could  obtain  teams,  set  forth  on  foot.  Men, 
women  and  children  by  the  score  were  seen  hastening  through 
the  light  snow  and  half-frozen  mud  in  the  bitter  morning  air 
up  Main  street,  or  out  Seneca,  or  up  the  lake  shore. 

A  crowd  of  teams  and  foot-men,  and    foot-women  too,  were 

THE    FLAG    OF   TRUCE.  T"] 

hurr\-in<4"  up  Main  street,  when  suddenlx'  tlie  head  of  a  cohinm 
stopped  and  sury;ed  back  on  the  rear.  "  I'he  Indians  I"  was  the 
cr\-  from  the  front,  "they  are  coming"  up  the  Guide-board  road." 
\\\.\c\<  down  Main  street  rolled  the  tide.  Teams  were  urged  to 
their  utmost  speed  and  people  on  foot  did  their  best  to  keep 
u[j  with  them.  Turning  down  Seneca  street,  the  crowd  sped 
on,  some  going  straight  to  the  Indian  village  and  thence  across 
the  reservation  to  Willink,  others  making  for  I'ratt's  ferry  and 
thence  up  the  beach  to  Hamburg. 

There  was  good  reason  for  the  sudden  retreat  of  the  Main 
street  fugitives.  While  the  main  bod\'  of  the  enem\'  marched 
along  Niagara  street,  the  Indians  on  the  left  pressed  up  the 
"Guide-board  road"  (North  street).  Here  it  was  that  Job 
Hoysington,  a  resolute  volunteer,  said  to  his  comrades,  with 
whom  he  was  retreating,  that  he  would  have  one  more  shot  at 
the  red-skins,  and  in  spite  of  remonstrance  waited  for  that  pur- 
pose. He  doubtless  got  a  shot  at  them,  but  they  got  a  shot  at 
him  too,  as  he  was  found  with  a  bullet  through  his  brain.  His 
wife  waited  for  her  husband's  return  at  their  residence  at  the 
corner  of  Main  and  Utica  streets,  and  finally  set  out  on  foot 
with  her  children.  She  was  soon  overtaken  by  two  cavalrymen, 
who  took  two  of  the  little  ones  on  their  horses.  For  a  long  time 
she  did  not  hear  of  them,  but  at  length  discovered  them,  one  in 
Clarence  and  one  in  Genesee  county.  (Many  interesting  inci- 
dents of  a  similar  nature  might  be  mentioned,  but  for  want  of 
space  they  are  omitted.) 

As  the  British  came  u[)  Niagara  street,  se\'eral  men,  appar- 
ently without  any  organization,  manned  an  old  twelve-pounder 
mounted  on  a  pair  of  trucks  at  the  junction  of  Main  and  Niag- 
ara streets,  two  ^^\■  three  shots  were  fired  and  then  it  was  dis- 

Colonel  Chai)in  then  \\ent  forward  with  a  white  handkerchief 
tied  to  his  cane,  as  a  flag  of  truce,  asked  a  halt,  which  was 
granted,  and  began  a  parley.  In  a  statement  published  by 
himself  shortly  after,  he  speaks  of  "attempting  a  negotiation," 
claiming  that  while  this  was  going  on  the  people  had  a  chance 
to  escape. 

The  Indians  came  to  Main  street    before   the   I^ritish  troops 
which  were  draw  n  up  near  the  corner  of  Morgan,  Mohawk  and 


Niagara  streets.  The  savages  had  apparent!}-  full  license  to  do 
what  the\-  pleased  in  the  way  of  plundering,  though  some 
British  officers  went  ahead  and  had  the  casks  of  liquor  .stove  in 
to  prevent  their  red  allies  from  getting  entirely  beyond  control. 

Presently  flames  burst  forth  from  the  houses  in  the  main  part 
of  the  village  near  the  corner  of  Main  and  Seneca  .streets.  A 
Lieutenant  with  a  squad  of  men  went  from  house  to  house 
applying  the  torch.  By  3  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  all  of  the 
lately  flourishing  village  of  Buffalo,  save  some  six  or  eight 
structures,  was  smouldering  in  ashes.  What  few  houses  there 
were  at  Black  Rock  were  likewise  destroyed,  and  the  enemy 
then  retired  across  the  river.  The  foe  took  with  them  about 
ninety  prisoners,  of  whom  eleven  were  wounded.  Forty  of  the 
ninety  were  from  Blakeslie's  regiment.  Besides  these  a  con- 
siderable number  of  American  wounded  were  able  to  escape — 
probably  fift}'  or  sixt}-.  Forty  or  fifty  were  killed  ;  most  of 
them  lay  on  the  field  of  battle,  but  some  were  scattered  through 
the  upper  part  of  the  village.  Among  the  slain  the  officer  of 
the  highest  rank  was  Colonel  Boughton,  of  Avon.  In  Erie 
county,  reckoning  according  to  present  division  of  towns,  the 
killed  were  Job  Noysington,  John  Roop,  Samuel  Holmes,  John 
Trsket,  James  Nesbet,  Robert  Franklin  (colored),  Mr.  Myers 
and  Mr.  Lovejoy,  of  Buffalo  ;  Robert  Nilland,  Adam  Lawfer, 
of  Black  Rock  ;  Jacob  Vantine,  Jr.,  of  Clarence  ;  Moses  Fenno, 
of  Alden  ;  Israel  Reed,  of  Aurora;  Newman  Baker,  Parle}^ 
Moffat  and  William  Cheeseman,  of  Hamburgh  and  Ham- 
burgh;  Maj.  William  C.  Dudley,  and  probably  Peter  HofTman, 
of  Evans,  and  Calvin  Cary,  of  Boston. 

Calvin  Cary,  oldest  son  of  the  pioneer  Deacon  Richard  Cary, 
though  only  twenty-one  years  of  age,  was  a  man  of  gigantic 
stature  and  herculean  strength,  weighing  nearly  three  hundred 
pounds.  Pursued  by  three  Indians,  he  shot  one  dead,  killed 
another  with  his  clubbed  musket,  but  was  shot,  tomahawked 
and  scalped  b}-  the  third.  His  broken  musket,  which  was  found 
by  his  side  and  testified  to  his  \'alor,  is  still  preserved  b)'  his 

During  all  that  day  (the  30th  of  December),  the  road  through 
Williamsville  and  Clarence  was  crowded  with  a  hurrying  and 
heteroijcnous    multitude  —  bands    of    militiamen,    families    in 


sleighs,  women  dri\in^  ox-sleds,  men  in  watj^ons,  cavalrymen  on 
horseback,  women  on  foot  bearing  infants  in  their  arms  and 
attended  by  crying-  children — all  animated  by  a  single  thought, 
to  escape  from  the  enemy  and  especially  from  the  dreaded 

On  the  Big  Tree  road  (running  cast  through  Hamburg  and 
Aurora  to  the  Genesee  river)  the  scene  was  still  more  diversi- 
fied, for  in  addition  to  the  mixed  multitude  which  poured  along 
the  northern  route,  was  the  whole  bod}'  of  Indians  from  the 
Ruffalo  reservation.  Mr.  Turner,  the  author  of  the  "  Histor\- 
of  the  Holland  Purchase,"  then  a  youth  residing  in  Sheldon, 
Wyoming  county,  gives  the  following  picture  of  the  scene  from 
personal  recollection  : 

"  An  ox-sled  would  come  along  bearing  wounded  soldiers, 
whose  companions  had  perhaps  pressed  the  slow  team  into  their 
service  ;  another  \\-ith  the  family  of  a  settler,  a  few  household 
goods  that  had  been  hustled  upon  it,  and  one,  two  or  three 
wearied  females  from  Buffalo,  wdio  had  begged  the  privilege  of 
a  ride  and  the  rest  that  it  afforded  ;  then  a  remnant  of  some 
dispersed  corps  of  militia  with  the  arms  they  had  neglected  to 
use  ;  then  squads  and  families  of  Indians,  on  foot  and  on  pon- 
ies, the  squaw  with  her  papoose  on  her  back,  and  a  bevy  of 
juvenile  Senecas  in  her  train.  Bread,  meats  and  drinks  soon 
\'anished  from  the  log  taverns  on  the  routes,  and  fleeing  set- 
tlers divided  their  scanty  stores  with  the  almost  famished  that 
came  from  the  frontiers." 

When  it  was  found  that  the  enemy  had  retired,  curiosit}- 
induced  many  men   from  the  nearest  towns  to  visit  the  ruins. 

Others  went  to  render  what  assistance  the\-  could,  and  still 
others,  alas,  to  take  advantage  of  the  unixersal  confusion  and 
purloin  whatever  might  have  been  left  by  the  invaders.  A  few- 
went  on  the  31st  of  December,  more  on  the  ist  of  Januar\-. 
On  the  former  day  everything  was  quiet,  (^n  the  latter,  as 
the  few  remaining  citizx-ns  and  some  fron-i  the  country  were 
staring  at  the  ghastly  ruins,  a  detachment  of  the  enemy  sud- 
denl}-  appeared,  making  prisoners  of  most  of  them.  They  then 
fired  all  the  remaining  buildings  except  the  jail,  which  would 
not  burn,  Reese's  blacksmith  shop  and  Mrs.  St.  John's  cottage. 

A  day  or  two  after  the  second  raid  the  people  assembled  and 


picked  up  the  dead  bodies  and  brou<^ht  them  to  Reese's  bhick- 
smith  shop.  The  number  is  variously  stated,  but  the  most 
careful  account  makes  it  forty-two  killed,  besides  some  who 
were  not  found  (Hoysington  was  not  found  until  Spring),  and 
some  prominent  persons  like  Colonel  Boughton,  who  were  taken 
care  of  earlier.  At  the  shop  they  were  laid  in  rows,  a  ghastly 
display,  all  being  frozen  stiff  and  most  of  them  stripped  and 
scalped.  After  those  belonging  in  the  vicinit}'  had  been  taken 
away  by  their  friends,  the  rest  were  deposited  in  a  single  large 
grave  in  the  old  burying  ground  on  Franklin  Square  (where  the 
city  and  county  buildings  now  are),  covered  only  with  boards, 
so  they  could  be  easily  examined  and  taken  away. 

On  the  6th  of  January,  just  a  week  after  the  main  conflagra- 
tion, William  Hodge  brought  his  family  back,  it  being  the  first 
that  returned ;  Pomeroy  came  immediately  afterwards  and 
raised  the  first  building  in  the  new  Village  of  Buffalo.  Soldiers 
were  stationed  in  the  village  and  as  time  wore  on  people  began 
to  feel  more  safe  ;  but  the  Winter  was  one  of  intense  excite- 
ment and  distress.  Twice  during  the  Winter,  small  squads  of 
the  enemy  crossed  the  river  but  were  driven  back  by  the 
soldiers  and  citizens  without  much  fighting.  Most  of  the 
people  who  came  back  had  nothing  to  live  on  save  what  was 
issued  to  them  by  the  commissary  department  of  the  army. 
The  suffering  would  have  been  even  greater  than  it  was  had 
not  prompt  measures  of  relief  been  taken  by  the  public  author- 
ities and  citizens  of  more  fortunate  localities.  The  legislature 
voted  $40,000  in  aid  of  the  devastated  district,  besides  $5,000 
to  the  Tuscarora  Indians,  and  $5,000  to  residents  of  Canada, 
driven  out  on  account  of  their  friendship  for  the  United  States. 
The  city  of  Albany  voted  $1,000,  and  the  city  of  New  York 
$3,000.  The  citizens  of  Canandaigua  appointed  a  committee 
of  relief  who  raised  a  considerable  amount  there  and  sent  com- 
munications soliciting  aid  to  all  the  country  eastward.  They 
were  promptly  responded  to,  and  liberal  contributions  raised 
throughout  the  state.  With  this  aid,  and  that  of  the  Commis- 
sary department,  and  the  assistance  of  personal  friends,  those 
who  remained  on  the  frontier  managed  to  live  through  the 
woeful  Winter. 

AUKi\Ai.  <)i'   \viMn:i.i)  scorr.  8i 

THE    CAMPAIGN    OF    1814. 

Soldiers'  Graves — Scott  and  Brown  — Discipline  at  Buffalo— The  Death  Penalty — 
Capture  of  Fort  Erie — Approaching  Chippewa — An  Indian  Battle — A 
Retreat — \'ictory — Scalps — Advance  to  Fort  George — Return— Lundy's 
Lane — Retreat  to  Fort  Eric — Bridgewater — Battle  of  Conjockety  Creek — 
Assault  on  Fort  Erie — The  Explosion — Call  for  Volunteers— The  Res- 
ponse—  The  Sortie  —  Gallantry  of  the  Volunteers — General  Porter 
—  Peace. 

As  Spring  approached,  the  frontier  began  to  revive.  More 
troop.s  appeared,  and  their  presence  caused  the  paying  out  of 
considerable  sums  of  money  among  the  inhabitants.  There 
was  a  ready  market  for  produce  at  large  prices. 

Williamsville  was  the  rendezvous  for  the  troops.  There  was 
a  long  row  of  barracks,  parallel  with  the  main  street  of  that 
village  and  a  short  distance  north  of  it,  and  others  used  as  a 
hospital,  a  mile  or  so  up  the  F],leven-Mile  creek. 

Near  these  latter,  and  close  beside  the  murmuring  waters  of 
the  stream,  rest  several  scores  of  soldiers  who  died  in  that 
hospital,  all  unknown,  their  almost  imperceptible  graves 
marked  onl}'  by  a  row  of  ma])les,  long  since  planted  b)'  some 
reverent  hand. 

On  the  lOth  of  .April  there  arrived  on  the  frontier  a  state!}' 
young  warrior,  whose  presence  was  alread)'  considered  a  har- 
binger of  victory,  and  whose  shoulders  had  latel)'  been  adorned 
by  the  epaulets  of  a  brigadier-general.  This  was  W'infield 
Scott,  then  thirt\'  \-ears  old,  and  the  hcau  ideal  of  a  gallant 

Immediatel}-  afterwards  came  his  superior  officer,  Major- 
General  Brown,  who  had  been  rapidl}'  advanced  to  the  highest 
rank,  on  the  strength  of  the  vigor  and  skill  he  had  shown  as  a 
commander  at  the  foot  of  Lake  Ontario. 

Bodies  of  regular  troops  and  some  \olunteers  continued  to 
concentrate  at  Williamsville  and  Buffalo.  Scott  removed  his 
headquarters  to  the  latter  place  toward  the  last  of  May,  where 


the  troops  were  encamped  amid  the  ruins.  Great  efforts  were 
made  to  introduce  rigid  discipHnc.  The  men  were  under  con- 
.stant  drill,  and  desertion  was  mercilessly  punished. 

Among  the  reminiscences  of  that  era,  no  scene  appears  to 
have  been  more  vividly  impressed  on  the  minds  of  the  relators 
than  the  one  which  was  displayed  near  the  present  corner  of 
Mar}'land  and  Sixth  streets,  on  the   4th  of  June,  18 14. 

I'^ive  men,  con\-icted  of  desertion,  knelt  ^\'ith  bandaged  eyes 
and  pinioned  arms,  each  with  an  open  coffin  before  him  and  a 
new-made  grave  behind  him. 

Twenty  paces  in  front  stood  a  platoon  of  men,  detailed  to 
inflict  the  supreme  penalty  of  military  law.  The  whole  arm}^ 
was  drawn  up  on  three  sides  in  a  hollow  square,  to  witness  the 
execution,  the  artillerymen  standing  by  their  lighted  matches, 
ready  to  suppress  a  possible  mutiny,  while  Generals  Brown, 
Scott  and  Ripley  sat  upon  their  horses,  surrounded  by  their 
brilliant  staffs,  looking  sternly  on  the  scene.  Then  the 
firing  party  did  their  deadly  work,  four  men  fell  in  their  coffins 
or  their  graves,  but  one  youth  under  twenty-one  was  unhurt. 
He  sprang  up,  wrenched  loose  his  pinioned  arms,  and  tore  the 
bandage  from  his  eyes.  Two  men  advanced  to  extinguish  the 
last  remains  of  life  in  those  who  had  fallen. 

He  supposed  they  were  about  to  dispatch  him,  and  fell 
fainting  to  the  ground. 

He  was  taken  away  without  further  injury.  Doubtless  it 
had  been  determined  to  spare  him  on  account  of  his  \'outh, 
and  therefore  his  supposed  executioners  had  been  furnished 
with  unloaded  muskets. 

The  work  of  preparation  went  forward  not  very  rapidl}-. 
On  the  28th  of  June  a  statement  appeared  in  the  Gazette  that 
the  rumors  of  an  immediate  advance  which  had  been  in  circula- 
tion were  not  true,  and  that  the  transportation  of  the  army 
was  not  ready.  This  was  not  inserted  by  order,  for  on  the  3rd 
of  Jul\-  the  advance  began.  Brown's  force  consisted  of  two 
brigades  of  regulars,  under  Generals  Scott  and  Ripley,  and  one 
of  volunteers  under  General  Porter.  This  was  composed  of 
five  hundred  I'enns)-lvanians,  six  hundred  New  York  xolun- 
teers,  all  of  whom  had  not  arrived  when  the  movement  began, 
and  near!)'  six  hundred  Indians. 

SliRRKNDKR    Ol'     llli:    FORT.  J^3 

Six  huiulrcd  was  almost  the  entire  strength  of  the  Six 
Nations,  and  these  liad  been  L^atliered  from  all  reser\'ations  in 
Western  New  \'ork.  It  is  i)robable  that  the  i,n-eat  a^c  of  Far- 
mer's Brother  prevented  him  from  crossini^.  Actinij^  as  a  pri- 
\ate  in  the  ranks  was  Red  Jacket,  the  i)rincii)al  and  leader  of 
the  Six  Nations,  who,  notwitlistandin^^  the  timidity  usually 
attributed'  to  him,  was  unwilling'  to  stay  behind  Avhile""his 
c<Hmtr}-men  were  winning;'  i^"lor\'  on  the  field  of  carnage. 
Col.  Robert  P'lemini;-  was  (|uartermaster  of  this  peculiar  bat- 

Fort  Erie  was  garrisoned  b}-  a  hundred  and  se\'enty  l^ritish 
soldiers.  The  main  bod}'  of  the  enemy  was  at  Chippewa,  two 
miles  above  the  falls  and  eighteen  miles  below  the  fort. 

On  the  2nd  of  July,  Brown,  Scott  and  Porter  reconnoitred 
Fort  P^rie  and  concerted  the  plan  of  attack.  Riple}',  with  a 
part  of  his  brigade,  was  to  embark  at  Buffalo  in  the  night  and 
land  a  mile  up  the  lake  from  the  fort.  Scott,  witli  his  brigade, 
was  to  cross  from  l^lack  Rock,  and  land  a  mile  below  Fort  Erie, 
which,  in  the  morning,  both  brigades  were  to  invest  and 

Scott  and  Ripley  both  started  at  the  time  appointed,  but  as 
in  most  military  operations  depending  on  concert  of  action  be- 
tween separate  corps,  there  was  a  difificulty  not  foreseen.  Rip- 
ley's pilot  was  misled  b\-  a  fog  on  the  lake  and  his  command 
did  not  land  until  several  hours  past  time.  Scott,  however, 
cro.s.sed  promiUl}-  and  was  able  to  invest  the  fort  with  his  brigade 
alone.  At  sunrise  the  artillery  and  Indians  crossed  at  the  fer- 
ry, and  after  some  parle>-ing  the  fort  surrendered,  without 
awaiting  an  attack. 

The  afternoon  of  the  ^rtl,  Scott  marchetl  sexeral  miles  down 
the  Niagara,  and  on  the  morning  of  the  4th,  drove  in  the 
enemy's  advanced  posts.  He  was  followed  by  Brown  and  Rip- 
ley, and  both  brigades  established  themselves  on  the  south  side 
of  Street's  creek,  two  miles  south  of  Chippewa.  On  the  left, 
three-fourths  of  a  mile  from  Niagara,  was  a  dense  and  some- 
what swampy  forest  on  both  sides  of  Street's  creek,  extending 
to  within  three-fourths  of  a  mile  of  Chippewa  creek,  which  was 
bordered  for  that  purpose  by  a  level  cleared  plain.  On  the 
north  side  of  that  creek,  the  British  arm\'la\-  inlrcnclud.       The 


two  armies  were  concealed  from  each  other's  sight  by  a  narrow 
strip  of  woodhind,  reaching  from  the  main  forest  to  ^\•ithin 
a  hundred  yards  of  the  riv^er  bank. 

During  the  night  of  the  4th,  the  Americans  were  much  an- 
noyed by  Indians  and  Canadians  lurking  in  the  forest,  who 
drove  in  their  pickets  and  threatened  their  flanks. 

Late  that  night  General  Porter  crossed  the  river  with  his 
Indians  and  Pennsylvanians,  and  in  the  morning  marched  to- 
ward Chippewa.  He  was  met  on  the  road  by  General  Brown, 
who  spoke  of  the  manner  in  which  he  had  been  annoyed  by 
lurkers  in  the  forest,  and  proposed  that  Porter  should  dri\'e 
them  out,  declaring  confidently  that  there  would  be  no 
British  regulars  south  of  the  Chippewa  that  da)\  Still,  he  said, 
he  would  order  Scott  to  occupy  the  open  ground  beyond 
Street's  creek  in  support  of  Porter.  The  latter  accepted  the 
proposition  of  his  chief,  and  at  three  o'clock  started  to  put  it 
in  execution. 

The  Indians  assumed  their  usual  full  battle-dress,  of  mantur- 
nipline,  breech-clout,  moccasins,  feathers  and  paint,  and  the  war- 
chiefs  then  proceeded  to  elect  a  leader.  Their  choice  fell  on 
Captain  Pollard,  a  veteran  of  Wyoming  and  man}^  other  fights. 

Porter  left  two  hundred  of  his  Pennsylvanians  in  camp,  think- 
ing their  presence  needless,  and  formed  the  other  three  hun- 
dred into  one  rank  on  the  open  ground,  half  a  mile  south  of 
Street's  creek,  their  left  resting  on  the  forest.  The  whole  five 
or  six  hundred  Indians  were  also  formed  in  one  rank  in  the 
woods,  their  right  reaching  to  the  left  of  the  whites.  General 
Porter  stationed  himself  between  the  two  wings  of  his  com- 
mand, with  Captain  Pollard  on  his  left.  He  was  also  attended 
by  two  or  three  stafT  ofTficers,  by  Hank  Johnson,  the  interpreter, 
and  by  several  regular  officers,  who  had  volunteered  to  see  the 
fun.  Ked  Jacket  was  on  the  extreme  left  of  the  Indian  line. 
A  company  of  regular  infantry  followed  as  a  reserve.  The  war- 
chiefs  took  their  places  twenty  yards  in  front  of  their  braves, 
and  a  few  scouts  were  sent  still  further  in  advance. 

Then,  at  a  given  signal,  the  whole  line  moved  forward,  the 
whites  marching  steadily  \\ith  shouldered  arms  on  the  plain,  the 
naked  Indians  gliding  through  the  forest  with  cat-like  treatl, 
their   bodies  bent   forward,  their  rifles  held   ready   for  instant 

rXDlAX    M.Wd'.UVRINC.  85 

use,  their  feathers  nocUlini;  at  every  step,  their  fierce  eyes 
llashiiiL;-  in  every  direction.  Suddenly  one  of  the  cliiefs  made 
a  sii,mal,  and  tlie  whole  line  of  painted  warriors  sank  to  the 
i^round  as  quickly  and  as  noiselessly  as  the  sons  of  Clan  Alpine 
at  the  command  of  Roderick  Dim.  This  manceuvre  was  a  jKirt 
of  their  primitive  tactics,  and  the  chiefs  rapidly  assembled  to 
consult  over  some  rei)ort  broui^ht  back  by  a  scout.  At  another 
sit;nal  the  warriors  spranc;-  up  and  the  feather-crested  line 
again  moved  through  the  forest.  The  manctuvre  was  repeated 
when  the  scouts  brought  back  word  that  the  enemy  was  await- 
ing them  on  the  north  bank  of  Street's  creek,  General  Porter 
was  informed  of  this  fact  and  made  some  slight  changes  in  his 
arrangements,  and  again  the  line  advanced  with  increased  speed. 

As  the  Indians  approached  the  creek,  they  received  the  fire 
of  a  force  of  British  Indians  and  Canadians  stationed  there. 
They  instantly  raised  a  war-whoop  that  resounded  far  over  the 
Niagara,  and  charged  at  the  top  of  their  speed.  The  foe  at 
once  fled.  The  Iroquois  dashed  through  the  little  stream  and 
bounded  after  them,  whooping,  yelling,  shooting,  cleaving  sculls 
and  tearing  off  scalps  like  so  many  demons.  Many  were 
overtaken,  but  few  captured.  Occasionally,  however,  a  Seneca 
or  Cayuga  would  seize  an  enemy,  unwind  his  maturnipline,  bind 
him  with  surprising  quickness  and  then  go  trotting  back  to  the 
rear,  holding  one  end  of  the  maturnip  as  a  man  might  lead  a 
horse  by  the  halter. 

Such  speed  and  bottom  were  displayed  by  the  Indians  that 
neither  the  regulars  nor  volunteers  were  able  to  keep  up  with 
them.  For  more  than  a  mile  the  pursuit  was  maintained  in  the 
words  of  General  Porter,   "  through  scenes  of  frightful  havoc." 

At  length  the  Indians  who  had  got  considerable  in  advance, 
emerged  upon  the  ojien  ground  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from 
Chippewa  creek,  where  they  were  received  with  a  tremendous 
fire  from  the  greater  part  of  the  British  regular  army,  draw-n  in 
line  of  battle  on  the  plain. 

It  looked  as  if  General  Riall  had  determined  to  attack  the 
Americans,  and  had  sent  forward  his  light  troops  to  bring  on  a 
battle,  expecting,  probably,  that  the  whole  American  force 
would  get  exhausted  in  pursuit,  and  become  an  easy  prey  to  his 
fresh  battalion. 

86  f]j-:ei\(;  ix   confusion. 

The  fact  that  the  pursuit  was  carried  on  by  the  American 
h'l^ht  troops  and  Indians  alone  broke  up,  and,  in  fact,  reversed 
this  programme.  The  warriors  c|uickl\'  fled  from  the  de-^truct- 
ive  fire  in  front. 

General  Porter,  supposing  that  it  came  from  the  force  they 
had  been  pursuing,  rallied  the  greater  part  of  them,  formed 
them  again  on  the  left  of  his  volunteers  and  moved  forward  to 
the  edge  of  the  woods.  Again  the  long  red-coated  battalions 
opened  fire. 

The  volunteers  stood  and  exchanged  two  or  three  volleys 
with  them,  but  when  the  enemy  dashed  forward  with  the  bay- 
onet, Porter,  seeing  nothing  of  Scott  with  the  supports,  gave 
the  order  to  retreat. 

Both  whites  and  Indians  fled  in  the  greatest  confusion.  On 
came  the  red-coats  at  their  utmost  speed,  supposing  they  had 
gained  another  easy  victory,  and  that  all  that  was  necessary 
was  to  catch  the  runaways. 

The  Indians  being  the  best  runners  and  unencumbered  with 
clothing,  got  ahead  in  the  retreat  as  they  had  in  the  advance, 
but  the  whites  did  their  best  to  keep  up  with  them.  The  flight 
continued  for  a  mile,  pursuers  as  well  as  pursued  becoming 
greatly  disorganized,  and  the  speed  of  the  fugitives  being  acceler- 
ated by  the  constant  bursting  of  shells  from  the  enemy's  artillery. 

Approaching  Street's  creek,  Scott's  brigade  was  found  just 
crossing  the  bridge  and  forming  line.  They  took  up  their  posi- 
tions with  the  greatest  coolness  under  the  fire  of  the  British 
artillery,  but  Porter  claimed  that  through  the  fault  of  either 
Scott  or  Brown,  they  were  very  much  behind  time. 

The  former  General  was  always  celebrated  for  his  prompt- 
ness, and  the  fault,  if  there  was  one,  was  probabh'  with  Brown. 
Perhaps  he  didn't  expect  Porter's  men  to  run  so  fast,  either 
going  or  coming. 

The  result,  however,  was  as  satisfactory-  as  if  this  precipitate 
retreat  had  been  planned  to  draw  forward  the  foe.  Ripley's 
brigade  was  at  once  sent  off  to  the  left,  through  the  woods,  to 
flank  the  enemy.  The  fugitives  as  they  ran  also  bore  to  the 
w  estward,  and  Scott's  fresh  battalion  came  into  line  in  perfect 
order,  making  somewhat  merry  over  the  haste  of  their  red  and 
white  comrades. 

TiiK  Kn.i.ED  AND  \V( )r M )i:i ).  87 

Some  of  ihc  Iiulians  had  taken  tlicir  sons,  from  twelve  to 
sixteen  years  old,  into  battle  to  initiate  them  in  the  business  of 
war.  One  of  these  careful  fathers  was  now  seen  running  at  his 
best  speed,  with  liis  son  on  his  shoulders.  Just  as  he  passed 
the  left  flank  of  Scott's  brigade,  near  where  the  General  and 
his  stafT  sat  on  their  horses,  superintending  the  formation  of 
the  line,  a  shell  burst  directly  over  the  head  of  the  panting  war- 
rior. "  Ugh,"  he  exclaimed  in  a  x'oice  of  terror,  bounding  sev- 
eral feet  from  the  ground.  As  he  came  down  he  fell  to  the 
earth,  and  the  lad  tumbled  off.  Springing  up,  the  older  Indian 
ran  on  at  still  greater  speed  than  before,  leaving  the  }'oungster 
to  pick  himself  up  and  scamper  away  as  best  he  might.  The 
scene  was  greeted  with  a  roar  of  laughter  by  the  young  ofificers 
around  Scott,  who  rebuked  them  sharply  for  their  levity. 

In  a  few  moments  they  had  plenty  of  serious  work  to  occupy 
their  attention.  The  Americans  reserved  their  fire  till  the 
encm\-  was  within  fift\-  }'ards,  when  they  poured  in  so  deadly 
a  voile}'  that  the  British  instantly  fell  back.  They  were  quickly 
rallied  and  led  to  the  attack,  but  were  again  met  with  a  terrific 
fire,  under  which  they  retreated  in  hopeless  disorder.  Scott 
pursued  them  beyond  the  strip  of  woods  before  mentioned, 
when  the}'  fled  across  the  Chippewa  into  their  intrenchments 
and  tore  up  the  bridge,  Scott's  brigade  then  lay  down  on  the 
open  plain  north  of  the  woods. 

By  order  of  General  Brown,  who  was  in  the  midst  of  the 
fight.  Porter  took  his  200  reserve  Pennsylvanians  to  the  left  of 
Scott's  brigade,  where  they,  too,  lay  down  under  the  fire  of  the 
l^ritish  artiller}'. 

After  a  while  Ripley's  brigade  came  out  of  the  woods  cov- 
ered with  mud,  having  had  their  march  for  nothing,  as  the 
enemy  they  had  attempted  to  flank  had  run  away  before  their 
flank  could  be  reached.  It  not  being  deemed  best  to  attack 
the  foe  in  his  intrenchments,  directl}-  in  front,  the  Americans 
returned  at  nightfall  to  their  encampment. 

The  battle  of  Chippewa  w;is  the  first,  during  the  war  of  1812, 
in  which  a  large  body  of  British  regulars  were  defeated  in  the 
open  field,  and  the  Americans  w  ere  immensely  encouraged  by 
it.  Enlistment  thereafter  was  much  more  rapid  than  before. 
The  total   British  loss,  as  officially  reported,  was  514,  of  whom 


between  one  and  two  hundred  were  found  dead  on  the  held  by 
the  victors.  About  two  hundred  and  fifty  were  taken  prison- 
ers, mostly  wounded.  The  Americans  had  about  fifty  killed,  a 
hundred  and  forty  wounded  and  a  few  taken  prisoners.  The 
number  of  American  re<^ulars  engai^ed  was  1,300.  General 
Porter  estimated  the  British  regulars  in  the  fight  at  1,700. 

The  Canadian  Indians  were  so  roughh' handled  that  they  fled 
at  once  to  the  head  of  Lake  Ontario,  and  ne\'er  after  took  any 
part  in  the  war. 

On  the  7th  of  July,  the  600  volunteers  frtmi  Western  New 
York  joined  Porter's  brigade,  I  have  found  no  account  of  how 
they  were  organized  nor  of  the  localities  from  which  they  came. 

On  the  8th,  Ripley's  brigade  and  these  New  York  volunteers 
forced  a  passage  of  the  Chippewa,  three  miles  up,  quickly  driv- 
ing back  the  force  stationed  there.  General  Riall,  finding 
himself  flanked,  destroyed  his  works  and  retreated  rapidly  to 
Oueenston  and  then  to  Fort  George.  Brown  pursued  and  took 
up  his  quarters  at  Oueenston,  but  did  not  deem  his  force  suffi- 
cient either  to  assault  or  besiege  the  fortress. 

On  the  1 6th,  Porter's  brigade  skirmished  around  the  fort,  to 
give  the  engineers  a  chance  to  reconnoitre,  but  nothing  came 
of  it. 

Meanwhile,  the  British  received  reinforcements  and  Brown 
determined  to  return  to  Fort  Erie.  Riall  followed.  Before 
arriving  at  the  Falls,  most  of  the  Indians,  through  the  arrange- 
ment of  Red  Jacket,  obtained  permission  to  retire  to  their 
homes,  agreeing  to  return  if  the  British  Indians  should  again 
take  the  field.  But  the  latter  were  perfectly  satisfied  with 
that  terrible  cirubbing  in  the  Chippewa  woods,  and  never  again 
appeared  in  arms  against  the  Americans.  Nevertheless,  some 
forty  or  fifty  of  our  Indians  remained  with  the  army  through- 
out the  campaign. 

On  the  25th  of  Jul}',  Brown's  ami)'  encamped  near  Chippewa 
creek.  Riall  was  pressing  so  closely  on  the  American  rear  that 
Brown  sent  back  Scott's  brigade  to  check  him.  Scott  met  the 
enemy  at  l^ridgewater,  just  below  the  P"alls ;  sending  back  word 
to  his  sujierior,  the  impetuous  Virginian  led  his  columns  to  the 

For  an  hour  a  desperate  battle  raged   between  Scotts  single 

CAI'TUKK    OK    MAJOR    ( il'.MlKA  I,    KIAI.l..  89 

bi'ii;a(.lc  aiul  Riall's  army,  neither  Ljainini;  an\'  decided  advan- 
tai4'e.  At  the  end  of  that  time  and  but  a  h'ttle  before  niL;lit, 
l^rown  arrived  with  the  brii^ades  of  Ripley  and  Porter. 

Determinini^"  to  interpose  a  new  Hne  and  diseni^a^e  Scott's 
exhausted  men,  he  ordered  forward  the  two  fresh  brigades. 
The  enemy's  line  was  then  near  "  Lundy's  Lane,"  a  road  run- 
ninij^  at  right  anii^les  with  the  riv^er,  wliich  it  reaches  a  short 
distance  below  the  h^alls.  Mis  artillery  was  on  a  piece  of  risini^ 
y^round  which   was  the  key  t)f  the  position. 

Colonel  Miller  commanding  a  regiment  of  infantr)-,  was 
asked  by  Brown  if  he  could  ca})ture  it.  "I  can  try,  sir!" 
was  the  memorable  response  of  the  gallant  officer. 

Though  the  regiment  which  should  have  supported  Miller's 
gave  way,  yet  the  latter  moved  steadily  up  the  hill.  Increas- 
ing its  pace,  it  swept  forward,  while  its  ranks  were  depleted  at 
every  step,  and,  after  a  brief  but  desperate  struggle,  carried  the 
heights  and  captured  the  hostile  cannon  at  the  point  of  the 
bayonet.  At  the  same  time,  Major  Jessup's  regiment  drove 
back  a  part  of  the  enemy's  infantry,  capturing  Major-General 
Riall,  their  commander,  and  when  General  Ripley  led  forward 
his  reserve  regiment  the  l^ritish  fell  back  and  disajjpeared  from 
the  field. 

It  was  now  eight  o'clock  and  entirely  dark.  In  a  short  time 
the  enemy  rallied   and  attempted  to  regain   his  lost  artillery. 

Seldom,  in  all  the  annals  of  war,  has  a  conflict  been  fought 
under  more  strange  and  romantic  circumstances.  The  dark- 
ness of  night  was  over  all  the  combatants.  A  little  way  to  the 
northeastward  rolled  and  roared  the  greatest  cataract  in  the 
world^wonderful  Niagara.  Its  thunders  subdued,  yet  dis- 
tinct, could  be  heard  whenever  the  cannon  were  silent.  And 
there  in  the  darkness  upon  that  solitary  hillside,  within  sound 
of  that  mighty  avalanche  of  water  the  soldiers  of  the  young 
republic,  flushed  with  the  triumph  w  hich  had  given  them  their 
enemy's  battle-ground  antl  cannon  and  commander,  calmly 
awaited  the  onslaught  of  Mnglaml's  defeated  but  not  disheart- 
ened veterans. 

At  half-past  eight  the  .Americans  saw  the  darkness  turning 
red,  far  down  the  slope,  and  soon  in  the  gloom  were  dimly 
outlined  the    advancing  battalions  of  the  foe.     The   red   line 


came  swiftly,  silently  and  i^allantl)'  up  the  hill,  beneath  the 
banners  of  St.  George,  and  all  the  while  the  subdued  roar  of 
Niagara  was  rolling  gently  over  the  field. 

Suddenly  the  American  cannon  and  small  arms  lighted  up 
the  scene  with  their  angry  glare,  their  voices  drowning  the 
noise  of  the  cataract.  The  red  battalions  were  torn  asunder, 
and  the  hillside  strewn  with  dead  and  dying  men,  but  the  line 
closed  up  and  advanced  still  more  rapidly,  their  fire  rivaling 
that  of  the  Americans,  and  both  turning  the  night  into  deadly 
day.  Presently  the  assailants  ceased  firing  and  then  with  thun- 
dering cheers  and  leveled  bayonets  rushed  forward  to  the 
charge.  But  the  American  grape  and  canister  made  terrible 
havoc  in  their  ranks,  the  musketry  of  Scott  and  Ripley  mowed 
them  down  by  the  score,  and  the  sharp-cracking  rifles  of  Por- 
ter's volunteers  did  their  work  with  deadly  discrimination.  More 
and  more  the  assailants  wavered,  and  when  the  Americans  in 
turn  charged  bayonets,  the  whole  British  line  fled  at  their 
utmost  speed.  The  regulars  followed  but  a  short  distance, 
being  held  in  hand  by  their  officers,  who  had  no  idea  of  plung- 
ing through  the  darkness  against  a  possible  reserve.  But  the 
volunteers  chased  the  enemy  down  the  slope  and  cai)tured  a 
considerable  number  of  prisoners.  Then  the  Americans 
reformed  their  lines,  and  then  again  the  murmur  of  the  cataract 
held  sway  over  the  field.  Twice  during  the  next  hour  the 
British  attempted  to  retake  their  cannon,  and  both  times  the 
result  was  the  same  as  that  of  the  first  effort.  For  two  hours 
after  the  Americans  remained  in  line  awaiting  another  onslaught 
of  the  foe,  but  the  latter  made  no  further  attempt.  Having  no 
extra  teams  the  victors  were  unable  to  take  away  the  captured 
guns,  with  one  exception.  Accordingly,  with  this  single  tro- 
phy, with  their  o\\n  wounded  and  with  a  hundred  and  sixty- 
nine  prisoners,  including  General  Riall,  the  iVmericans  at  mid- 
night returned  to  their  encampment  on  the  Chippewa.  Their 
loss  was  171  killed,  449  wounded  and  1 17  missing.  I^oth  l^rown 
and  Scott  were  wounded,  the  latter  severely,  and  both  were 
removed  to  Buffalo. 

The  condition  of  the  two  armies  is  plainly  shown  by  the 
fact  that  the  next  day  the  enemy  allowed  Ripley  to  burn  the 
mills,  barracks  and  bridges  at  Bridgewater  without  molestation. 

I  111,  i;.\rii,K  OK  coNjocKKrv  (  ki;i;K.  91 

The  Americans  then  pursuetl  their  untroubled  march  to  Vovt 
Kric.  On  their  arrixal  the  most  of  the  xohmteers  went  lionie 
havini;' served  the  remarkably  loni^"  time  of  three  or  four  months. 
Nevertheless  they  had  done  i^ood  service  and  were  entitled  to 
a  rest  accordin;4'  to  the  views  of  volunteering;"  then  in  voL;"ue. 
The  regulars  had  been  reduced  by  various  casualties  to  some 
fifteen  hundred  men.  The  British,  on  the  other  hand,  had 
recei\-ed  reinforcements,  and  felt  themselves  stroni;  enough  to 
besiege  the  fort,  if  fort  it  might  be  called,  which  was  rather  a 
partially  intrenched  encampment. 

General  Drummond's  ami)-  for  two  weeks  steadily  worked 
their  way  toward  the  American  defences  at  Fort  Erie.  These 
consisted  principally  of  two  stone  mess-houses  and  bastion 
known  as  "  Old  Fort  Erie,"  a  short  distance  east  of  the  river 
bank,  antl  a  natural  mound  half  a  mile  south  and  near  the  lake 
which  was  surmounted  with  breast-\\orks  and  cannon,  and 
called  "Towson's  batter}-." 

Between  the  old  fort  and  the  batter\-  ran  a  parapet,  and 
another  from  the  old  fort  eastward  to  the  river.  On  both  the 
north  and  west,  a  dense  forest  came  within  sixty  rods  of  the 
American  works.  The  British  erected  batteries  in  the  woods 
on  the  north,  each  one  farther  south  than  its  predecessor,  and 
then  in  the  night  chopped  out  openings  through  which  their 
cannon  could  play  on  our  works.  At  this  time  the  commander 
at  Fort  Erie  was  in  the  habit  of  sending  across  a  battalion  of 
regular  riflemen  every  night  to  guard  the  bridge  over  Scaja- 
quada  creek,  who  returned  each  morning  to  the  fort. 

About  the  loth  of  August  a  heavy  British  force  cro.ssed  the 
river  at  night  at  some  point  below  the  Scajaquada,  and  just 
before  daylight  they  attempted  to  force  their  way  across  the 
latter  stream.  Their  objective  ])oint  was  doubtless  the  public 
stores  at  Black  Rock  and  Buffalo.  Being  opposed  by  the 
riflemen  before  mentioned,  under  Major  Lodowick  Morgan, 
there  ensued  a  fight  of  some  imi)ortance,  of  which  old  men 
sometimes  speak  as  the  "  l^attle  of  Conjockety  Creek,"  but  of 
which  I  have  found  no  printed  record.  Even  the  Buffalo 
(hizctic  of  the  da\'  was  silent  regarding  it,  though  it  afterwards 
alluded  to  Major  Morgan  as  "  The  hero  of  Conjocket)-."  The 
planks  of  the  bridge  had  been  taken  up  and  the  riflemen  lay  in 

92  DHUMMONl)    REI'UI.SKl)    THE  THIRD    TIMP:. 

wait  on  the  south  side.  When  the  enemy's  column  came  up 
Morgan's  men  opened  a  destructive  fire.  The  EngHsh  pressed 
forward  so  boldly  that  some  of  them,  when  shot,  fell  into  the 
creek  and  were  swept  down  the  Niagara. 

They  were  compelled  to  fall  back,  but  again  and  again  they 
repeated  the  attempt,  and  every  time  they  were  repulsed  with 
loss.  A  body  of  militia,  under  Colonels  Swift  and  Warren, 
were  placed  on  the  right  of  the  regulars,  and  prevented  the 
enemy  from  crossing  farther  up  the  creek. 

Several  deserters  came  over  to  our  forces,  having  thrown 
away  their  weapons  and  taken  off  their  red  coats,  which  they 
carried  rolled  up  under  their  arms.  They  reported  the  enemy's 
force  at  seventeen  hundred,  but  that  was  probably  an  exagger- 

After  a  conflict  lasting  several  hours,  the  enemy  retreated, 
having  suffered  severely  in  the  fight.  The  Americans  had 
eight  men  wounded. 

Early  in  the  morning  of  the  15th  of  August,  18 14,  the  Eng- 
lish attempted  to  carry  Fort  livic  by  storm,  under  cover  of 

At  half-past  two  o'clock  a  column  of  a  thousand  to  fifteen 
hundred  men  moved  from  the  woods  on  the  west  against  Tow- 
son's  Battery.  Though  received  with  a  terrific  fire  they  pressed 
forward,  but  were  at  length  stopped  within  a  few  )'ards  of  the 
American  lines.  They  retreated  in  confusion  and  no  further 
attempt  was  made  at  that  point. 

Notwithstanding  the  strength  of  this  attack,  it  was  partly  in 
the  nature  of  a  feint,  for  immediately  afterwards  two  other 
columns  issued  from  the  forest  on  the  north.  One  sought  to 
force  its  way  up  along  the  river  bank,  but  was  easily  repulsed. 
The  other,  led  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Drummond,  advanced 
against  the  main  bastion.  It  was  defended  by  several  heavy 
guns  and  field-pieces,  by  the  Ninth  United  States  infantry,  and 
by  one  company  each  of  New  York  and  Pennsylvania  volun- 
teers. Received  with  a  withering  discharge  of  cannon  and 
musketiy,  Drummond's  right  and  left  were  driven  back.  His 
center,  however,  ascended  the  parapet,  but  were  finalK-  repulsed 
with  dreadful  carnage.  Again  Drummond  led  his  men  to  the 
charge,    and    again    they   were    repulsed.     A   third    time    the 

T.Rl  riSII    \AI,()K — DEATH    OK    I  )kr  M  M(  iM  ).  93 

unclaiintctl  I'!,n<_;Hshmfn  acKanccd  o\'cr  i^n'ound  strewn  thick 
u  ith  the  bodies  of  their  brethren,  in  the  face  of  flame  from  tlie 
walls  (^f  the  bastion,  and  a  third  time  they  were  driven  back 
w  ith  terrible  loss. 

This  would  have  satisfied  most  men  of  any  nation,  and  one 
cannot  refrain  from  a  tribute  to  Ent^lish  valor  of  the  most  des- 
perate kind,  w  hen  he  learns  that  Drummond  again  rallied  his 
men,  led  them  a  fourth  time  over  that  pathway  of  death, 
mounted  the  parapet  in  spite  of  the  volleying  frames  which 
enveloped  it,  and  actually  captured  the  bastion  at  the  point  of 
the  bayonet. 

Many  American  officers  were  killed  in  this  terrible  struggle. 
Drummond  was  as  fierce  as  he  was  brave,  and  was .  frequently 
heard  crying  to  his  men,  "  Give  the  damned  Yankees  no 
quarter."  But  even  in  the  moment  of  apparent  victory  he 
met  his  fate — a  shot  from  one  of  the  last  of  retreatin^T  Ameri- 
cans laying  him  dead  upon  the  ground.  Reinforcements  were 
promptly  sent  to  the  endangered  locality  by  Generals  Ripley 
and  Porter.  A  detachment  of  riflemen  attacked  the  British  in 
the  bastion  but  were  repulsed. 

Another  and  larger  force  repeated  the  attack  but  also  failed. 
The  Americans  prepared  for  a  third  charge,  and  two  batteries 
were  playing  upon  the  heroic  band  of  Britons. 

Suddenl)-  the  whole  scene  was  lighted  up  by  a  vast  column 
of  flame,  the  earth  shook  to  the  water's  edge,  the  ear  was  deaf- 
ened by  a  fearful  sound  which  re-echoed  far  over  the  river. 

A  large  amount  of  cartridges  stored  in  one  of  the  mess- 
houses  adjoining  the  bastion  had  been  reached  by  a  cannon 
ball  and  exploded.  One  instant  the  fortress,  the  forest,  the  river, 
the  dead,  the  dx'ing  and  the  maddened  li\ing  were  revealed 
by  that  fearful  glare  ;  the  next  all  was  enveloped  in  darknes.s, 
while  the  shrieks  of  hundreds  of  Britons  in  more  terrible  a<Ton\' 
than  e\-en  the  soldier  often  suffers,  pierced  the  murk}-  and  sul- 
phurous air. 

The  Americans  saw  their  opportunity  and  redoubled  the  fire 
of  their  artiller)'.  For  a  few  moments  the  conquerors  of  the 
bastion  maintained  their  positions,  but  half  their  number, 
including  most  of  their  officers,  were  killed  or  wounded,  their 
commander  was  slain,  and   the\-  were  da/ed   and  o\  erwiielmed 


by  the  calamity  that  had  so  unexpectedly  befallen  them.  After 
a  few  volleys  they  fled  in  utter  confusion  to  the  friendly  forest. 

As  they  went  out  of  the  bastion,  the  Americans  dashed  in, 
snatching  a  hundred  and  eighty-six  prisoners  from  the  rear  of 
the  flying  foe.  Besides  these  there  remained  on  the  ground 
they  had  so  valiantly  contested,  two  hundred  and  twenty-one 
English  dead,  and  a  hundred  and  seventy-four  wounded,  nearly 
all  in  and  around  that  single  bastion.  Besides  these,  there  were 
the  wounded  who  were  carried  away  by  their  comrades,  includ- 
ing nearly  all  who  fell  in  the  other  two  columns.  The  Ameri- 
cans had  twenty  six  killed  and  ninety-two  wounded. 

Seldom  had  there  been  a  more  gallant  attack,  and  seldom  a 
more  disastrous  repulse.  During  the  fight  the  most  intense 
anxiety  prevailed  on  this  side. 

The  tremendous  cannonade  a  little  after  midnight  told 
plainly  enough  that  an  attack  was  being  made.  Nearly  ever\- 
human  being  who  resided  among  the  ruins  of  Buffalo  and  Black- 
Rock,  and  many  in  the  country  around,  were  up  and  watching. 
All  expected  that  if  the  fort  should  be  captured,  the  enemy 
would  immediately  cross,  and  the  horrors  of  the  previous  Win- 
ter would  be  repeated.  Many  packed  up  and  prepared  for  in- 
stant flight.  Then  the  explosion  came,  the  shock  startled  even 
the  war-seasoned  inhabitants  of  Buffalo.  Some  thought  the 
British  had  captured  the  fort  and  had  blown  it  up,  others  im- 
agined that  the  Americans  had  penetrated  to  the  British  camp 
and  blown  that  up  ;  and  all  awaited  the  coming  of  morn  with 
nerves  strung  to  their  utmost  tension. 

It  was  noon-day  light  when  boats  crossed  the  river  from  the 
fort,  and  the  news  of  another  American  victory  was  soon  scat- 
tered far  and  wide  through  the  country. 

A  day  or  two  afterwards  the  wounded  prisoners  wei'e  sent  to 
the  hospital  at  Williamsville,  and  the  unwounded  to  the  depot 
of  prisoners  near  Albany.  Mr.  William  Hodge  relates  that 
when  the  wagons  filled  with  blistered,  blackened  men  halted 
near  his  father's  house,  the\'  begged  for  liquor  to  drown  their 
pain,  but  some  of  the  unhurt  who  marched  on  foot,  were  saucy 
enough.  Looking  at  the  brick  house  rising  on  the  ruins  of  the 
former  one,  the)'  declared  they  would  burn  it  again  within  a  year. 
The)'  could  not,  however,  have  been  ver)'  anxious  to  escape,  for 

(;knkka[.  r.isowx  kf.sumes  command.  95 

tlic}-  were  escorted  b\-  onl)'  a  \'er)-  small  i^^uard.  Man\-  of  the 
prisoners  were  Hijjjhlanders,  of  the  Glen<,^arry  regiment. 

Having  failed  to  carry  the  fort  by  assault,  the  Hritish  settled 
down  to  a  regular  siege. 

Closer  and  closer  their  lines  were  drawn  antl  their  batteries 
erectetl,  the  dense  forest  affording  every  facilit)'  iov  uninter- 
rupted api^roach.  Reinforcements  constantly  arrived  at  the 
I^nglish  camp,  wliilc  not  a  solitar)'  regular  soldier  was  added 
to  the  constantly  diminishing  force  of  the  Americans. 

B}-  the  latter  part  of  August,  their  case  had  become  so  des- 
perate that  (jovernor  Tompkins  called  out  all  the  militia  \\est 
of  the  Genesee  r//  j/iasse,  and  ordered  them  to  Buffalo.  The}' 
are  said  by  Turner  to  have  responded  with  great  alacrity. 

Arriving  at  Buffalo,  the  officers  were  first  assembled  and 
General  Porter  called  on  them  to  volunteer  to  cross  the  river. 
There  was  considerable  hurrying  back,  but  the  General  made 
another  speech,  and  under  his  stinging  words  most  of  the 
officers  volunteered. 

The  men  were  then  called  on  to  follow  their  example,  and  a 
force  of  about  fifteen  hundred  was  raised. 

The  Forty-eighth  regiment  furnished  one  company.  Colonel 
Warren  volunteered  and  crossed  the  river,  but  was  sent  back 
with  other  supernumerary  officers  and  placed  in  command  of 
the  militia  remaining  at  Buffalo. 

The  volunteers  were  conveyed  across  the  river  at  night, 
about  the  loth  of  September,  and  encamped  along  the  lake 
shore  above  Towson's  battery,  behind  a  sod  of  breast-work 
hastily  erected  by  themselves.  They  were  commanded  by 
General  Porter,  who  bivouacked  in  their  midst,  under  whom 
was  Gen.  Daniel  Davis,  of  Le  Roy.  General  J^rown  had 
resumed  command  of  the  whole  American  force. 

At  this  time  the  enemy  was  divided  into  three  brigades  of 
fourteen  or  fifteen  hundred  men,  each  one  of  which  was  kept 
on  duty  in  their  batteries  every  three  days,  while  the  other  two 
remained  at  the  main  camp  on  a  farm  a  mile  and  a  half  west  of 
the  fort. 

Immediately  after  the  arrival  of  the  volunteers,  a  plan  was 
concerted  to  break  in  on  the  enemy's  operations  b}'  a  sortie. 

The  British  had  openctl  two  batteries  and  were  nearl)-  read)- 


to  unmask  another  still  nearer  and  in  a  more  dangerous  posi- 
tion. This  was  called  battery  "  No.  3."  the  one  next  "  No.  2," 
and  the  furthest  one  "No.  i." 

It  was  determined  to  make  an  attack  on  the  17th  of  Sep- 
tember, before  battery  No.  3  could  be  completed. 

On  the  1 6th,  Majors  Fraser  and  Riddle,  both  of^cers  of  the 
regular  army  acting  as  aides  to  General  Porter,  each  followed  by 
a  hundred  men,  fifty  of  each  party  being  armed  and  fifty  pro- 
vided with  axes,  proceeded  from  the  camp  of  the  volunteers, 
by  a  circuitous  route  through  the  woods  to  within  a  short  dis- 
tance of  battery  No.  3.  Thence  each  detachment  cut  out 
the  underbrush  so  as  to  make  a  track  back  to  camp  over  the 
swampy  ground,  curving,  when  necessary,  to  avoid  the  most 
miry  places.  The  work  was  accomplished  without  the  British 
having  the  slightest  suspicion  of  what  was  going  on.  This  was 
the  most  dif^cult  part  of  the  whole  enterprise. 

In  the  forenoon  of  the  17th  the  whole  of  the  volunteers  were 
paraded,  the  enterprise  was  revealed  to  them,  and  a  handbill 
was  read  announcing  the  glorious  victories  won  on  Lake  Cham- 
plain  and  at  Plattsburg  a  few  days  before.  The  news  was  jo}'- 
fully  received,  and  the  sortie  enthusiastically  welcomed.  The 
volunteers  not  being  uniformed,  every  one  was  required  to  lay 
aside  his  hat  or  cap  and  wxar  on  his  head  a  red  handkerchief  or 
a  piece  of  cloth  which  was  furnished.  Not  an  officer  or  man 
wore  any  other  head-gear  except  General  Porter. 

At  noon  that  commander  led  forth  the  principal  attacking 
body  from  the  volunteer  camp.  The  advance  consisted  of  two 
hundred  volunteers  under  Colonel  Gibson.  Behind  them  came 
the  column  designed  for  storming  the  batteries,  composed  of 
four  hundred  regulars  followed  by  five  hundred  volunteers,  all 
commanded  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Wood.  These  took  the 
right-hand  track,  cut  out  the  day  before.  Another  column  of 
nearly  the  same  strength,  mostly  volunteers,  under  General 
Davis,  intended  to  hold  the  enemy's  reinforcements  in  check  and 
co-operate  in  the  attack,  took  the  left-hand  road.  At  the  same 
time  a  body  of  regulars  under  General  Miller  was  concealed  in 
a  ravine  near  the  northwest  corner  of  the  intrenchments,  pre- 
pared to  attack  in  front  at  the  proper  time.  The  rest  of  the 
troops  were  held  in   reserx'c   under  General    Riplc)-.      Just  after 

CAPTURE   ()!•    THE   THREE    liATTERIES.  97 

the  main  column  startctl  it  bcL;'an  to  rain  and  continued  to  do 
so  throughout  the  afternoon.  Tlie  march  was  necessarily  slow 
along  the  swampy  winding  pathway,  and  had  it  not  been  for 
the  underbrushed  tracks  the  columns  would  probably  have  lost 
their  way  or  been  dela\x'd  till  nightfall. 

At  nearly  3  o'clock  Porter's  command  arrived  at  the  end  of 
the  track  within  a  few  rods  of  battery  No.  3,  entirely  unsus- 
pected b)'  its  occupants.  The  final  arrangements  being  made, 
they  moved  on,  and  in  a  few  moments  emerged  upon  the 
astonished  workers  and  their  guard.  With  tremendous  cheer, 
which  was  distinctly  heard  across  the  river,  thoi  men  rushed 
forward,  and  the  whole  force  in  the  battery  thoroughly  sur- 
prised and  overwhelmed  by  numbers,  at  once  surrendered 
without  hardly  firing  a  shot.  The  attack  was  the  signal  for  the 
advance  of  Miller's  regulars,  who  sprang  up  out  of  their  ravine 
and  hurried  forward,  directing  their  steps  toward  battery  No.  2. 
Leaving  a  detachment  to  spike  and  dismount  the  captured  can- 
non, both  of  Porter's  columns  dashed  forward  toward  the  same 
object,  General  Davis  leading  his  volunters  and  co-operating 
closely  with  Wood.  They  arrived  at  the  same  time  as  Miller. 
They  were  received  with  a  heavy  fire,  but  the  three  commands 
combined  and  carried  the  battery  at  the  point  of  the  bayonet. 
Leaving  another  party  to  spike  and  dismount  the  cannon,  the 
united  force  pressed  forward  toward  battery  No.  i.  But  by 
this  time  the  whole  British  army  was  alarmed  and  reinforce- 
ments were  rapidly  arriving.  Nevertheless,  the  Americans 
attacked  and  captiu'ed  battery  No.  I  after  a  severe  conflict. 

How  gallantly  they  were  led  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  all  of 
Porter's  principal  commanders  were  shot  down — Gibson  at  bat- 
tery No.  2  ;  Wood  while  approaching  No.  i,  and  Davis  while 
gallantly  mounting  a  parapet  between  the  two  batteries  at  the 
head  of  his  men.  In  the  last  struggle,  too,  General  Porter  him- 
self was  slightly  wounded  by  a  sword  cut  on  his  hand,  and  tem- 
porarily taken  prisoner,  but  was  immediately  secured  b}'  his 
own  men. 

Of  course  in  a  sortie  the  assailants  are  not  expected  to  hold 
the  conquered  ground.  The  work  in  this  case  had  been  as 
completely  done  as  in  any  sortie  ever  made,  and  after  battejy 
No.  I    had  been  captured  a   retreat  was  ordered   to  the  fort, 


where  the  victorious  troops  arri\ed  just  before  sunset.  The 
loss  of  the  Americans  was  sevent)'-nine  killed  and  214  wounded; 
very  few,  if  any,  captured.  Four  hundred  British  were  taken 
prisoners,  a  large  number  killed  and  wounded,  and  what  was 
far  more  important,  all  the  results  of  nearly  two  months'  labor 
were  entirely  overthrown. 

So  completely  were  their  plans  destro}'ed  b)-  this  brilliant 
assault  that  only  four  days  afterwards  General  Drummond 
raised  the  siege  and  retired  down  the  Niagara.  After  the 
enemy  retreated  the  volunteers  were  dismissed  with  the  thanks 
of  their  commanders,  having  saved  the  American  army  from 
losing  its  last  hold  on  the  western  side  of  the  Niagara. 

The  relief  of  Fort  Erie  was  one  of  the  most  skillfully  planned 
and  gallantly  executed  sorties  ever  made.  Gen.  Napier,  the 
celebrated  British  soldier  and  military  historian,  mentions  it  as 
one  of  very  few  cases  in  which  a  single  sortie  had  compelled 
the  raising  of  a  siege. 

Very  high  credit  was  given  to  General  Porter,  both  for  his 
eloquence  in  engaging  the  volunteers  and  his  skill  in  leading 

The  press  sounded  his  praises,  the  citizens  of  Batavia  ten- 
dered him  a  dinner,  the  governor  breveted  him  a  major-general, 
and  Congress  voted  him  a  gold  medal,  he  being,  I  think,  the 
only  ofificer  of  volunteers  to  whom  that  honor  was  awarded 
during  the  war  of  1812.  The  raising  of  the  siege  of  P\~)rt  Erie 
was  substantially  the  close  of  the  war  on  the  Niagara  frontier. 
A  few  unimportant  skirmishes  took  place,  but  nothing  that 
need  be  recorded  here. 

All  the  troops  except  a  small  guard  were  withdrawn  from 
Fort  Erie  to  Buffalo.  It  was  known  during  the  Winter  that 
commissioners  were  trying  to  negotiate  a  peace  at  Ghent,  and 
there  was  a  universal  desire  for  their  success. 

In  this  vicinity,  at  least,  the  people  had  had  enough  of  the 
glories  of  war.  On  the  15th  of  Januar\',  1S15,  the  news  of  the 
victory  of  New  Orleans  was  announced  in  an  extra  of  the  Buf- 
falo Gazette,  but  although  it  occasioned  general  rejoicing,  }'et 
the  delight  was  by  no  means  so  great  as  when,  a  week  later,  the 
people  of  the  ravaged  frontier  were  informed  of  the  signing  of 
the  treaty  of  Ghent. 

CLOSE   OF   TIIK   WAR.  99 

I'ost-ridcrs,  as  they  dclivcrctl  letters,  doctors,  as  thev'  visited 
their  patients,  ministers,  as  they  journej'ed  to  meet  their  back- 
woods con<jre<^ations,  spread  everywhere  the  welcome  news  of 
peace.  General  Nott,  in  his  reminiscences,  relates  that  the  first 
sermon  in  Sardinia  was  preached  at  his  Jiouse  by  "  Father 
Spencer."  early  in  181 5.  There  was  a  large  gatherint,r.  The 
people  had  heard  that  the  good  missionary  had  a  newspaper 
announcing  the  conclusion  of  peace,  and  the}'  were,  most  of 
them,  probably  more  anxious  to  have  their  ho[)es  in  that  respect 
confirmed  than  for  ought  else. 

h\'ither  Spencer  was  not  disposed  to  tantalize  them,  and  im- 
mediately on  rising  to  begin  the  service,  he  took  the  paper 
from  his  pocket,  saying:  "I  bring  you  news  of  peace."  He 
then  read  the  official  announcement,  and  it  may  be  presumed 
that  the  gratified  congregation  afterwards  listenqd  all  the  more 
earnestly  to  the  news  of  divine  peace,  which  it  was  the  minis- 
ter's especial  province  to  deliver. 

In  a  very  brief  time  the  glad  tidings  penetrated  to  the  most 
secluded  cabins  in  the  country,  and  all  the  people  turned  with 
joyful  anticipations  to  the  half-suspended  pursuits  of  peace- 
ful life. 




As  a  rule,  the  pioneers  of  the  Holland  Purchase  were  men  of 
splendid  pJiysiquc\  intelligent,  self-reliant  and  possessed  great 
strength,  courage  and  endurance,  which  stood  them  well  in 
hand  in  the  herculean  task  they  had  in  rescuing  this  fair 
domain  from  a  savage  state  They  came  of  a  noble  race  and 
could  trace  tl^ieir  lineage  back  to  the  pilgrims  who  landed  on 
Plymouth  Rock,  through  the  bloody  times  that  tried  men's 
souls  during  the  dark  days  of  the  Revolution.  And  they  had 
come  here  actuated  in  part  by  the  same  bold  spirit  that  had 
prompted  their  ancestors  to  leave  the  comfortable  abodes  of 
civilization  and  to  seek  new  homes  in  the  Western  world, 
across  three  thousand  miles  of  trackless  ocean.  They  had  left 
the  homes  and  scenes  of  their  childhood  and  bid  good-bye  to 
early  associates  and  friends,  turned  their  faces  toward  the 
setting  sun,  and  with  their  wives  and  little  ones  had  started 
forth  on  their  long  and  weary  journey  towards  their  future 
homes.  P'or  weeks  and  weeks  they  continued  their  course 
with  slow  and  toilsome  progress,  sometimes  compelled  to  camp 
in  the  wilderness,  and  cook  and  sleep  beside  some  fallen  tree. 
And  when  at  last  arrived  at  their  destination,  within  the  dense 
forests  of  the  Holland  Purchase,  hundreds  of  miles  away  from 
any  city  or  large  village,  and  without  post  offices  or  mails  to 
aid  them  in  communicating  \\\\.\\  their  Plastern  friends,  the\' 
selected  lands  and  built  their  log  cabins,  without  lumber  or 
nails,  and  entered  upon  a  new  mode  of  life.  They  had  health, 
strength,  energy  and  perseverance,  and  soon  the  sound  of  their 
axes  and  the  crashing  of  falling  trees  were  heard  in  every 
direction.  And  as  the  great  forest  receded  year  by  year  before 
their  sturd}'  blows,  smiling  fields  of  grass  and  grain  appeared  in 

THE    HOME   OF   THE    I'lONEER.  lOI 

its  stead.  The  loi^"  cabins  aiul  lunels  that  they  were  com- 
pelled at  first  to  occupy,  in  due  time  gave  place  to  commodi- 
ous barns  and  comfortable  dwellings. 

And  if  the  sons  inherited  the  wisdom,  courage  and  valor  of 
the  sires,  what  shall  be  said  of  the  daugliters?  Endowed  with 
tile  s[)irit  and  fortitude  of  the  Spartan  mothers,  who.  in  times 
of  extremit}-,  became  trul\-  heroic  ;  still  possessing"  the  gentle- 
ness, tender  solicitude  and  undying  love,  that  has  ever  distin- 
guished the  pure  \\'oman  from  the  sterner  sex.  They  cheer- 
fully shared  all  the  toils,  trials  and  dangers,  incident  to  that 
period,  and  they  were  the  guardian  angels  that  watched  over 
the  pioneer's  log  cabin,  ministering  to  him  and  his  in  sickness 
and  caring  for  their  comforts  in  health.  Their  thrifty  and 
diligent  hands,  with  wheel  and  distaff,  supplied  most  all  the 
creature-comforts  that  were  enjoyed  in  their  humble  homes. 
And  it  was  their  province  and  mission  to  smooth  the  rugged 
pathwa)'  of  progress ;  commencing'  in  the  great  primeval  forest 
and  in  the  lowly  bark-covered  cabins  and  carried  forward  step 
by  step  and  )'ear  by  year,  up  to  its  present  state  of  luxury  and 
refinement,  which  many  of  them  lived  to  enjoy.  Those  dear 
old  mothers!  their  useful  li\es  may  have  given  them  but  few 
opportunities  for  culture  and  accomplishments.  They  may 
have  know  n  but  little  of  letters  or  of  the  sciences,  but  there 
were  two  problems,  that  these  sainted  mothers  had  solved, 
that  proved  a  benison  to  those  around  them — i.e.  a  sweet  accept- 
ance of  the  life  that  is,  and  an  unfaltering  assurance  of  the  life 
to  come.  This  rendered  them  cheerful  at  all  times,  and  made 
them  a  tower  of  strength  in  the  darkest  trials,  and  their  toil- 
worn  hands  have  smoothed  many  a  sufferer's  d\-ing  pillow, 
and  their  plain  manner  of  speech  has  sustained  many  a  sinking 
soul  when  called  to  meet  "  the  hour  and  article  of  death." 
The  deeds  of  the  mothers  should  be  hallowed  in  memory 
above  all  things  else  and  ma)-  (jod  bless  them  ;  for  most  of 
them  have  fulfilled  their  mission  ;  and  the  wheels  havx^  ceased 
their  turning,  and  for  them  the  brittle  thread  on  life's  distaff  has 
been  broken.  But  ne\er  let  the  memory  of  them  depart,  in  the 
glitter  and  glow  of  modern  days.  Give  them  the  warmest 
place  in  your  hearts,  and  whenever  you  breathe  their  names, 
let  it  be  in  the  hoh'  and  sacred  dei)ths  of  affection. 



"  Through  the  deep  wilderness,  where  scarce  the  sun 
Can  cast  his  darts,  along  the  winding  path 
The  Pioneer  is  treading.     In  his  grasp 
Is  his  keen  ax,  that  wondrous  instrument, 
That  like  the  talisman,  transforms 
Deserts  to  fields  and  cities.     He  has  left 
The  home  in  which  his  early  years  were  past, 
And,  led  by  hope,  and  full  of  restless  strength. 
Has  plunged  within  the  forest,  there  to  plant 
His  destiny.     Beside  some  rapid  stream 
He  rears  his  log-built  cabin.     When  the  chains 
Of  Winter  fetter  Nature,  and  no  sound 
Disturbs  the  echoes  of  the  dreary  woods, 
Save  when  some  stem  cracks  sharply  with  the  frost  ; 
Then  merrily  rings  his  ax,  and  tree  on  tree 
Crash  to  earth  ;  and  when  the  long  keen  night 
Mantles  the  wilderness  in  solemn  gloom. 
He  sits  beside  his  ruddy  hearth,  and  hears 
The  fierce  wolf  snarling  at  the  cabin  door, 
Or  through  the  lowly  casement  sees  his  eye 
Gleam  like  a  burning  coal." 


All  the  Colony  of  New  York  west  of  the  river  countie.s,  was 
nominally  a  tract  of  Albany  county  up  to  1772.  In  1784, 
Tryon  county,  of  which  Erie  was  nominally  a  part,  was  changed 
to  Montgomery.  In  1789,  the  County  of  Ontario  was  erected 
from  Montgomery,  including  all  west  of  Seneca  lake — a  territory 
now  comprising  thirteen  or  foui"teen  counties. 

The  Town  of  North  Hampton  covered  all  the  Western  part 
of  the  State.  In  the  Spring  of  1802,  the  County  of  Genesee 
was  erected,  comprising  the  whole  of  the  State  west  of  the 
Genesee  river,  and  of  a  line  running  south  from  the  mouth  of 
the  Canaseraga  creek  to  the  Pennsylvania  line.  The  Town  of 
North  Hampton  was  divided  into  four  towns;  one  of  them  was 
Batavia,  which  contained  all  of  the  Holland  Purchase.  The 
county  seat  was  fixed  at  Batavia,  a  village  that  was  to  be.  In 
1804,  Batavia  was  divided  into  four  towns.  The  first,  second 
and  third  ranges  were  called  Batavia;  the  fourth,  fifth  and  sixth 
ranges  were  called  Willink,  and   the  seventh,  eighth,  ninth  and 


tciitli  raiii^cs  were  called  Erie;  the  reniaiiuler  of  the  I' 
WcsJ  was  called  Cliautauc]ua.  These  raii<(es  were  six  inilcs 
wide  and  running-  from  the  Pennsv'lvania  line  north  to  Lake 
Ontario,  about  one  hundred  miles  in  lent^th.  March  11,  i!So7,the 
Counties  of  Niagara,  Cattaraugus  and  Chautau(|ua  were  taken 
from  Genesee  count}-. 

In  1807,  the  Count)-  of  Niagara  was  divided  into  three  towns. 
All  that  pnvi  north  of  the  Tonawanda  creek  was  called  Cambria; 
all  the  territor}-  between  the  Tonawanda  creek  and  the  center 
of  the  I^ufTalo  Creek  reservation  was  called  Clarence;  all 
between  the  center  of  the  Buffalo  Creek  reservation  and  the 
Cattaraugus  creek  was  called  Willink. 

March  20,  1812,  the  Town  of  Willink  was  divided  into  four 
towns — Willink,  Hamburg,  Eden  and  Concord.  The  Town  of 
Willink  then  comprised  the  Towns  of  Aurora,  Wales,  Holland 
and  Colden.  The  Town  of  Hamburg  comprised  the  present 
Towns  of  Hamburg  and  East  Hamburg.  The  To\\n  of  Eden 
comprised  the  present  Towns  of  Eden,  Evans  and  Boston. 
Concord  comprised  the  present  Towns  of  Concord,  Sardinia, 
Collins  and  North  Collins.  March  16,  1821,  Concord  was 
divided  into  Concord,  Collins  and  Sardinia.  April  2,  1821, 
Erie  county  \\as  formed  from  Niagara,  comprising  all  that  part 
of  Niagara  count)-  K'i ng  between  the  Tonaw^anda  and  Cattarau- 
gus creeks.  On  the  24th  day  of  November,  1852,  the  Town  of 
Shirley  \\-as  formed  from  Collins,  and  the  next  Spring  it  was 
changed  to  North  Collins. 




Name  ok  Town. 

Buffalo  .  .  .  . 
Clarence  .  .  . 
Amherst.  .  . 
*Newstead  . 



East   Hamburg 



Tonawanda  .  .  . 






Sardinia  .... 

North  Collins.  . 





West  Seneca. .  . 



Grand  Island. .  . 












Names  of  the  FujstSettlek.s  in  each 
Respective  Town  in  Ekie  County. 


Cornelius  Winney 

Asa  Ransom 

John  Thompson 

Peter  Vandeventer 

■i'Dydimus  Kinne}' 

Charles  Johnson 

Joel  Harvey. 

\  Ezekiel  Smith,  David  Eddy  ) 

(       and  others \ 

James  and  Amos  Woodward. 
Jabez  Warren,  Taber  Earle  ) 

and  Henry  Godfrey \ 

Alex.    Logan,    John 

and  John  Hershey. 
Oliver  Pattengil  and  William  ) 

Allen \ 

Arthur  Humphrc}^  and  Ab-  I 

ner  Cumer \ 

Christopher  Stone  and  John  / 

Albro ( 

Jacob  Taylor  and  others  of  I 

the  Quaker  Mission \ 

Benj.,  Joseph  and  Sam'l  Tubbs 

Apollus  Hitchcock 

Geo.  Richmond  and  Ezra  Nott 
I  Stephen       Sisson,      Abram 
I      Tucker  s 
i       wick 

Richard  Buffom 

Moses  Fenno 

Moses  Tucker 

Reuben   Sackett 

Taber  Earle 

Jerry  and  Joseph  Carpenter.  .  . 

and  Enos  South- 

C  5 

>   « 







1 82  I 





*  Organized  as  Erie  ;  changed  to  Ncwstead-,  1831. 

t  Dydiraus  Kinney  was  the  first  while  settler  in  the  South  Towns  ;  his  house  stood  on  Jere- 
miah Pierce's  farm,  on  the  left  hand  as  you  go  towards  While's  Corners,  and  northwest  of 
the  orchard  on  a  low  ridge  of  land  in  the  meadow. 

i:.\Ki.\'   lowN  ()1'I1(i;ks.  105 

rilK    OLD     TOWN    OK    CONCORD. 

The  original  Town  of  Concord  was  orL;ani/.cd  b\-  tlu;  legis- 
lature March  20,  1812.  It  comprised  the  present  towns  of 
Sardinia,  Concord,  Collins,  North  Collins  and  part  of  Brant. 
It  is  to  be  regretted  that  there  is  no  record  of  this  town  in 
existence.  The  great  fire  that  occurred  in  Spring\ille  in  the 
Summer  of  1868,  destroyed  the  old  town  book,  and  the  author 
has  to  reh'  upon  his  menior)'  of  the  records  made  in  this  book. 
and  also  the  recollections  of  the  old  settlers.  He  is  certain  that 
the  first  record  was,  that  the  town  meeting  was  held  at  the  house 
of  John  Albro,  in  the  Spring  of  1812  ;  that  Thomas  M.  Barrett 
was  chosen  Supervisor,  Amaziah  Ashman,  Town  Clerk, 
Solomon  Field,  Collector,  and  Jonathan  Townsend,  Overseer 
of  the  Poor.  The  town  bounds  remained  unchanged  up  to 
1821  ;  and  the  place  of  holding  the  town  meetings  was  subject 
to  the  will  of  the  electors.  For  four  or  five  years  these  meet- 
ings were  held  at  Springville,  but  the  author  learns  from  talking 
with  some  of  the  venerable  men  who  have  a  di^itinct  recollec- 
tion of  those  times,  that  it  was  once  held  on  Townsend  Hill. 
After  a  time,  quite  a  spirit  of  dissatisfaction  was  manifested  by 
those  living  in  the  east  and  west  parts  of  the  town,  for  Spring- 
ville and  vicinity  not  only  monopolized  the  place  of  holding 
these  meetings,  but  it  enabled  them  to  secure  also,  the  most  of 
the  important  offices.  This  led  to  a  fusion  of  the  electors  of 
the  east  and  west  parts,  and  upon  one  occasion  they  rallied 
their  forces  and  \'Oted  the  town  meeting  to  Taylor  Hollow,  in 
the  extreme  west  part  of  the  town,  and  from  thence  it  was 
adjourned  to  Sardinia,  near  the  east  bounds  of  the  town,  for 
the  next  year.  The  action  of  the  electors  in  carrying  these 
extreme  measures  caused  those  living  in  the  central  part  of  the 
town  to  consent  to  a  division,  which  was  soon  after  effected. 
For  the  first  eight  consecutive  years  after  the  organization  of 
the  town,  there  is  no  evidence  that  there  was  any  other  man 
except  Thomas  M.  Barrett,  who  held  the  ofifice  of  Supervisor. 
The  author,  in  looking  o\'er  the  first  records  of  the  Town  of 
Collins,  bearing  date  1821,  finds  it  recorded,  that  a  committee  was 
appointed  "to  settle  with  Frederick  Richmond,  late  Supervisor 
of  the  town,"  so  it  appears,  that  he  at  least  held  the  office  one 
year.     During   this   time  he  learns  that  John    Lanton,  "  Gen." 


Knox,  "  Dea."  Russell,  and  Mr.  Abbey  held  the  important 
office  of  Commissioner  of  Highways;  and  he  also  learns  that 
Harry  Sears  succeeded  Fields  as  Collector.  The  Justices  of 
the  Peace,  were  not  elected  by  the  people,  but  were  appointed 
by  the  authorities  at  Albany. 

COMING      INTO      THE     COUNTRY — LOG     HOUSES      AND      DUTCH 


Most  of  the  early  settlers  in  these  towns  came  from  the  New 
England  states  and  the  eastern  part  of  the  State  of  New  York, 
but  few  came  from  New  Jersey  or  Pennsylvania.  More  in  pro- 
portion came  from  Massachusetts,  Vermont,  Rhode  Island  and 
Connecticut  than  from  New  Hampshire  or  Maine.  The  route 
generally  taken  was  through  the  Mohawk  valley  by  Utica,  Can- 
andaigua,  Avon  and  Batavia  to  Buffalo,  then  out  here.  Some 
turned  off  near  the  Genesee  river  and  came  through  on  the 
"  Fig  Tree  Road,"  that  passes  through  Wales,  Aurora  and  Ham- 
burg. Others  turned  off  the  main  route  near  the  Genesee  and 
came  through  by  Pike  and  Arcade.  Others  again  came  by  the 
way  of  New  York,  across  New  Jersey  and  a  corner  of  Pennsyl- 
vania to  the  Susquehanna  river,  and  by  different  routes  made 
their  way  here.  Many  came  on  foot,  sometimes  one  alone  and 
sometimes  two  or  more  in  compan}\  Some  came  with  horses 
and  sleighs,  or  horses  and  wagons,  but  more  came  with  oxen 
and  sleds,  or  oxen  and  wagons  than  any  other  way.  It  generally 
took  them  about  twenty-five  days  to  come  from  the  New  Eng- 
land states  here. 

"  New-comers  were  always  warmly  welcomed  b)'  their  prede- 
ces.sors,  partly,  doubtless,  from  motives  of  kindness,  and  parth' 
because  each  new  arrival  helped  to  redeem  the  forest  from  its 
forbidding  loneliness  and  add  to  the  value  of  improx'cments 
already  made."  If  there  were  already  a  few  settlers  in  the 
locality,  the  emigrant's  family  was  sheltered  by  one  of  them 
until  notice  could  be  given  of  a 


P'or  log  houses,  the  logs  used  were  general!}-  from  eight  to 
eighteen  inches  in  diameter  and  twelve,  fourteen,  si.xteen,  eight- 
een and  twenty  feet  in  length.       It  required  the  assistance  of  a 

lUll.DlM.    •nil'.    1.0(i    CAIJIN.  107 

ckjy.cii  <ir  more  ahlc-hodicci  men  to  put  up  the  bod)'  of  such  a 
house,  ami,  at  first,  the  country  had  to  be  scoured  for  many 
miles  to  obtain  that  number  (and  sometimes  half  of  that  num- 
ber had  to  suffice).  "  The  hands  '"  were  in\ited  to  come  to 
the  raising;-  on  a  specified  da\' —  the  lo^s  were  cut  in  ad- 
\ance — and  were  drawn  to  the  desired  spot  by  oxen  and  four 
of  the  Iart;"est  ones  selectetl  for  the  bottom  logs.  Four  of  the 
most  active  and  experienced  men  were  chosen  to  cut  the  cor- 
ners." The\-  bet^an  b)'  cutting;"  a  saddle  at  the  ends  of  the  two 
lo^q,s,  a  space  tweKe  to  eii;hteen  inches  long,  shaped  like  the 
roof  of  a  house.  Notches  to  fit  these  saddles  were  cut  near  the 
ends  of  two  other  loi;"s  and  then  they  w  ere  laid  at  right  angles 
upon  the  first  two.  The  operation  was  repeated  again  and 
again,  the  four  axe  men  rising  with  tlie  building  and  cutting 
saddles  on  the  top  near  the  end  of  the  side  logs  and  cutting 
notches  in  the  end  logs  to  fit  them,  as  they  were  handed  up  to 
them  b\'  their  comrades.  After  the  building  was  up  five  feet  or 
so,  ropes  or  chains  would  be  attached  to  the  ends  of  the  logs,  and 
the  men  on  the  building  would  pull  while  the  others  lifted  or 
pushed  from  below.  And  if  they  had  no  ropes  or  chains,  the\' 
sometimes  would  cut  a  bush  ten  or  twelve  feet  high  and  form 
a  loop  by  withing  the  twigs  together  and  slip  it  over  the  end 
of  the  logs  and  pull  on  that.  They  also,  sometimes,  used  what 
was  called  a  "  horse,"  which  was  a  crotched  stick  six  feet  or 
more  long  with  the  crotch  at  the  upper  end,  and  strong  pins 
through  the  lower  end  to  lift  by. 

Having  arrived  at  the  height  of  six  or  seven  feet,  notches 
were  cut  on  the  top  of  the  two  top  side  logs  and  poles  six  or 
seven  inches  in  diameter  laid  across  to  serv^e  as  joists  for  the 
chamber  for  the  chamber  floor.  General!}'  the  building  was 
raised  one,  two  or  three  tiers  of  logs  higher  than  the  chamber 
floor.  After  the  body  of  the  house  was  raised  to  the  required 
height,  sometimes  rafters  made  of  jjoles  from  the  forest  were 
placed  in  position,  and  sometimes  the  gable  ends  were  built  up 
with  logs,  with  poles  running  lengthwise  of  the  building  and 
about  three  feet  apart,  and  fitted  into  them  (the  gables)  for  the 
support  of  the  roof.  Most  of  the  earliest  roofs  were  made  of  elm 
or  other  kinds  of  bark,  laid  rough  side  up,  and  held  in  its  place  by 
the  weight  of  poles  resting  on  top  of  it  and  running  lengthwase 


of  the  building.  Some  roofs  were  made  of  "  shakes,  "  that  is, 
rough  shingles  three  or  more  feet  long,  generally  made  of  white 
ash,  pine  or  oak.  Another  kind  of  roof  was  made  by  cutting 
small-sized  basswood  logs  the  desired  length  and  splitting  them 
through  the  center,  and  then  digging  out  the  inner  side  from 
end  to  end.  "trough  fashion."'  Then  placing  them  on  the  roof 
one-half  of  them  with  the  hollowed  side  up.  and  the  other  half 
with  the  hollowed  side  down  and  placed  over  the  first  in  such  a 
manner  that  the  water  that  fell  on  the  rounding  side  of  the  top 
ones  would  run  into  the  grooves  in  the  lower  ones  and  from 
there  to  the  ground.  A  place  for  a  door  was  then  sawed  out 
and  another  for  a  window,  and  sometimes  places  for  two  win- 
dows. A  blanket  frequently  served  for  a  door  in  the  Summer 
time  the  first  year,  and  doors  were  sometimes  made  of  plank  or 
boards  split  out  of  white  ash  or  basswood  and  hewed  down,  and 
hung  on  wooden  hinges  and  held  closed  with  a  wooden  latch 
and  catch,  with  a  "  latch-string  hanging  outside  the  door." 
Sometimes  they  had  one  or  more  windows  with  four  or  six 
lights  of  glass,  but  they  were  frequently  compelled  to  use 
greased  paper  as  a  substitute  for  glass.  Floors  were  made  of 
"puncheons"  split  out  of  basswood  logs  and  hewed  down  with 
a  narrow  axe.  Cook  stoves  had  not  then  been  invented,  and 
fire-places  were  universally  used ;  brick  were  not  to  be  had.  and 
chimneys  were  made  of  stone,  wood  and  mud.  "  Dutch  chim- 
neys "  were  the  most  common  among  the  early  settlers ;  they 
consisted  of  a  stone  back  built  up  about  six  feet  high,  more  or 
less,  and  of  about  the  same  width.  Instead  of  jams  wooden 
arms,  either  straight  or  curv-ing  downwards,  were  fastened  at 
their  lower  ends  into  the  logs  on  each  side  of  the  stone  back, 
about  three  feet  from  the  floor,  with  their  upper  ends  resting 
against  the  beam  overhead  on  which  the  chamber  floor  was 
laid.  On  and  from  these  arms  the  chimney  was  built  up  and 
topped  out  with  sticks  and  mortar,  and  when  thoroughly  plas- 
tered from  top  to  bottom  was  considered  finished. 

Some  chimneys  were  built  entirely  of  stone,  and  had  jams  to 
the  fire  places.  A  pole  called  the  "  lug  pole  "  was  put  into 
and  through  all  the  early  chimneys.  It  was  placed  directly 
over  the  fire  and  five  or  six  feet  above  the  hearth,  which  was 
made  of  flat  stone.     Sometimes  a  wooden  hook  from  three  to 



four  feet  long  was  hooked  over  the  "lug  pole,"  and  which  had  one 
or  more  notches  near  the  lower  end  in  which  to  hang  the  bails 
of  pots  and  kettles.  And  sometimes  a  chain  would  be  used  for 
the  same  purpose,  and  sometimes  families  that  could  afford  the 
e.xpense  would  ha\e  "  trammels."'  The\-  were  made  of  two 
bars  of  iron,  one  thin  and  flat,  and  about  two  inches  wide,  with 
the  top  end  bent  over  in  a  half  circle,  so  as  to  hook  over  the 
"lug  pole,"  and  the  remainder  perforated  with  holes  about  half 
an  inch  in  diameter  and  two  or  three  inches  apart.  The  other 
bar  was  about  half  an  inch  in  diameter,  with  a  hook  at  the 
lower  end.  and  an  inch  or  two  of  the  upper  end  bent  at  right 
angles  with  the  bod>'  of  the  bar.  and  made  to  fit  into  the  holes 
in  the  flat  bar  so  that  the  hook  could  be  raised  or  lowered  as 
occasion  required. 

The  cracks  between  the  logs  were  generally  chinked  up  with 
three-cornered  pieces  of  timber,  split  out  of  small  basswood 
trees,  fitted  in  and  plastered  with  mud  both  outside  and  inside. 
Sometimes  the  cracks  between  the  logs  would  be  closed  up 
with  moss  gathered  in  the  woods.  Occasionally  houses  were 
built  with  logs  hewed  on  both  sides  before  they  were  raised  ; 
these  were  called  "  block  houses." 


After  the  pioneers  had  a  house  or  shanty  built,  and  had  got 
rigged  up  ready  to  commence  housekeeping,  the  next  task  was 
to  clear  some  land.  If  the  settler  arrived  very  earh-  in  the 
season  he  would  be  able,  and  generally  did,  clear  off  a  small 
piece  in  time  to  plant  some  corn  and  potatoes  and  sow  some 
turnips;  but  his  greatest  ambition  was  to  get  several  acres 
ready  for  Winter  wheat  in  the  Fall.  To  do  this  he  worked  hard, 
early  and  late,  unless  interrupted  b)- sickness.  The  first  business 
was  to  cut  down  the  trees — in  this  man}-  of  the  pioneers  ac- 
quired great  skill :  the}'  would  so  cut  and  guide  a  tree  as  to 
have  it  fall  in  most  cases,  exactly  where  the}-  wanted  it.  In 
cutting  timber  for  the  purpose  of  clearing  land,  several  differ- 
ent methods  were  practiced  by  the  early  settlers.  One  was  to 
cut  down  the  trees,  then  trim  out  the  tops,  that  is,  cut  off  the 
limbs  and  pile  the  brush  into  large  heaps,  then  cut  the  bodies 


up  into  lo^s  of  from  twelve  to  twenty  feet  in  length,  depend- 
ing upon  the  size  of  the  trees.  This  method  was  generally 
pursued  when  they  intended  to  clear  the  land  the  same  year. 

Another  method  was  to  "windrow"  the  timber;  this  was 
done  by  cutting  all  the  trees  on  a  strip  of  land  four,  live  or  six 
rods  in  width  so  that  their  tops  would  all  fall  from  both  sides 
of  the  strip  into  the  center,  and  form  a  row  the  whole  length  of 
the  strip,  while  the  bodies  of  the  trees  on  the  right  hand  and 
left  hand  sides  laid  angling  and  at  different  angles  with  the 
center  of  the  row.  After  the  trees  were  felled,  the  limbs  on 
the  top  side  were  generally  cut  off  or  lopped  down.  Windrows 
were  made  parallel  to  each  other  and  w^ere  from  four  to  six- 
rods  apart  from  center  to  center. 

Another  method  of  cutting  timber  for  the  purpose  of  clear- 
ing land,  was  "slashing  it  down."  This  consisted  simpl)'  in 
cutting  down  the  trees  and  letting  them  fall  in  any  direction 
without  trimming  them  out,  or  cutting  up  the  bodies.  Some- 
times choppers  when  slashing  timber  down  would  cut  what  was 
called  a  "drive"  where  the  timber  was  thick  and  large,  and  the 
lay  of  the  land  and  the  range  of  the  trees  was  favorable.  They 
would  commence  at  a  certain  point  and  cut  all  the  trees  partly 
down  for  a  considerable  distance  and  sometimes  over  an  extent 
of  several  acres,  and  each  successive  tree  was  so  cut  that  when 
it  fell  it  was  so  guided  or  drawn  as  surel}'  to  strike  the  next 
intended  tree,  whether  it  stood  straight  ahead  or  sometimes  to 
the  right  or  left.  When  all  was  ready  the  large  tree,  which  for 
its  size  and  location  had  been  selected  for  the  "driver,"  was  cut 
and  fell  against  the  next  tree  and  that  against  the  second,  and 
the  second  against  the  third,  and  the  third  against  the  fourth, 
and  so  on,  until  they  all  went  thundering  and  crashing  down 

After  the  timber  on  a  piece  of  land  had  been  cut  down  for 
the  purpose  of  clearing  the  land,  and  left  to  lay  a  considerable 
time,  it  was  called  a  "  fallow,"  and  when  the  brush  was  burned 
it  was  called  "  burning  a  fallow."  After  the  timber  had  lain  a 
sufficient  length  of  time  and  the  brush  had  become  sufficientl}' 
dry  to  satisf}'  the  owner,  a  day  was  selected  when  the  weather 
was  favorable  to  set  on  fire  and  "  burn  the  fallow."  "  Fallows" 
were   burned    during   a  dry  time,  and  on  a  day  when  the  sun 


CHOPJMN(;  AXD  L()(;(;iN<;.  iii 

shone  bright,  and  i^encrally  set  from  12  to  2  o'clock  V.  M. 
The}'  wore  iisuall}'  set  in  several  places  about  the  same  time  ; 
and  presently  the  blaze  would  shoot  up  here  and  there  in  dif- 
ferent parts  all  o\'er  the  fallow;  and  rapidly  extendini^  and  in- 
creasini;"  the  flames  would  swa\'  to  and  fro,  and  at  times  rise 
nearl\-  to  the  hei«^ht  of  the  tallest  trees  ;  the  heat,  the  ^lare,  the 
crackling,  the  swaying,  and  the  roar  of  the  fierce  and  consum- 
in<;  flames,  as  witnessed  at  the  burning'  of  a  large  "fallow" 
])resented  a  grand  and  exciting  scene. 

Timber  that  was  slashed  or  windrowed  was  left  a  year  and 
a  half  or  two  years  or  more,  until  it  became  very  dry,  before 
the  brush  was  burned.  And  sometimes  the  brush  and  timber 
became  so  dry  that  when  it  was  fired  the  brush  was  all  burned 
up,  and  a  considerable  portion  of  the  timber,  besides  the  soil 
of  the  land  being  burned  and  materiall)'  injured  b)'  the  fire  in 
some  instances. 

After  the  brush  had  been  burned  on  a  piece  of  land  where 
the  timber  had  been  "slashed"  or  "windrowed"  the  bodies  of 
the  trees  had  to  be  cut  up  the  proper  logging  length  before  the 
logging  commenced.  The  bodies  of  the  trees  were  generally 
considerably  seasoned  and  quite  hard.  A  custom  prevailed  to 
some  extent  with  the  choppers  to  "  nigger  off"  the  largest  logs 
while  they  were  chopping  up  the  smaller  ones.  It  was  done 
in  this  way  :  Notches  were  cut  at  proper  distances  on  top  of 
the  large  trees  and  places  hollowed  out,  coals  put  on,  a  fire 
started  and  sticks  laid  across  at  right  angles  with  tlie  log  and 
when  the}'  burned  up  other  sticks  of  wood,  brands  or  poles  were 
laid  across,  and  renewed  from  time  to  time  until  the  large  logs 
were  burned  through  and  off.  After  the  fire  got  well  started 
it  was  not  much  trouble  to  keep  it  going,  and  a  man  could  at- 
tend to  and  "nigger  off"  twenty  or  thirty  large  logs  while 
he  was  chopping  up  the  remaining  smaller  ones  in  the 

After  the  brush  had  been  burned  and  the  trees  cut  into  logs, 
the  next  business  in  order  was  the  logging.  When  the  piece  to 
be  logged  was  small  and  the  pioneer  owned  a  yoke  of  oxen,  he 
would  hire  or  change  works  with  two  or  three  helpers,  and  if 
he  did  //ot  own  a  yoke  of  oxen  he  would  hire  or  change  works 
with  some  man  that  did,  and  with  two  or  more  neighbors,  and 

ii2  THE    LOGGING    BEE. 

they  together  would  "  log  "  about  an  acre  a  day.  Sometimes 
small  pieces  of  land  were  so  far  cleared  of  timber  as  to  produce 
crops  without  the  use  of  any  team  whatever.  Frequently  land 
would  be  chopped  and  cleared  by  the  job  at  a  specified  price 
per  acre.  Jobs  of  from  five  to  ten  acres  were  frequently  let. 
and  jobs  of  fifteen  or  twenty  acres  were  let  less  frequently,  and 
occasionally,  but  not  often,  jobs  of  from  thirty  to  forty  acres 
were  cleared. 

In  pioneer  times  the  practice  of  having  "logging  bees"  was 
quite  common.  When  a  large  tract  was  to  be  logged,  the 
settlers  for  several  miles  around  were  invited  to  a  "  bee."  At  the 
appointed  time^from  fifteen  to  thirty  men  would  be  present. 
About  half  a  dozen  would  bring  ox  teams  and  the  balance 
would  be  provided  with  hand-spikes  or  cant-hooks.  To  do  the 
business  up  properly  and  expeditiously  it  required  three  or  four 
hand-spike  men  to  each  team. 

The  owner  of  the  land,  or  some  other  experienced  man, 
would  select  places  to  build  the  different  heaps,  and  the  work 
began  and  the  bee  commenced. 

The  logs  were  rapidly  drawn  or  "  snaked  "  alongside  the 
heap,  and  then  the  hand-spike  men  quickly  rolled  them  to  the 
proper  place.  Another  and  another  was  snaked  up  in  rapid 
succession,  the  handspike  men  being  always  ready  to  unhitch  it 
if  it  caught  against  a  root  or  stump.  As  it  tore  along  the 
ground,  the  black  dust  flew  up  in  every  direction.  Soon  every 
man  was  covered  with  a  black  coat  of  coal-dust  and  soot, 
involving  clothes,  hands  and  face  in  "  outer  darkness."  But 
the  work  went  on  still  more  rapidly.  The  several  gangs  caught 
the  spirit  of  rivalry,  and  each  strove  to  make  the  quickest  trips 
and  the  largest  pile.  The  oxen  would  sometimes  get  as  excited 
as  the  men,  and  would  "  snake  "  their  loads  into  place  with 
ever-increasing  energy.  Teams  that  understood  their  business 
would '  stand  quiet  while  the  chain  was  being  hitched,  then 
spring  with  all  their  might,  taking  a  bee-line  to  the  log  heap^ 
and  halt  when  they  came  to  the  right  spot.  Faster  and  faster 
sped  the  men  and  teams  to  and  fro,  harder  strained  the  hand- 
spike men  to  increase  the  pile,  higher  flew  the  clouds  of  dust 
and  soot,  reckless  of  danger,  men  sprang  in  front  of  rolling  logs 


or  boiiiulcd  over  them  as  the}-  went  \\hirHn<^  amoiii;"  the  stumps. 
Accidents  sometimes  happened,  but  it  was  a  wonder  that  the 
number  was  not  increased  tenfold. 

As  the  day  draws  to  a  close  a  thick  cloud  covers  the  field, 
through  which  are  seen  a  host  of  sooty  forms,  four-legged  ones 
with  horns,  and  two-legged  ones  with  hand-spikes,  pulling,  run- 
ning, lifting  and  shouting,  until  night  descends,  and  the  tired,  yet 
still  excited  laborers  clothed  in  blackness,  return  to  their  homes. 

If  the  weather  was  favorable,  the  log  heaps  were  frequently 
set  on  fire  that  evening,  and,  within  a  few  hours,  the  thirty  or 
forty  brightly  blazing  piles  glimmered  in  the  darkness  and  illu- 
minated the  heavens  similar  to  the  burning  buildings  of  a  vil- 
lage or  city.  If  left  alone  while  burning  the  heaps  would  all 
burn  out  in  the  center,  leaving  some  parts  of  logs  and  brands 
at  the  sides  and  ends  that  would  not  burn  up,  so  it  was  neces- 
.sary  for  men  to  go  around  and  "  put  up  "  the  heaps,  that  is,  roll 
the  logs  in  together  and  throw  on  the  brands.  After  the  several 
heaps  had  burned  all  they  would,  there  would  still  be  a  fe\v 
brands  remaining,  and  the  "  fallow  "  had  to  be  "  branded  up." 
and  the)'  were  drawn  from  all  parts  of  the  fallow  into  one  or 
more  places  and  re-piled  and  set  on  fire  and  kept  burning  until 
entirely  consumed. 


The  very  earliest  settler  followed  the  practice  of  making 
more  or  less  sugar  every  spring.  All  over  the  country  grew  the 
sugar-maple  and  there  was  hardly  a  lot  large  enough  for  a  farm 
on  which  there  was  not  a  "sugar  bush."  The  first  thing  the 
pioneer  had  to  do  when  preparing  for  sugar-making  was  to  make 
a  lot  of  "  sap-troughs,"  they  were  generally  made  of  cucumber, 
basswood,  ash,  butternut  or  cherry  timber.  Trees  from  twelve 
to  eighteen  inches  in  diameter  were  cut  down  and  logs  from 
two  and  a  half  to  three  feet  in  length  cut  off,  and  split 
open  through  the  center,  then  the  inside  portion  was  dug  out, 
leaving  the  sides  and  bottom  an  inch  or  an  inch  and  a  half 
thick,  and  the  ends  two  or  three  inches  thick  and  each  trough 
large  enough  to  hold  from  one  to  two  pails  full  of  sap.  "  Store 
troughs,"  for  storing  sap  were  generally  made  from  large  cu- 
cumber trees,  from  two  to  three  feet  in  diameter  and  from 



twelve  to  twent}'  feet  in  length,  and  it  required  from  one  to 
three  to  each  "  sugar  bush."  Trees  were  tapped  b)'  cutting  a 
notch  in  the  side  of  the  tree  inclining  downwards  and  inwards 
with  a  narrow  axe  and  drix'ing  a  wooden  spout  about  a  foot 
long  into  an  orifice  made  by  a  tapping  gauge,  just  below  the 
lower  end  of  the  notch.  The  sap  was  boiled  b\-  the  early  set- 
tlers sometimes  in  cauldron  kettles,  but  mostly  in  kettles  hold- 
ing fi\^e  pails  or  three  j^ails,  and  of  smaller  size  generally  made 
of  iron,  but  sometimes  of  brass.  The  boiling  place  was  rigged 
b}'  setting  two   posts  into  the  ground  ten  or  tweh'e  feet  apart 


and  se\-en  or  eight  feet  high  with  crotches  at  the  top,  and  la\-- 
ing  a  strong  pole  into  the  crotches  from  one  post  to  the  other, 
then  hanging  chains  to  the  pole  or  hanging  on  large  wooden 
hooks  with  notches  cut  near  the  lower  ends,  in  which  to  hang 
the  kettle  bails.  Sometimes  a  half  dozen  or  more  kettles  of 
different  sizes  would  hang  in  a  row,  with  a  large  log  ten  or' 
twelve  feet  long,  rolled  up  on  the  back  side,  and  another  on  the 
front  side  until  the)'  touched  or  nearh-  touched  the  kettles, 
then  fine  split  wood  was  placed  under  and  around  the  kettles 
and  a   fire   started,   and   shorth-  the  boiling  would   commence. 


The  sap  was  "  gathered  "  or  brought  to  the  boiUng  place  in  sap 
buckets  carried  by  the  aid  of  a  sap-yoke,  wliich  was  made  to  fit 
the  neck  and  shoulders  of  the  person  carrying  it. 

Sugar-making  sometimes  commenced  when  the  snow  was  two 
feet  deep  in  the  woods,  and  then  gathering  sap  with  a  sap- 
)'oke  was  a  \'ery  laborious  and  difficult  job.  Sometimes  there 
would  be  a  crust  on  the  snow  in  the  morning  and  the  sap- 
gatherer  would  start  out  fort)' or  fift\'  rods  and  fill  his  buckets 
and  walk  carefulK'  and  slow  towards  the  boiling  place  on  the 
crust,  when  sutidenl)'  one  foot  would  break  through  and  go 
down  to  the  ground  in  a  twinkling  and  the  sap  would  fly  in 
ever)'  direction,  and  give  the  bearer  a  wetting  down. 

Such  accidents  happened  quite  frequently,  and  it  is  feared 
that  in  some  instances  the)'  might  have  called  forth  exclama- 
tions that  would  hardly  be  proper  to  repeat  in  a  Sabbath  School 
or  print  in  a  book. 

After  fifteen  or  twent)'  v'ears  from  the  time  of  the  first  set- 
tlement, wooden  sap-buckets  began  to  be  used  in  place  of 
troughs  ;  and  the  number  of  cauldron  kettles  was  increased, 
and  trees  began  to  be  tapped  with  a  small  auger  or  bit  instead 
of  an  axe,  and  the  sap  began  to  be  gathered  with  a  team  instead 
of  a  sap-yoke. 

The  glory  of  sugar-making  was  in  the  great  bush,  where 
hundreds  of  trees  were  tapped,  where  a  shant)-  was  erected, 
where  the  sap  was  brought  to  the  central  fires  in  barrels  or 
casks  on  ox-sleds,  where  cauldron  and  smaller  kettles  boiled 
and  bubbled  night  and  day,  where,  after  a  sufficient  quantit)' 
had  been  "  syruped  down  "  a  day  was  set  to  "  sugar  off."  When 
the  boys  and  girls  and  young  men  and  maidens  would  gather 
in,  and  with  dishes  and  spoons  or  a  flattened  stick, 

"  Would  taste  and  eat,  and  lap  and  lick," 

and  if  any  part  of  a  snow  bauK  rcmanicd  in  striking  distance, 
chunks  of  it  were  procured  and  the  warm  sugar  spread  on  and 
made  into  wax  and  then  eaten. 

About  thirty  or  forty  years  ago,  large  flat-bottomed  sap-pans, 
with  low  sides  and  made  of  sheet  iron,  and  set  in  arches,  began 
to   be    used    for   boiling   sap.      And    about    the    same  time    tin 



buckets  began  to  take  the  place  of  wooden  buckets  and 
troughs  for  catching  sap,  and  large  tubs  were  made  and  used  for 
storing  it,  instead  of  store  "troughs." 


The  early  settlers  were  n(^t  alwa\'s  successful  in  finding  a 
location  for  their  cabins  near  a  spring,  and  in  such  instances  a 
well  had  to  be  dug,  which  like  almost  everything  else  was  done 
by  the  proprietor  himself,  with  the  aid  of  his  boys  if  he  had 
any  large  enough,  or  a  neighbor,  to  haul  up  the  dirt.  Its 
depth  of  course  depended  on  the  location  of  water,  but  that 
was  generally  to  be  found  in  abundant   quantity,  and  of  good 


quality  at  from  ten  to  thirt}-  feet,  but  occasionalh'  a  well  had 
to  be  dug  to  the  depth  of  forty  or  fifty  feet.  Plent\'  of  stone  of 
good  quality  was  to  be  found  all  over  the  country;  and  the 
pioneers  here  were  not  compelled  to  do  what  the  pioneers  of 
some  parts  of  the  western  country  have  been  ;  to  stone  up  their 
wells  with  Cottonwood  or  other  plank. 

The  well  being  dug  and  stoned  up,  it  was  completed  for  use 
by  a  superstructure,  then  almost  uiuxcrsal,  but  is  now  almost 
entirely  a  thing  of  the  past.  A  post  ten  <~>r  twehe  inches  in 
diameter  and  some  ten  feet  high,  with  a  crotched  top  was  set 
in  the  ground  a  few  feet  from  the  well.  On  a  stout  pin  run- 
ning through  both  arms  of  the  crotch,  was  hung  a  heavy  pole 



or  "sweep,"  often  twent)'  feet  or  more  lon^r.  the  lar^^er  end 
resting  on  the  <;rouncl.  the  smaller  end  rising  in  air,  directly  over 
the  well.  To  this  was  attached  a  smaller  pole,  reachin<^  to  the 
top  of  the  well  ;  at  the  lower  end  of  this  pole  huni;"  the  bucket, 
the  veritable  "  old  oaken  bucket,  that  huny;  in  the  well,"  and 
the  process  of  drawini;-  water  consistetl  in  takintr  lu)ld  of  the 
small  "well-pole"  antl  pulliiii;'  down  the  small  end  of  the 
"sweep"  till  the  bucket  struck  the  water  and  was  filled,  and 
then  letting;"  the  butt  end  pull  it  out  with  some  assistance.  A 
board  curb  about  three  feet  square  and  nearK'  the  same  heiL,dU 
was  placed  around  the  top  of  the  w  ell  to  pre\ent  children  antl 
others  from  fallint^-  in. 

The  whole  formed,  for  a  lons^'  time,  a  picturescjue  antl  far- 
seen  addition  to  nearl)-  every  dooryard  in  this  section  of  coun- 
tr\-.  Once  in  a  L;reat  while  some  wealth}'  citizen  would  have  a 
windlass  ft)r  raisin<;-  water,  but  for  over  a  tpiarter  of  a  century 
after  the  first  settlements,  a  farmer  nexer  thought  of  having  a 
pump.  St)metimes  there  was  no  well-sweep  erected,  but  the 
water  was  drawn  up  by  hand  with  a  pail,  and  a  small  pole  with 
a  crotch  or  hook  on  the  lower  end.  And  st)metimes  it  was 
drawn  up  with  a  pail  and  rope.  At  a  later  date  water  was 
sometimes  raised  with  a  long  rope  running  over  a  pulley  with  a 
bucket  attachetl  to  each  end,  and  when  one  bucket  came  up 
the  other  went  down.  At  the  present  time  water  is  nearl)'  all 
raised  from  wells  b\'  pumps  of  diflerent  kinds. 

How  dear  to  my  heart  are  the  scenes  of  my  childhood  ! 

When  fond  recollection  presents  them  to  view  ; 
The  orchard,  the  meadow,  the  diep-tangled  wild-wood, 

And  every  loved  spot  which  my  mfancy  knew; 
The  wide-spreading  pond  and  the  mill  that  stood  by  it 

The  bridge,  and  the  rock  where  the  cataract  fell. 
The  col  of  my  father,  the  dairy  house  nigh  it, 

And  e'en  the  rude  bucket  which  hung  in  the  well; 
The  old  oaken  bucket — the  iron-bound  bucket — 

The  moss-covet 'd  bucket  which  hung  in  the  well. 

That  moss-covered  vessel  I  hail  as  a  treasure — 
For  often  at  noon,  when  return'd  from  the  field, 

I  found  it  the  source  of  an  exquisite  pleasure. 
The  purest  snd  sweetest  that  nature  can  yield. 

How  ardent  I  seized  it  with  hands  that  were  glowing, 


And  quick  to  the  white-pebbled  bottom  it  fell  : 
Then  soon,  with  the  emblem  of  truth  overfiowing. 

And  dripping  with  coolness,  it  rose  from  the  well; 
The  old  oaken  bucket — the  iron-bound  bucket — 

The  moss-cover'd  bucket  arose  from  the  well 

How  sweet  from  the  green,  mossy  brim  to  receive  it. 

As  poised  on  the  curb  it  inclined  to  my  lipsl 
Not  a  full,  blushing  goblet  could  tempt  me  to  leave  "it, 

Though  filled  with  the  nectar  that  Jupiter  sips. 
And  now,  far  removed  from  the  loved  situation. 

The  tear  of  regret  will  intrusively  swell. 
As  fancy  reverts  to  my  father's  plantation. 

And  sighs  for  the  bucket  which  hangs  in  the  well; 
The  old  oaken  bucket — the  iron-bound  bucket — 

The  moss-cover'd  bucket  which  hangs  in  the  well. 


As  the  pioneer  had  more  or  less  stock  when  he  commenced 
growing  crops,  some  sort  of  fence  was  required.  Probably  the 
records  of  ex^ery  town  organized  in  the  Holland  Purchase,  down 
to  1850,  would  show  that  at  its  first  town  meeting  an  ordinance 
Avas  passed,  providing  that  horses  and  horned  cattle  should  be 
free  commoners.  Hogs,  it  was  usually  voted,  should  not  be 
free  commoners  ;  while  sheep  held  an  intermediate  position, 
being  sometimes  allowed  the  liberty  of  the  road,  and  some- 
times doomed  to  the  seclusion  of  the  pasture.  These  ordi- 
nances were  changed  from  time  to  time  as  circumstances 
seemed  to  require.  The  fence  that  was  constructed  the  easiest 
and  cheapest  by  the  pioneers  and  one  that  was  frequently  used 
was  a  brush  fence,  or  a  "slash  fence."  It  was  made  b\'  felling 
trees  in  together  in  a  line  in  the  desired  direction.  Where  the 
timber  was  thick  and  the  trees  large  a  brush  fence  could  be 
made  that  wt)u1c1  answer  a  good  purpose  for  two  or  three 
years.  Another  style  of  fence  used  was  a  log  fence,  which  was 
made  by  laying  the  logs  one  above  the  other  in  a  line  with  the 
ends  lapping  by  each  other,  and  resting  upon  sticks  four  to  six- 
inches  in  diameter,  and  three  or  four  feet  long,  laid  cross-wa\s 
under  the  ends  of  each  tier  of  logs.  Log  fence  \\-as  sometimes 
made  b}'  cutting  logs  the  proper  length  and  la\'ing  them  after 
the  fashion  of  the  common  crooked  rail  fence.  But  as  settle- 
ments increased,  the  crooked  rail   fence  or  the  "  Virginia  rail 

RAII.,   i;0.\Rr)    AM)    WIRF.    FENCES.  II9 

fence,"  became  the  standanl  protection  for  the  L;"ro\\inn[  crops. 
Rail  spHttin_<(  constituted  an  important  part  of  the  pioneer's 
work.  Equipped  with  ax,  beetle  and  wedi^es,  he  would  spend 
weeks  and  months  in  transforminL;'  the  noble  ash  and  cherr\- 
into  rails  twehe  feet  loni;. 

In  the  Spring;  these  were  laid  in  fence,  the  bi^yest  at  the 
bottom,  one  end  of  each  rail  below  and  the  other  abo\e,  and 
each  "  lengtli  "  of  fence  formin^^  an  obtuse  antj^le  with  that  on 
eitlier  side.  Four  and  a  half  feet  was  the  usual  height  pre- 
scribed b\'  the  town  ordinances,  but  the  farmer's  standard  of 
efTicienc)'  was  a  seven-rail  fence,  staked  and  ridered.  Two 
stout  stakes  were  driven  into  the  ground  and  crossed  above  the 
sixth  rail,  at  each  corner,  while  on  the  crotch  thus  formed,  was 
laid  a  large  rail,  serving  to  add  to  the  height  and  to  keep  the 
others  in  place.  Such  a  fence  would  (^ften  reach  the  height  of 
six  feet.  This  fence,  somewhat  modified,  forms  to  this  da)'  a 
considerable  portion  of  the  fence  on  man\-  farms  in  the  south 
part  of  the  county  ;  but  the  adoption  of  other  styles  of  fence 
and  the  scarcity  of  timber  is  fast  driving  the  rail  splitter  and 
his  occupation  from  the  field  (or  rather  from  the  forest).  The 
kinds  of  timber  from  which  rails  were  made,  were  chestnut, 
oak,  cherry,  white  ash,  black  ash,  pine,  hemlock,  elm,  basswood, 
and  sometimes  beech  and  maple. 

About  1830,  board  fences  began  to  come  into  use;  they  were 
generally  made  of  boards  sixteen  feet  long  and  six  or  eight 
inches  wide.  The  posts  were  six  and  one-half  or  seven  feet 
long,  and  set  in  the  ground  ab(jut  eight  feet  apart,  and  the 
boards  nailed  on.  I'osts  were  sometimes  made  from  small 
trees  hewed  on  one  side,  sometimes  the\'  were  sawed,  anci 
sometimes  s])lit  out.  The  kind  of  timber  used  for  posts  was 
generally  cedar,  oak,  hemlock,  cherry,  chestnut  and  red  beech. 
.Another  kind  of  fence  was  made  of  posts  and  rails;  rails  being 
used  instead  of  boards.  Holes  were  mortised  through  the 
posts  and  the  ends  of  the  rails  fitted  in. 

Within  the  last  few  years  wire  fence  has  been  introduced  and 
used  to  some  extent.  Posts  are  set  in  the  ground  and  the  wire 
strung  from  post  to  post  and  fastened.  Wire  fence  is  made  of 
plain  and  barbed  wire.  The  amount  of  barbed  wire  fence  in 
use  is  being  increased  considerabh-  at  the  j)resent  time.    Cattle, 


horses,  and  other  domestic  animals  are  not  now  allowed  by  law 
to  run  loose  and  feed  aloni;"  the  highways,  consequenth'  fences 
along  the  roads  in  front  of  meadows  and  cultivated  fields  are 
frequently  dispensed  with. 

FKA.Mt:    BARNS. 

After  the  pioneer  had  built  his  log  house  and  had  a  piece  of 
land  cleared  and  fenced,  the  next  thing  he  needed  was  a  barn. 
Log  barns  were  sometimes  built  but  it  was  difficult  to  make 
them  large  enough  to  store  any  considerable  amount  of  wheat, 
oats,  rye  and  hay,  and  frame  barns  were  generalh'  built  as  soon 
as  lumber  could  be  procured,  anywhere  in  reasonable  distance, 
to  enclose  them. 

Plenty  of  excellent  timber  was  growing  in  the  forest  near  b\', 
and  was  quickly  "  got  out,"  that  is,  cut  down,  scored  and  hewed 
by  the  pioneer  and  his  boys  or  hired  help.  The  kinds  of  tim- 
ber used  in  barn  frames  were  generally  rock  elm,  cherr}\  red 
beech,  ash,  cucumber  and  pine.  The  timber  was  draw  n  on  the 
spot,  and  framed,  and  raised,  and  enclosed  with  hemlock  or  pine 
boards,  all  running  up  and  down. 

There  are  several  pioneer  barns  still  standing  and  in  use  that 
are  more  than  sixty-five  years  old  and  the  frames  are  "just  as 
good  as  new%"  the  beams  in  which  are  fourteen  inches  deep 
and  twelve  inches  thick,  and  the  size  of  the  sills  and  posts  and 
other  timbers  are  in  proportion.  They  are  still  covered  with 
the  same  old  boards  that  first  enclosed  them,  which  are  held  on 
by  the  same  nails  first  driven.  These  barns  were  generally 
forty  feet  long  and  thirty  feet  wide  with  posts  from  fourteen 
.  to  sixteen  feet  high,  and  the  roof  put  on  with  a  "  quar- 
ter pitch."  They  were  nearh'  all  constructed  after  the  same  pat- 
tern, with  a  threshing  floor  and  drive-wa\'  near  the  center  run- 
ning crosswise  of  the  building,  being  generalh^  twelve  feet  wide 
by  thirty  long,  with  a  stable  at  one  end  from  ten  to  twelve  feet 
wide  and  thirty  feet  long,  and  about  seven  feet  high,  with  a 
scaffold  overhead  for  grain,  and  on  the  other  side  of  the  thresh- 
ing-floor was  a  bay,  sixteen  or  eighteen  feet  wide  and  thirty  feet 
long,  used  for  storing  ha)-.  In  those  days,  horse-forks  had  not 
been  invented,  and  hay  and  grain  were  pitched  on  and  off  by 
hand-forks,  and    when  the    barn  was  nearly  full  it  had   to  be 

noUSKlIolJ)    KU  RN I  ri'KK,    KTC.  121 

])itchctl  up  ()\cr  the  "  bi^  beam,"  which   was  about  twelve  feet 
abo\e  the  floor. 

A  ii^c'At  inan\'  of  those  old-fashioned  barns  are  still  standin<r 
and  in  use,  but  w  itliin  the  last  twenty-five  years — since  dairying 
has  l:)econie  the  princi[)al  business  of  the  farmers  here  and  man\' 
of  the  farms  have  been  enlarged,  and  the  number  of  cows  kei)t 
has  been  s^reatly  increased — new  and  lar<^er  barns  have  been 
built,  some  of  them  one  hundred  feet  loni;"  and  fort}'  feet  wide: 
large  enough  to  stable  fifty  to  one  hundred  cows,  and  to  hold 
fodder  enough  to  Winter  them.  The  old-fashioned  barns  were 
single-boarded,  but  barns  built  now  are  generalh-  double  boarded 
or  battened. 


Household  furniture  was  oftentimes  limited  as  to  variety,  and 
all  told  would  show  but  a  meager  invoice.  The  first,  an  indis- 
pensable article,  was  bed  and  bedding.  Cooking  utensils  were 
next  in  order,  and  these  were  at  first  chiefly  such  as  the  family 
brought  with  them,  with  such  additions  as  the  skill  and  resources 
of  the  head  of  the  family  could  improvise.  Beds  and  bedding 
consisted  of  one  or  more  feather  beds  and  straw  ticks  filled  with 
straw,  husks  or  fine  boughs,  with  such  covering  as  the  family 
means  would  permit.  In  many  cases  the  feather  bed  was  want- 
ing and  the  straw  tick  filled  with  straw,  husks  or  the  boughs 
of  hemlock  or  pine  were  substituted,  and  in  some  cases  the 
straw  ticks  were  wanting.  In  such  a  case  the  boughs  were 
skillfull}-  prepared  and  spread  in  some  convenient  locality  that 
the  tenement  would  permit.  Often  times  the  sleeping  room  for 
the  younger  members  of  the  family  was  located  in  the  loft  or 
upper  story  of  the  house,  and  access  was  had  by  means  of  a 
ladder.  This  upper  lodging  room  was  enjoyed  only  by  those 
whose  building  was  high  enough  between  the  floors  and  roof. 
Sometimes  some  other  or  less  expensive  room  was  provided. 
The  trundle  bed  was  in  frequent  use,  and  when  not  being  used 
was  pushed  under  the  bed  occupied  b}'  the  older  members  of 
the  famil}-.  Bedsteads  were  of  various  patterns;  small  poles 
were  cut  of  suitable  length  for  the  purpose,  and  an  axe  and 
auger  in  skilful   hands   did   the   work.     Cooking  utensils  were 

122  DOi\[ESTIC    LMl'ROVE-MEX'lS. 

limited  in  numbers.  The  "  Johnnx'-cake  board '"  was  a  board 
about  ^tw'o  feet  lonj^  and  from  ei^ht  to  ten  inches  in  width  and 
about  one  and  one-fourtli  or  one  and  one-lialf  inches  in  thick- 
ness spHt  out  of  some  hard  wood,  generally  white  ash,  and 
planed  smooth,  set  up  obliquely  before  the  fire.  On  this  the 
dough,  which  had  been  mixed  ver\'  thick  so  that  it  would  sta}- 
on,  was  spread  and  kept  there  until  it  baked  sufficiently.  There 
were  cast-iron  kettles  of  \arious  kinds  with  legs  three  inches  in 
length,  the  tea  kettle,  the  spider  with  three  legs,  to  keep  the 
bottom  above  the  ashes  when  set  upon  the  coals  on  the  heartli, 
sometimes  the  long  handled  frying  pan  and  the  iron  bake  ket- 
tle. This  kettle  when  in  use  was  placed  on  a  bed  of  coals  and 
coals  piled  on  the  iron  cover,  did  the  family  baking.  Some- 
times when  the  weather  permitted  a  hole  was  dug  in  the  ground 
out  of  doors  and  a  fire  made  in  it.  When  the  ground  was 
properly  heated  the  coals  and  ashes  were  removed  in  part  and 
the  kettle  with  its  contents  placed  therein  and  hot  ct:)als  piled 
upon  the  co\'er,  and  in  due  time  the  baking  was  done.  Some- 
times a  stone  oven  was  built  out  of  doors,  and  this  became  a 
favorite  family  institution.  After  brick  could  be  liad  they  were 
built  of  this  material,  and  sometimes  tliey  would  be  used  in 
common  by  the  near  neighbors.  Other  houseliold  utensils 
were  of  similar  primitive  patterns.  Wooden  dishes,  bowls 
and  plates  of  rude  construction  were  often  used  and  some" 
times  pewter  plates,  basins  and  platters.  Chairs  and  tables  were 
of  various  patterns.  A  seat  made  of  boards  with  a  high  back 
some  fi\'e  or  six  feet  long  and  called  a  "  settle,"  was  used 
frequently  for  children.  Shelves  arranged  along  the  walls 
of  the  house  performed  the  work  of  cupboards,  closets  aiul 
bureaus.  And  sometimes,  where  there  was  no  stand,  the 
old  famih'  Hible  ku'  on  the  shelf.  Hut  as  the  years  went  by 
the  bus\'  hands  of  the  pioneer  tolci  upon  his  surroundings. 
Broad  and  fertile  fields  took  the  place  of  j^atches.  and  large 
frame  barns  that  were  burdened  from  foundation  to  ricige-pole 
with  the  products  of  the  soil  had  supplanted  the  log  hovels. 
Meantime  the  good  wife's  thrifty  hands  had  not  been  idle_ 
The  flock  of  geese  that  she  had  reared  and  cared  for,  had  sup- 
plied her  with  the  materials  for  several  "spare  beds,"  and  the 
loom  and  wheel  had  been  the  means  of  her  laying  up  a  goodh' 


'I'liK  L().\(i  wixiKR  i:\  K\i.\(;s.  123 

store  of  woolens  and  linens  to  furnish  a  nioi'e  comfortable 

Sixty  )'ears  a_n"o  frame  houses  be^an  to  take  the  ])lace  of  tile 
log  ones.  In  structure  the}'  differed  l)ut  little  from  those  of 
to-da\' — sa\e  in  one  feature — e\"er\-  main  room  in  the  house 
whether  parlor,  sitting-room  or  kitchen,  was  supplied  with  an 
open  fire-place.  That  in  the  kitchen  was  much  lari^er  and 
alwa\'s  so  arrans^ed  that  it  contained  a  brick  o\en  in  one  of  the 
jambs.  This  o\'en  was  used  as  often  as  once  a  week  to  do  the 
family  bakintjj,  and  around  the  kitchen  fire,  usually,  the  famih- 
])assed  the  lonq;  winter  evenin_<^^s.  The  children  in  readinij;  or  con- 
ninij  lessons  that  must  be  recited  to  the  district  pedai^ot^ue  the 
"followini^  day.  in  peelini^  beech  nuts  or  roastinL(  chestnuts  in  the 
embers,  or  crackiuL;'  butternuts  in  the  corner. 

Perhaps  an  elder  member  of  the  famih'  would  read  aloud 
"Tales  of  the  Arabian  Ni<;'hts,""  "Thaddeus  of  Warsaw,"  or 
the  fate  of  ])ot)r  "  Charlotte  Temple."  But  change,  inexorable 
change  is  stamped  on  e\-er}'thing  that  pertains  to  kitclien  life 
of  60  years  ago.  The  range  and  cook  sto\e  ha\'e  supplanted 
the  fire  place  of  our  father's  time,  with  its  rudd}'  and  welcome 
cheer,  and  in  its  banishment  vanished  many  of  the  fondest 
joys  that  belong  to  childhood's  home  anci  years.  The  good 
wife's  household  burdens  may  have  been  greatly  ameliorated  by 
the  new  order  of  things,  but  when  modern  improvement 
invaded  the  old-fashioned  kitchen,  and  banished  the  "  ingle 
side,"  we  felt  it  to  be  sacrilege,  and  as  a  descendant  of  the  pio- 
neers, we  feel  called  upon  to  earnestly  protest  against  the 
change.  Think  of  listening  to  '•  folk-lore,"  or  fair\'  tales  b)- 
the  side  of  a  coal  stove,  or  playing  "blind  man's  buff,"  and 
"hunt  the  slip|)er"  around  a  range.  No.  we  say  it,  and  with- 
out fear  of  contradiction,  that  when  the  fireplace  was  banished 
from  (Hir  yXmerican  homes,  one  of  its  sacred  and  most  endear- 
ing altars  was  destroyed.  The  old  fireplace  with  its  endearing 
associations  has  attuned  many  a  lyre,  and  poets  have  sung  its 
praises.  No  fool  of  a  poet  ever  attempted  to  immortalize  a 
coal  stove  or  cooking  range  in  verse;  nor  ever  will.  Coal 
and  cast-iron  are  too  practical  and  onl\'  used  to  "save  fuel." 
We  are  not  in  enmit}'  to  the  cook  sto\-e  in  its  proper  place,  but 
the  family  sitting-room  should  be  supplied  with  an  open  fire. 

124  THE    DYE-HOUSE    OF    EARLY  Tr^rES. 

cither  of  wood   or  coal.      It    is    far   healthier   and   a   thousand 
times  pleasanter. 


The  first  process  in  manufacturing  wool  into  cloth,  after 
proper  cleansing,  was  to  pick  and  card  it,  or  prepare  it  for 
spinning.  This  work  had  to  be  performed  by  hand  for  there 
were  no  carding-machines  in  operation  at  the  time  we  speak  of. 
Hand-cards  were  of  simple  construction  ;  similar  in  shape  to 
the  horse-card  of  the  present  day,  only  larger  and  of  finer  wire. 
Two  cards  were  required,  a  right  and  left,  and  the  wool  was 
worked  or  manipulated  between  these  into  rolls.  The  mother, 
or  the  grandmother,  or  the  maiden  aunt  generally  performed 
this  duty,  and  these  rolls  were  spun  into  threads  on  the  "big 
wheel."  After  which  the  )'arn  was  reeled  from  the  spindle  into 
skeins,  again  scoured,  and  it  was  ready  for  coloring.  The 
domestic  colors  were  of  different  shades.  If  "  sheep's  grey," 
the  color  was  obtained  b\'  taking  two  fleeces  of  white  wool  and 
mixing  it  \\'ith  one  fleece  of  black.  If  brown  was  desired,  it 
was  obtained  by  boiling  the  yarn  in  a  solution  of  butternut 
bark,  copperas  and  alum.  If  purple,  Nicaraugua  wood  obtained 
at  the  store  entered  largeh-  into  the  composition  of  the  dye. 
If  blue,  it  was  immersed  in  "  }'e "  ancient  dye-tub,  and  was 
called  coloring  "  indigo  blue."  What  juvenile  of  those  days 
can  ever  forget  the  odors  that  arose  when  the  process  of  wring- 
ing out  the  }'arn  was  going  on.  Madder  red  was  one  of  the 
favorite  colors,  a  color  that  was  more  or  less  worn  by  the 
famih'  during  the  winter.  The  materials  for  producing  this 
color  had  to  be  obtained  at  the  village  store.  Flannel  cloth  of 
different  colors,  wo\'en  after  the  manner  of  "  Scotch  plaid," 
was  much  worn  b\'  women  and  girls.  The  noise  of  the  spin- 
ning wheels  would  commence  in  early  fall,  and  its  low ,  busy, 
humming  drone  would  be  heard  far  into  the  Winter.  A  mother 
or  an  elder  sister's  bus\'  feet  usualh-  trod  to  and  fro  to  its  music, 
and  generally  her  voice  in  "Silver  Street,"  or  "Camden,"  or  some 
other  of  those  dear  old  melodies  of  the  olden  time  would 
accompan\'  it.  .Vh  !  ye  boys  and  girls  w  ith  siKer  locks,  who 
number  the  seasons  that  have  come  and  gone  to  \'ou  in  the 
sixties,  at  the  mention  of  thi.s,  do  not  your  thougiits  turn  back 


126  THE  OLl)    SPINNINC;    WHEEL. 

through  the  great  gap  of  years  to  that  fairy-lancl,  "mother's 
kitchen,  and  her  spinning-wheel."  and  do  not  the  thoughts  that 
linger  around  the  old  open  fire-place,  the  glow  of  the  embers, 
and  the  giant  shadows  of  the  revoK'ing  wheel  upon  the  wall 
on  those  long  Winter  excnings,  burn  brighter  in  memory  than 
aught  else.  This  labor,  like  all  the  handicraft  performed  about 
the  household  in  those  days,  was  long  and  tedious.  Just  imagine 
the  countless  number  of  steps  that  would  be  required  to  form 
the  warp  and  woof  for  ninety  or  one  hundred  yards  of  flannel, 
drawn  out  at  a  single  thread  at  a  time.  Ikit  this  was  the  only 
way  the  pioneer  mothers  had  of  protecting  those  who  were 
dear  and  near  to  her  from  Winter's  chilling  reign,  and  the 
spinning  was  not  the  only  work  that  had  to  be  performed 
before  it  ^\■as  ready  for  use.  The  yarn  must  be  reeled  from 
the  spindle — the  operator  holding  the  thread  with  one  hand 
while  the  other  turned  the  reel,  and  the  bus}-  brain  numbered 
the  revolutions  into  "knots"  and  "skeins."  The  warj)  was 
then  spooled  on  the  "  quill  wheel,"  and  the  si)0()ls  were  placed 
in  the  "  scam,"  and  the  \'arn  warped  onto  the  "  bars."  From 
here  the  warp  was  wound  or  beamed  onto  the  beam  and  then 
passed  through  the  harnesses  and  then  through  the  reed.  The 
woof  or  filling  was  quilled  on  the  same  little  w  heels  into  bob- 
bins or  quills,  and  was  then  read}-  for  the  shuttle  and  the 
weaver.  I^^rom  fort}-  to  fift}'  }'ari,ls  was  the  custt)mar}'  length 
of  the  webs.  Perhaps  the  same  hands  that  picked  the  wool 
performed  the  rest  of  the  labor,  and  the  fabric  was  termed 
"  home-made,"  or  "  home-spun,"  a  definition  literally  true. 

Broken,  dismantled  !   would  that  it  were  mine  : 

I  would  not  keep  it  in  that  dusty  nook, 
Where  tangled  cobwebs  cross  and  interwine, 

And  grim  old  spiders  from  their  corners  look. 

From  distaff,  band  and  polished  rim,  ere  hung 

The  dusty  meshes.     Black  the  spindle  is, 
Crooked  and  rusty — a  dead,  silent  tongue. 

That  once  made  whirring  music — there  it  lies. 

Oh.  dear  to  me  is  this  forsaken  thing  ! 

1  gaze  upon  it  and  my  eyes  grow  dim  ; 
For  I  can  see  my  mother,  hear  her  sing, 

As  winds  the  shining  thread  and  whirls  the  rim. 

IHK    FI.AX    IM>rS'Ik\.  127 

So  sweet  she  sang  !  her  youngest  on  her  knee — 

Now  a  warble,  now  some  fine  old  hyiin. 
Sublime,  exultant,  full  of  victory. 

Triumphant  as  the  songs  of  seraphim. 

Sweet  toiler  1  through  her  life  of  crowded  care, 
While  grief  came  oft,  and  pain  and  weariness 

Till  swelled  the  anthem,  still  was  breathed  the  prayer, 
Till  death  came  clasping  with  his  cold  caress. 

She  sings  no  more  ;  beside  the  chimney  wide 

No  more  she  spins.     Years  come  and  go  ; 
Above  her  grave  upon  the  lone  hill  side 

The  snow  drifts  lie,  the  summer  grasses  grow. 

Flax  was  an  indispensible  necessity  to  the  pioneer,  and  its 
culti\ation  was  observed  by  all.  This  commodit)'  was  never 
raised  for  commerce  or  barter  b\'  the  pioneer,  but  its  uses  were 
purely  domestic,  suppl}'ing  all  the  sewinj^' thread  and  it  took  the 
place  of  cotton  for  all  purposes  that  this  staple  article  is  used 
in  to-da\'.  It  furnished  a  g'ood  share  of  the  summer  clothini.>' 
of  the  famil}-,  and  entered  largely  into  the  comforts  and  con- 
veniences of  the  household.  Its  cultivation  was  simple  and 
easN',  and  required  no  more  attention  than  the  raising  of  oats  or 
wheat,  or  the  rest  of  the  cereals  sa\e  in  its  harx'est.  Instead  of 
being  reaped  it  was  pulled  up,  the  dirt  shook  out  of  the  roots, 
and  laid  in  "  ga\els."  When  sufficiently  dry  it  was  bcnmd  into 
bundles  and  "shocked,"  where  it  would  remain  until  perfecth- 
cured.  Then  it  would  pass  to  the  threshing  floor  and  be  sub- 
ject to  a  sex'ere  "head-beating"  that  removed  all  the  seeds 
from  the  "bell"  or  "heads."  After  this  it  was  taken  to  some 
convenient  grass  plot  and  spread  upon  the  ground  in  swaths 
and  left  to  the  action  of  the  elements  until  the  wood\-  portion 
of  the  stalks  had  become  thoroughh*  rotten  and  brittle.  Then 
again  it  was  bound  into  bundles  and  taken  to  the  barn  where  it 
was  ready  for  the  brake.  By  the  aid  of  this  implement  the 
operator  would  commence  and  continue  the  breaking  process 
until  the  wooden  substance  of  the  stalk  was  broken  or  loosened 
from  the  outside  fiber  or  bark.  After  passing  through  this 
process  it  is  "swingled,"  b\'  taking  as  much  as  you  can  conven- 
iently hold  in  the  hand,  hanging  it  across  the  sharp  edge  of  a 
board  fixed  for  the  [Hirpose,  while  with  the  other  hand  you  beat 


it  with  a  wooden  knife  some  two  feet  long,  this  is  done  to 
remov^e  all  the  "  shieves."  After  it  has  been  thoroughly 
swingled,  it  is  taken  to  the  "  hetchel,"  where  the  silken  fibers 
of  the  flax  is  combed  into  "  hanks,"  with  the  same  ease  that 
one  of  our  modern  belle  combs  out  her  "  switch,"  and  this  flax 
is  ready  for  the  "  distaff."  This  is  a  very  simple  affair,  gener- 
ally cur.  from  the  top  of  a  little  maple,  not  over  half  an  inch  in 
diameter  with  four  little  protruding  branches,  which  are  bent 
together  and  fastened  at  the  top.  This  distaff  is  set  in  a  socket, 
which  allows  it  to  turn,  the  flax  is  loosely  bound  around,  a  few 
of  the  fibers  are  attached  to  the  spindle  of  the  little  wheel,  the 
foot  is  placed  upon  the  treadle  and  the  spinning  has  com- 
menced, the  thread  that  runs  through  the  flyers  to  the  spindle 
turns  the  distaff  and  supplies  the  spindle  with  flax.  The  tow 
was  carded  and  spun  as  you  would  wool,  on  a  big  wheel. 


In  pioneer  days,  farming  implements  were  of  rude  construc- 
tion and  most  of  their  parts  were  the  works  of  the  farmer's 
hands.  The  "  bull  plow"  that  was  in  common  use  sixty  years 
ago  was  made  mostly  of  wood.  The  plow-share  and  land-side 
were  made  b}'  the  blacksmith  out  of  wrought  iron,  with  the 
point  laid  with  steel  and  all  in  one  section.  The  mold-board 
was  of  wood  and  split  out  of  a  winding  log  or  tree,  and  worked 
clown  to  about  one  and  one-half  inches  in  thickness,  and  in  size 
and  shape  similar  to  the  mold-boards  of  cast-iron  plows.  The 
crotch-drag  was  almost  entirely  a  natural  production,  and  a 
description  of  which  may  be  found  in  the  article  on  milling, 
was  used,  only  this  drag  must  be  furnished  with  nine  or  eleven 
teeth,  some  twelve  inches  in  length  and  one  inch  in  diameter. 
The  capital  "  A  "  will  give  a  good  idea  of  this  drag.  One  of 
the  teeth  is  set  in  the  apex,  or  point,  where  the  draught  is 
attached  while  each  right  and  left  arm  is  pierced  by  an  equal 
number  of  teeth,  which  were  of  steel  or  iron. 

The  author,  then  a  lad  of  some  dozen  years,  has  a  \i\'id 
recollection  of  the  practical  workings  of  this  drag  upon  a 
newl)'-burned  fallow:  how  il  would  jerk  and  tip,  hop  and  skip 
along  until  it  would  find  something  to  fasten  upon,  when  things 
would  be  brought  up  standing;  then  there  would   be  a  season 

'JHE    .\E\VLV-CLEAR1£1)    [.AND.  \  2i) 

of  tugging  and  liftiiiL;  <ind  hallowing,  and  the  drag  would  be 
tided  over  the  obstacle  only  to  be  lifted  again  and  again  to 
clear  its  teeth  of  roots,  sods  or  brush,  or  to  remove  it  again 
from  its  anchorage  on  some  treacherous  root  or  stum]).  In  a 
few  years  the  plowing  of  his  ground  must  be  performed,  and 
that  was  a  task  which,  to  be  full)'  appreciated,  one  must  ha\'e 
had  some  practical  experience,  great  patience,  forbearance,  and 
an  unfaltering  faith  in  a  bountiful  Providence.  Oh.  )'e  modern 
tillers  of  the  soil  who  ride  at  careless  ease  upon  your  improved 
"  sulky  plows,"  could  you  ha\e  witnessed  the  breaking  of  this 
self-same  sod  by  ''  Old  (jrimes  "  sixty  or  seventy  years  ago 
with  that  same  old  "  bull  plow ,"  all  your  fine-spun  theories  of 
scientific  farming  and  performing  this  work  b\'  inanimate  force 
w  ould  ha\e  departed  as  "  \-anishes  the  dew  before  morning's 
sun  !"  And  could  \ou  have  heard  the  language  employed  b\' 
"  Old  Grimes  "  w  hen  that  plow  anchored  under  the  big  roots 
of  a  stump  and  he  undertook  to  "gee"  "them"  steers  and 
the\'  "  hawed,"  and  in  doing  so,  traveled  on  one  of  his  corns,  we 
fear  that  your  faith  in  the  native  goodness  of  that  old  gentle- 
man would  liave  been  terribK'  shaken.  Instances  of  the  remark- 
able patience  of  Job  under  trying  circumstances  are  given  but 
it  is  not  recorded  anywhere  that  he  ever  dragged  with  a  "  crotch 
drag  "  or  plowed  with  a  bull  plow  among  the  roots  and  stumps 
on  a  newh'-cleared   piece  of  land. 

"  He  that  by  his  plow  would  thrive 
llimself  must  either  hold  or  drive," 

Is  an  adage  that  t(j-day  wi)uld  be  questionable,  but  the  pioneer 
not  onl)-  was  comjielled  to  //<>M,  but  it  was  ///_if,  ///'/,  p//s/i  and 
/>////  until  e\er\'  bone  had  its  own  ])eculiar  ache.  There  are 
very  few  to-da\'  who  look  upon  the  practical  working  of  the 
machinerx'  now  employed  in  farming  who  ha\e  any  just  con- 
ception of  the  toils,  trials  and  hardships  that  w  ere  endured  b)- 
the  pioneers  who  (icvotcd  tluir  lives  to  making  the  countr)-  what 
it  now  is. 


The  first  mill  south   of  the  reservation   was  built  by  Daniel 

Smith    in    1805.       It  was  of  rude  construction,  built    of    logs 




with  wooden  gearing  and  had  a  capacity  of  grinding  only 
from  five  to  six  bushels  of  corn  per  day.  This  mill  was  located 
on  a  small  stream  in  the  Town  of  East  Hamburg.  The  follow- 
ing year,  John  Cummings  erected  a  grist  mill  on  the  Eighteen- 
Mile  creek,  a  mile  or  so  below  Water  Valley,  in  the  Town  of 
Hamburg.  This  was  the  first  mill  built,  that  did  a  general 
business  of  grinding,  south  of  the  Reservation. 

In  1809,  Joseph  Yaw  built  a  grist  mill  in  the  town  of  Boston. 
In  1812,  Jacob  Taylor  erected  another  at  Taylor  Hollow,  in 
the  town  of  Collins,  and  in  18 14  Benjamin  Gardner  built  one 
in  S.pringville.  These  mills  supplied  the  pioneers  for  a  few 
years  with  the  necessary  material  for  bread,  and  the  task  of 
doing  the  family  milling  was  no  slight  one.     The  roads  were 

GOINi;    TO    MILL. 

but  little  better  than  a  bridle  path,  and  sometimes  three  days 
would  be  consumed  in  coming  and  going  where  the  pioneer 
lived  remote.  The  task  was  performed  in  various  ways.  When 
the  distance  would  allow,  the  head  of  the  family  would  sling  a 
grist  across  one  shoulder,  and  by  occasionally  resting  and  shift- 
ing it  was  transported  in  this  way;  or  again  the  grist  would  be 
placed  upon  the  back  of  a  horse  and  a  boy  set  upon  this  and 
sent  to  mill ;  sometimes  several  boys  would  come  to  the  same 
mill  in  this  way  on  the  same  day,  but  more  often  where  the 
distance  was  of  any  consideration,  the  "  drag"  was  used.  This 
conveyance  was  almost  a  natural  production  and  called  but  little 
skill  in  its  construction. 

The  first  to  be  done  was  to  select  a  tree  that  threw   out    two 
main  branches,  seven  to  eight  inches  in  diameter  and  as  many 

CLOTHINC    ()]•■    TllK    l'I().\Ki:i<.  I3I 

tcct  in  length.  These  branches  formed  a  "  dra^;,"  or  the  letter 
V.  Now  champer  the  under  side  of  the  "drai^"  at  tlie  nose, 
where  the  draft  is  to  be  attached,  upwards  and  to  a  point. 
This  gives  it  the  shape  of  a  sled  runner  and  allows  it  to  slide 
over  all  obstacles  without  hindrance.  Across  the  top  of  the 
dray  place  split  planks  and  fasten  them;  aflix  two  stakes  at 
the  rear  to  prexent  the  load  from  slipping  off  and  you  have  it. 
This  could  be  used  in  all  seasons  and  was  niuch  more  conveni- 
ent than  the  ox  sled  where  the  ways  were  different.  On  this 
the  grist  was  put.  the  oxen  attached,  and  the  jMoneer  set  out 
for  the  mill,  almost  through  an  unbroken  wilderness.  If  tlie 
distance  was  great,  rations  for  himself  and  team  would  be 
carried.  Sometimes  the  drag  would  carr}-  grists  for  the  entire 
neighborhood  and  the  milling  would  be  done  by  turns. 


A  marked  change  has  taken  place  in  everything  that  apper- 
tains to  the  production  of  wearing  apparel.  Such  a  thing  as 
ready-made  clothing,  or  even  boots  and  shoes  was  unknown  sixt}' 
or  seventy  years  ago.  The  good  housewife  received  the  cloth 
for  the  Winter's  clothing  (mostly,  perhaps,  the  work  of  her  own 
hands)  from  the  fuller  and  dresser,  and  then  she  was  ready  for  the 
tailoress,  who  came  and  remained  until  the  garments  for  the 
family  were  cut  and  made.  Their  services  were  always  in  good 
demand  during  Fall  and  early  Winter.  These  sewing  girls  (usu- 
ally two  worked  in  company)  would  cut  and  fit  and  ba.ste  and 
prepare,  and  then  push  forward  the  garments  to  final  completion. 
They  passed  from  home  to  home,  and  comfort  and  good  cheer 
was  sure  to  accompany  them.  The  very  nature  of  their  calling 
afforded  them  opjjortunities  of  becoming  well  qualified  to  con- 
verse on  all  subjects  of  general  interest,  and  rendered  them 
agreeable  and  interesting  compan\%  and  their  advent  in  the 
family,  was  hailed,  more  especialh'  by  the  younger  members, 
with  feelings  akin  to  gratitude;  for  perhaps  it  was  their  skilled 
fingers  that  were  to  improvise  for  the  first  time  "  those  pants," 
and  "  that  roundabout"with  caudal  appendage,  that  makes  ever\- 
bo\-  feel  that  he  has  reached  a  certain  stage  where  his  impor- 
tance is  recognized  and  acknowledged. 

Pants  and  vests  were  made  up  for  all  the  male,  members  of 


the  family  old  enough  to  wear  them,  and  for  the  father  and 
young  men,  these  were  fashioned  according  to  the  prevailing 
styles,  "  cutaways,"  or  else  high  collared,  straight  bodied,  or 
swallow-tailed  coats,  "  all  buttoned  down  before,"  with  metal 
buttons  which  perhaps  had  done  service  for  several  years  on 
one  or  more  preceding  coats.  The  boys  were  all  provided 
with  roundabouts  of  fulled  cloth  or  Linsey-Wolsc}',  and  fre- 
quently with  cloth  caps  of  various  styles  made  at  home. 

And  it  was  the  custom  in  early  times  to  have  the  itinerant 
shoemaker  visit  the  pioneer  homes  and  there  to  remain  and 
labor  until  the  family  were  supplied  with  boots  and  shoes. 
Generally  the  pioneer  furnished  his  home  for  the  Winter  with 
beef  of  his  own  raising,  and  the  skins  of  the  animals  were  usually 
taken  to  the  tanner  and  made  into  leather  upon  shares,  and  fur- 
nished the  family  with  boots  and  shoes.  The  luxury  of  wearing 
boots  was  not  often  indulged  in  by  the  boys,  but  a  compromise 
was  effected  and  high  shoes  with  knit  leggings  sufficed  for  all 
occasions,  and  when  attired  in  these  with  "  roundabout  "  and 
pants  to  correspond,  there  was  just  about  as  much  importance 
done  up  in  the  small  boy  of  sixty  ot  seventy  years  ago  as 
there  is  to-day. 

The  women  and  girls  were  supplied  with  boots  make  of  calf 
skin,  while  boots  and  shoes  for  men  and  boys  were  made  of 
cow-hide  Sometimes  the  boots  and  shoes  for  the  family  would 
not  be  made  up  until  after  the  snow  had  covered  the  ground 
for  several  weeks,  and  a  few  instances  are  mentioned  when  boys 
had  neither  boots  or  shoes  and  went  without  either  all  Winter, 
and  even  attended  school  barefooted. 


In  the  early  settlement  of  the  Holland  Purchase,  as  Western 
New  York  was  called,  "  black  salts  "  was  one  of  the  valuable 
productions  of  this  portion  of  the  country.  As  it  was  for  the 
most  part  heavily  timbered  and  the  necessity  of  clearing  up  the 
land  for  farming  purposes  furnished  wood  ashes  in  abundance. 
These  ashes  were  either  sold  at  the  ashery  and  there  converted 
into  potash  or  were  worked  up  by  the  owners  and  made  into 
"black  salts."  The  ashes  were  carefully  housed,  protected  from 
the  wet  and   put    into   leaches,   made    in   various  ways  as  the 




means  at  the  command  of  the  owner's  permitted.  By  a  con- 
tinuous hberal  wetting  with  water  soon  the  lye  began  to  run, 
which  was  boiled  down  in  iron  kettles  until  it  became  a  mass  of 
black  salts,  which  had  a  cash  value  at  the  nearest  point  where  an 
ashery  was  located.  The  money  thus  obtained  was  very  largely 
the  only  resources  from  which  money  could  be  had  by  the 
early  settlers.  And  not  only  in  the  clearing  of  the  farms  was 
black  salts  manufactured,  but  very  often,  when  other  employ- 
ment was  wanting,  the  new-comer,  the  mechanic  and  others,  who 


were  not  otherwise  employed,  would  go  to  the  nearest  un-. 
claimed  land,  cut  and  burn  timber  for  the  ashes  it  would  pro- 
duce and  make  black  salts.  The  ashes  from  the  elm  were  the 
best,  sugar  maple,  beech,  birch  and  other  hard  wood  were  next, 
while  hemlock,  pine  and  other  soft  wood  was  nearly  useless. 
Black  salts  were  manufactured  into  "pearl  ash;"  the  ashes  pur- 
chased at  the  ashery  were  manufactured  into  potash,  which 
were  commodities  for  export  and  enter  largely  into  the  numer- 
ous preparations  of  potash  in  use  for  medical  and  mechanical 
purposes  at  the  present  da\'.    There  was  a  great  deal  of  laborious 


work  about  this  industr}\  as  it  took  twenty  bushels  of  ashes 
to  produce  lOO  pounds  of  salts,  and  these  when  hauled  to  the 
market  would  bring  only  about  $2.50  or  at  the  highest  $3.00 
per  cwt.  Great  care  had  to  be  used  in  boiling  or  evaporating 
this  lye  to  the  proper  consistency  lest  it  should  be  burned, 
but,  as  we  said  before,  it  was  about  the  only  industry  that  sold 
for  cash  and  early  pioneers  were  compelled  to  lay  by  a  little 
money  to  satisfy  the  demands  of  the  tax  gatherer. 


When  the  ripened  corn  had  been  cut  and  marshalled  into 
shocks,  "husking  bees"  were  common  to  the  season.  These 
gatherings  like  the  other  "bees"  of  pioneer  days,  were  when 
the  work  performed  was  paramount,  and  when  the  honest, 
hearty  good  will  of  the  participants  entered  largely  into  the 
joy  of  the  occasion.  These  gatherings  were  participated  in  by 
nearly  all.  If  the  corn  was  to  be  husked  in  the  field,  prepara- 
tion would  be  made  by  drawing  all  the  shocks  that  stood  con- 
veniently near,  around  one  common  center.  This  formed  the 
buskers'  arena,  and  here  they  would  assemble  upon  some  moon- 
lit night  designated,  and  strip  the  yellow  corn  of  its  covering;, 
meanwhile  stories  would  be  told,  farming  discussed  and  songs 
sung.  After  husking  a  sufficient  amount  the  host  would  invite 
his  guests  to  the  house,  where  a  collation  awaited  their  coming, 
consisting  of  pumpkin  pies,  doughnuts,  cider  and  cheese. 
After  doing  ample  justice  to  these  refreshments,  the  fragments 
would  be  picked  up,  chairs  and  tables  would  disappear,  the  en- 
livening strains  of  a  violin  would  fall  upon  the  ear,  perhaps  in 
the  "  Monnie  Musk  "  or  the  "  Opera  Reel."  As  by  instinct,  a 
new  life  seemed  to  possess  the  buskers:  the  old  forgot  their 
years  and  the  weary  their  toils;  partners  were  chosen;  two 
columns  stood  facing  across  the  old  kitchen  floor  that  were  soon 
keeping  step  and  time  to  those  grand  old  melodies,  and  which 
would  be  kept  up  until  near  the  hour  of  morning.  If  the 
husking  was  to  be  done  indoors,  the  great  threshing  floor  would 
be  filled  to  overflowing  with  shocks  of  corn.  Chairs  would  be 
furnished  the  aged  and  punij:)kins  sufficed  for  seats  for  the 
young,  and  the  work  would  go  on  as  "  merry  as  a  marriage 
ell,"  until  the  floor  was  cleared  of  its  burden  of  shocks,  and  in 

APPLK    BEES   AND    QUII/riNGS.  1 35 

tlicir  place  was  a  heap  of  <^oIden  cc^rii.  The  (jld-fashioned  tin 
hmterns  were  arran<^cd  along  the  great  swing  beam,  and  fur- 
nished the  workers  with  light. 

One  of  the  first  things  that  occupied  the  attention  of  the 
pioneer  here  was  the  planting  of  an  orchard  ;  in  a  few  years 
these  orchards  yielded  an  abundance,  and  "  apple  bees  "  were 
in  order,  and,  like  the  huskings,  they  brought  out  a  full  house. 
The  fruit  would  be  stored  conveniently  near  and  brought  into 
the  old  kitchen  by  the  basketful,  where  an  active,  busy  scene 
would  be  witnessed — some  paring,  some  quartering  and  coring, 
some  stringing  and  all  talking,  laughing  and  enjoying  them- 
selves. Paring  machines  were  not  known,  and  this  work  was 
done  with  a  knife  the  same  as  you  would  pare  potatoes  to-day. 
There  is  nothing  but  the  stringing  that  needs  an  explanation. 
The  stringer  was  armed  with  a  long  needle,  most  generally 
improvised  out  of  a  knitting  needle,  with  an  eye  large  enough 
to  carry  a  strong  string  of  linen  twine.  The  needle  was  held 
in  the  right  hand  and  the  quarters  were  placed  upon  its  sharp 
point  with  the  left,  and  when  it  was  full  it  was  drawn  through 
the  apples,  leaving  them  upon  the  string  as  you  would  string 
beads.  This  operation  had  to  be  repeated  until  the  string  was 
full ;  then  the  ends  were  tied  and  it  was  ready  to  be  hung  up  to 
dry.  Most  generally  this  work  would  continue  until  the  walls 
or  ceiling  of  the  old  kitchen  were  deeply  festooned  with  the 
drying  fruit.  Then  would  follow  the  repast  to  be  closed  with 
playing  or  dancing  and  sometimes  both. 

Quiltings  were  fashionable  at  all  times,  and  differed  but  ver\- 
little  from  the  rest  of  the  merry  makings  save  in  this :  the  mat- 
rons and  maidens  would  most  generally  meet  in  the  afternoon 
and  the  "quilt"  would  be  finished  and  taken  from  the  frames 
before  the  swains  put  in  an  appearance.  When  this  was  the 
case  the  dance  would  commence  at  early  candle  light  and  be 
continued  for  three  or  four  hours;  then  an  intermission  of  half 
an  hour  or  so  for  rest  and  refreshments ;  the  latter  would  be 
passed  around,  and  again  on  would  go  the  dances,  sometimes 
closing  at  midnight  and  sometimes  not  until  the  "dawning  of 
the  day."  Sometimes  these  quiltings  forestalled  a  wedding, 
and  many  of  the  spectacle-wearing  grandamesof  this  age,  though 
for  them  the  nightingale's  song  of  love  ceased  long  ago,  and 


the  flowers  of  }'Outh  have  faded  and  been  swept  awa}- ,  \'et  with 
them  still  lingers  some  of  the  bright  hopes  of  their  sweet 
maiden  years,  and  they  will  pause  and  ponder  with  fond  recol- 
lection at  the  mere  mention  of  these  "  merry-makings." 


It  is  a  credit  that  is  due  to  the  earl)-  pioneer  to  say  that  he 
realized  the  benefits  to  be  derived  from  an  education  that  has 
been  of  vast  importance  to  the  succeeding  generations,  for 
whenever  there  were  scholars  enough  to  form  a  class  a  school 
was  organized,  a  teacher  secured  and  the  Summers  and  Winters 
were  devoted  by  the  young  to  acquiring  an  education.  This 
was  the  case  in  the  earliest  days  of  the  settlement,  and  before  a 
saw-mill  had  been  built.  Sometimes  the  pioneer's  humble 
abode  contained  more  space  than  was  actually  needed  b)'  tlie 
famih',  and  this  was  used  as  a  school  room.  Sometimes  the 
log  barn  sufficed  for  the  Summer's  term,  and  sometimes  several 
terms  would  be  taught  in  this  way  before  the  building  cf  a 
school  house  or  the  organization  of  a  school  district,  and  per- 
haps in  good  time  a  central  site  would  be  secured,  a  day  named 
when  the  whole  neighborhood  would  turn  out  and  the  body  of 
a  log  school  house  would  rise,  as  by  magic,  and  another  day 
would  witness  the  covering,  and  perhaps  the  labor  of  another 
day  would  be  all  that  was  required  to  fit  it  for  occupation. 
Generally  was  had  at  one  end,  while  the  stick  chimne)' 
and  Dutch  fire-place  occupied  the  other.  Two  or  three  single 
windows  (according  to  the  size  of  the  room)  on  a  side  admitted 
the  light  ;  a  single  row  of  desks  was  arranged  along  the  walls 
with  benches  to  correspond.  These  were  occupied  by  the 
older  or  more  advanced  scholars,  while  the  inner  circle  was 
occupied  by  the  juveniles  on  benches  to  correspond.  Perhaps 
some  patron  would  supply  the  teacher  with  a  splint-bottomed 
chair,  and  he  or  she  would  keep  ward  and  watch  over  the 
"young  idea"  from  the  center  of  the  room. 

These  teachers  were  supposed  to  be  proficient  in  the  com- 
mon English  branches  and  most  all  that  our  venerable  ances- 
tors knew  of  these  rudiments  were  acquired  in  these  log  school- 

At  times  more  pains  would  be  taken  in  the  erection  of  these 


buil(liiiq;s.  Tlic  lo^s  that  were  to  form  the  walls  were  squared 
to  the  desired  thickness  by  scoriiiL;-  and  hewini^,  and  when  care 
was  used  in  jilaciiii;"  them  into  the  walls  they  formed  a  very 
comfortable  and  substantial  building".  These  were  termed 
"block  houses,"  and  when  adorned  with  brick  chimne)'s  and 
double  windows  they  were  cjuite  imposin^^  in  appearance  and 
spoke  well  of  the  public  si)irit  and  liberality  of  the  patrons. 
Just  as  sooji  as  sawed  lumber  could  be  i)rocured  the  log  school 
house  was  supplanted  by  the  framed  one.  Those  differed  but 
very  little  from  those  of  the  present,  save  in  the  modern  im- 
provements that  ha\-e  been  made  b\-  the  introduction  of  the 
box  stox'c  in  heatint;"  and  the  patent  desks  and  benches  now- 
used  in  the  most  ot  our  schools. 

The  uliool  fund  at  the  time  we  s|)eak  w  as  but  a  mere  pit- 
tance, being  less  than  thirt}'-seven  cents  per  scholar,  and  most 
of  the  teachers'  wages  were  raised  by  a  rate-bill.  The  teachers 
were  also  required  to  board  around  among  the  patrons  of  the 
school,  and  the  amount  of  board  was  regulated  by  the  number 
of  scholars  sent  by  the  several  families,  and  the  wood  was  also 
furnished   for  the  school  by  the  patrons  in  the  same  manner. 

Unfortunateh'  we  have  no  records  that  extend  farther  back 
than  1832-3,  and  this  record  is  not  only  worthy  of  preserva- 
tion, as  a  period  in  the  history  of  our  schools,  but  it  gives  us  a 
true  idea  of  the  character  and  ability  of  the  inen  who  were  the 
prominent  actors  of  half  a  century  ago.  \V'e  give  the  report 
vcrbati}>L,  dated  I<S33  : 

"  To  the  Commissioners  of  Common  Schools  of  the  Town  of 
Concord:  We  the  trustees  of  school  district  number  five  in 
said  town  in  conformity  with  the  statutes  for  the  support  of 
common  schools,  do  certif\-  and  report.  That  the  whole  time 
any  school  has  been  kept  in  our  district  during  the  \'ear 
ending  on  the  date  hereof,  and  since  the  date  of  the  last 
report,  such  schools  has  been  kept  by  teachers  duly  appointed 
and  approved  in  all  respects  according  to  law,  is  seven 
months,  that  the  amount  of  money  received  in  our  district 
from  the  commissioners  of  common  schools  during  the  said 
year  and  since  said  last  report  is  tii<cnty-)ii)ic  dollars  and  fifteen 
cents,  and  that  the  same  has  been  expended  in  paying  the 
wages   of   teachers,    who   were   duly   appointed   and   approved 



in  all  respects  according  to  law.  That  the  number  of  children 
taught  in  said  district  during  said  year  and  since  said  last  report 
is  ninety. 

"  And  that  the  number  of  children  residing  in  our  district  on 
the  first  day  of  Januar}%  instant,  who  are  over  five  and  under 
sixteen  years  of  age  is  s ev c tit y -nine,  and  that  the  names  of  the 
parents  or  other  persons  with  whom  such  children  respectively 
reside  and  the  number  residing  with  each  are  as  follows,  viz.: 


Calvin  Blake 

Abiel  Blodgett.  .  . 
Sylvester  Russell . . 

Phineas  Scott 

Enoch  Sinclear .  .  . 

—  Green 

Amasa  Loveridge. 
James  Anthony . .  . 
George  A.  Stewart 
Jarvis  Thompson. . 
Orrin  Loveridge.  . 

John  House 

Harry  House 

James  Flemings.. 


3  ! 

2  ! 

4  ii 

2    i 

2  I 

3  i 


4  |i' 

3  ;  ; 



4  |i 
3      • 

Va  cord 

Ebenezer  Blake  .  .    6 
Benjamin  Fay. ...    3 
Amos  Stanbro.  .  .    5 
Ebenezer  Ferrin..    4   i 
Printis  Stanbro.  ..41 
Ephram  A.  Briggs  4   i 
Noah  Townsend. .    i 
Constant  Trevitt. .    2 
Asa  Phillips,  Jr. .  .    i 
Barzilla  Briggs.  .  .    i 

Isaac  Russell 2 

Amasiah  Ashman.,  4  li 
Samuel Twichell.. I  2  I 
Metzgar i 


13^  cords 

3/       " 

"  And  we  further  report  that  our  school  has  been  visited  by 
the  Inspector  of  Common  Schools  during  the  year  preceding 
this  report  twice,  and  that  the  sum  paid  for  teachers'  wages 
over  and  above  the  public  moneys  apportioned  to  said  district 
during  the  same  year  amounts  to  $35.00. 

"  Dated  at  Concord  the  first  day  of  January,  in  the  year  of 
our  Lord  one  thousand  eieht  hundred  and  thirt\--three. 

Benjamin  Fav,         j 

Enoch  Sinclear,    -  Trustees. 

Amasiah  Ashman.  \ 

Noah  Townsend,  Clerk." 

INNOCENT   PASTIMES   OF    LONG   A(;o.  1 39 


There  is  not  one  scholar  of  fifty  or  sixt\-  \'ears  ago  Hving 
to-day  but  what  has  a  \'ivid  recollection  of  the  "  spelling 
school,"  and  though  it  was  a  "  long  spell  "  ago,  and  many  a  sad 
"spell"  since  then  has  cast  its  shadows  over  the  hearts  of 
scholars  and  teachers,  still  these  lines  will  bring  to  memory  one 
of  the  brightest  "spells"  on  life's  pathway. 

Word  had  been  given  out  a  week  or  so  beforehand.  The 
invitation  was  made  general,  not  only  to  those  who  belonged 
t(^  the  district,  but  those  of  other  districts  were  welcomed,  and 
their  presence  was  sure  to  add  greater  interest  to  the  occasion. 
The  elder  scholars  in  several  households  had  been  requested  to 
bring  candles  to  give  light  while  some  of  the  older  girls  would 
stay  over  to  give  the  school-house  an  extra  sweeping,  and  to 
see  also  that  the  fire  was  kept  brightly  burning.  Their  busy 
hands  were  never  idle, — the  door,  the  windows  and  the  walls 
of  the  room  would  be  deeply  festooned  with  evergreens  that 
grew  abundant  and  near,  and  when  the  room  was  all  ablaze 
with  light  from  the  great  open  fire,  and  the  burning  candles 
fixed  all  along  the  walls,  the  sight,  to  the  youthful  imagination, 
was  truly  enchanting.  Then,  as  the  appointed  time  drew  near 
and  the  scholars  began  to  assemble,  some  on  foot  and  some  on 
sleds  and  sleighs,  what  shouts  of  joy  would  greet  the  ear  as 
these  vehicles  drew  up  to  the  door  and  turned  out  their  loads 
of  happy,  merry-hearted  boys  and  girls.  These  sleds  and 
sleighs  were  great  institutions  of  their  time,  and  they  performed 
an  important  part  in  the  Winter's  merry-makings.  Like  the 
omnibus,  there  was  always  room  for  one  more,  and  upon  these 
occasions  the  great  box  would  be  filled  with  clean,  bri"-ht 
straw,  and  then  they  would  start  out  and  gather  them  in  as 
they  passed  from  house  to  house  until  they  had  reached  their 
destination.  Perhaps  the  driver  wielded  an  ox  gad  and  the 
pace  was  slow,  but  it  was  free  from  danger  and  full  of  innocent 
fun.  In  good  time  all  would  be  assembled  before  the  great 
log  fire.  Hats  and  hoods,  capes  and  cloaks,  would  be  placed 
upon  shelves  or  hung  upon  the  wall,  and  after  all  had  become 
sufificiently  warm,  the  teacher  would  step  to  the  desk,  the 
laughing  and  talking  would  cease.  Two  of  the  best  spellers 
were  generally  selected  to  choose  sides.     "  Cuts  "  were  drawn 


for  the  first  choice,  and  the  choosers  would  take  their  places 
on  the  opposite  sides  of  the  room  face  to  face.  Then  the  one 
who  had  won  first  choice  would  call  out  the  name  of  a  favorite 
speller,  and  he  or  she  would  be  marshalled  on  that  side,  and 
likewise  the  second  choice  would  be  made  by  the  other  chooser, 
and  this  alternate  choosing  would  go  on  until  ever}^one 
present  had  been  invited  to  take  a  part,  and  two  long  columns 
sat  facing  each  other. 

Now  some  of  the  spectators  present  would  be  chosen  to  keep 
"  tally."  The  master  would  step  to  the  head,  with  book  in 
one  hand  and  candle  in  the  other,  a  word  would  be  pronounced 
to  the  right,  then  to  the  left,  and  so  on,  until  everyone  in  the 
lines  had  spelled  in  turn.  A  word  missed  by  a  speller  on  the 
right,  and  passed  to  the  left  and  corrected,  was  scored  a  point 
for  the  left.  A  word  missed  by  a  speller  on  the  left,  and 
passed  to  the  right  and  corrected,  was  scored  a  point  for  the 
right.  A  word  missed  on  the  left,  passed  to  the  right  and 
missed  again,  and  passed  back  and  corrected,  was  termed 
saved  and  no  score  made,  and  vice  versa. 

What  a  conflict  of  emotions  filled  the  hearts  of  those  young 
spellers  as  the  words  were  dealt  out  right  and  left.  How  when 
the  words  grew  hard  there  might  have  been  a  little  blue-eyed 
divinity  in  pink  frock  and  cheeks  in  that  row  of  spellers,  that 
made  your  boyish  heart  tremble  every  time  she  undertook  to 
wrestle  with  a  hard  word.  How  you  longed  to  be  by  her  side, 
if  only  to  prompt  her,  for  you  know  there  were  friendships 
formed  at  those  spelling-schools  of  fifty  and  sixty  years  ago 
that  burn  brightl}-  to-day,  and  will  continue  to  burn  until  the 
hands  are  folded  across  the  peaceful  breast,  and  you  feel  that 
life's  brightest  spell  for  you  has  gone,  when  these  same  loving 
blue  eyes  are  forever  closed. 

As  the  spelling  began  at  "  Baker  "  to  give  the  younger  ones 
a  chance,  nearly  half  the  evening  has  gone.  The  book  is  closed 
and  fifteen  minutes  are  given  for  intermission,  when  all  is  fun 
and  frolic.  Fhe  master  would  snuff  the  candles  and  brand  up 
the  fire,  aiid  at  times  he  too  would  enter  into  the  merry-mak- 
ings. The  fifteen  minutes  are  up  and  teacher  and  scholars 
again  take  their  places,  and  two  more  scholars,  perhaps 
\'ounger.  are  selected  t<^  choose  up,   and   the  same   programme 



is  carried  out  as  before,  aiul  should  it  be  your  fate  to  be  clioseii 
next  to  "  your  girl,"  the  enjo)"nieiit  of  the  occasion  would  be 
i^reatl)-  heightened. 

The  teacher  is  perhaps  assisted  b\-  a  teacher  from  some 
neighboring  school  ;  or  perhaps  b}-  some  competent  citizen  of 
the  district  present  ;  or  by  some  one  of  the  more  advanced 
scliolars,  and  the  spelling  would  proceed  for  a  while  as  before, 
and  the  evening's  exercises  would  be  brought  to  a  cU^se 
by  "  spelling  down."'  The.  teacher  recjuests  the  school  to 
rise,  and  then  the  spelling  proceeds  as  before,  from  right 
to  left,  and  from  left  to  right,  with  this  difTerence,  that 
when  a  scholar  missed  a  wf)rd,  they  took  their  seats,  and 
those  only  who  remained  standing  continued  to  spell.  The 
words  simple  at  first  grew  harder  and  harder,  and  these  spellers 
go  down  as  grass  falls  before  the  mower's  scythe,  and  as  the 
ranks  of  the  spellers  decrease,  the  interest  in  the  contest 
increases  ;  and  so  close  was  the  attention,  and  so  great  the 
interest,  that  the  falling  of  a  pin  might  have  been  heard,  and 
even  the  trembling  limbs  and  voices  of  the  spellers  added 
more  and  more  to  the  intense  interest  of  the  occasion.  The 
master  has  exhausted  all  the  hard  words  in  the  common  les- 
sons ;  the  tallow  candles  burn  low;  the  younger  scholars  stretch 
and  yawn  in  their  drowsiness,  and  the  master's  voice  has  a 
wear}'  husky  tone,  still  the  gladiators  keep  their  places.  Then 
the  master  closes  his  book  and  drops  his  head  as  if  about 
to  retire  x'anquished,  but  he  was  only  preparing  strateg)'  and 
he  pronounces  out  a  word  not  found  in  the  spelling-book.  The 
speller  is  taken  by  surprise,  and  he  spells  out  the  word  with 
trembling  and  fear.  "  Next !  "  cries  the  master  in  a  defiant 
tone.  There  is  a  longer  pause  ere  the  next  speller  attempts 
for  the  letters  have  got  mixed  up  in  the  brain  and  confidence 
has  fled  ;  then  the  word  is  hesitatingly  drawled  out.  "Wrong  !  " 
cries  the  master  with  nuich  relief,  as  he  correctl}-  renders  the 
word.  Then  school  is  dismissed  and  there  is  a  hurrying  to  and 
fro  for  the  wrappings,  candles  are  taken  from  the  walls  and 
blown  out.  the  sleds  and  sleighs  are  read)'  at  the  door  to 
receive  their  loads  of  merry,  happy-hearted  boys  and  girls.  A 
few  of  the  larger  lads  and  lassies  linger  around  the  flickering, 
dying  embers;  then   the  master  or  some   one   who   has  it  in 

142  thp:  sickle  and  hand-scythe. 

charge,  covers  with  ashes  the  great  bed  of  coals,  that  will  keep 
for  the  morrow's  fire,  and  almost  total  darkness  reigns.  Then 
there  is  a  low,  whispering  consultation  b}^  the  lingerers,  and 
the  shouting  waiting  loads  at  the  door  are  told  to  move  on 
by  these  same  lingerers  as  they  choose  to  walk,  and  the  old 
school-house  that  stood  on  the  hill  is  left  to  the  silent  watches 
of  the  night. 


When  the  country  was  first  settled  farming  in  its  various 
branches  was  conducted  in  a  primitive  manner.  The  machinery 
now  in  use  was  then  unknown,  and  had  it  been  it  would 
have  been  of  but  very  little  use  to  the  pioneers,  whose  fields 
were  covered  with  great  stumps  that  required  years  to  decay. 
The  sickle  that  had  been  in  use  from  time  immemorial,  for 
Ruth  gleaned  in  the  fields  of  Boaz  after  the  reapers  a  thousand 
years  or  more  before  the  Christian  era,  made  its  appearance 
here  with  the  landing  of  the  pilgrim  fathers,  and  its  use  had 
been  indispensable  until  some  "Yankee  genius"  invented  the 
hand-scythe  or  cradle,  with  bended  snath  and  wooden  fingers. 
So  the  sickle  here  was  used  by  the  pioneer  fathers  to  cut  all 
small  or  sown  grain,  such  as  wheat,  oats,  barley  or  rye.  It  was 
similar  in  construction  to  the  one  now  in  use  for  cutting  grass 
from  shrubbery,  only  it  carried  a  fine  serrated  edge,  made  by 
finely  ribbing  the  lower  side  of  the  blade  similar  to  one  side  of 
a  mill-file,  and  only  grinding  or  sharpening  it  upon  the  smooth 
or  upper  side. 

The  skillful  reaper  would  thrust  this  implement  into  the  grain 
with  the  right  hand,  which  did  the  most  of  the  gathering  ;  then 
with  a  dextrous  movement  of  the  left,  the  grain  would  be' 
held  bv  the  thumb  and  forefinger,  the  three  remaining  fingers 
falling  upon  the  back  of  the  blade,  holding  it  to  its  work,  while 
the  implement  would  be  drawn  by  a  quick  motion  upwards 
and  to  the  right  and  the  work  was  accomplished.  Great  care 
had  to  be  exercised  in  the  use  of  this  implement,  for  its  fine 
serrated  edge  was  as  keen  as  a  razor's  blade,  and  the  novice  was 
almost  certain  to  receive  an  ugh-  gash  on  the  fingers  or  ball  of 
the  left  hand.     The  cut  grain  would  be  laid  to  the  right  rear  in 

THE    RAIM'INC    ()¥   THK     II. All..  1 43 

"  gavels,"  and  these  would  be  bound  in  bundles  and  "  shocked." 
A  skillful  reaper  would  cut  from  a  half  to  an  acre  per  day,  and 
would  handle  his  sickle  with  as  much  dexterit}-  as  the  mower 
could  swini^  his  bended  snath. 

The  threshini^  was  chiefly  done  with  a  flail  upon  a  threshing 
fltior.  Wlien  the  farmers  had  progressed  so  far  in  affluence  as 
to  be  able  to  build  a  barn,  this  floor  was  the  main  one  in  the 
building.  If  otherwise,  this  floor  was  constructed  out  of  doors 
by  placing  "sleepers"  on  the  ground  and  covering  these  with 
two-inch  plank,  the  grain  stacked  conveniently  near  and  the 
grain  beaten  from  the  chaff  and  straw  with  flails.  A  diligent 
man  could  thresh  from  twenty  to  twenty-five  bushels  of  oats 
per  day,  and  from  eight  to  ten  bushels  of  wheat,  and  it  might 
have  been  laborious,  but  it  was  not  an  unpleasant  occupation 
in  the  cold  days  of  winter  where  it  was  performed  indoors. 
The  big  barn  floor  would  be  made  perfectly  clean  by  a  free  use 
of  the  splint  broom;  a  flooring  would  be  thrown  from  the  scaf- 
fold, consisting  most  generally  of  twenty-four  bundles,  these 
placed  in  two  swaths  across  the  floor,  with  the  heads  of  the 
grain  resting  together;  then  the  threshers,  for  company's  sake, 
generally  two,  would  step  to  one  end  of  the  flooring,  and  the 
work  would  begin,  one  to  advance  and  the  other  to  retreat 
across  the  grain  to  the  alternate  music  of  the  flails.  Then  the 
grain  would  be  turned  over  and  another  advance  and  retreat 
had  across  the  grain  and  this  flooring  was  finished.  Then 
the  straw^  was  gathered  up  and  the  grain  carefully  shaken  from 
it,  and  bound  into  bundles,  the  threshed-out  grain  pushed  to 
one  side  and  the  threshers  were  ready  for  another  flooring. 
Most  generally  the  threshing  season  would  begin  at  the  com- 
mencement of  cold  weather,  and  would  be  continued  far  into 
the  winter,  and  the  alternate  rapping,  rapping,  rapping  of  the 
flails  heard  throughout  the  land  from  early  dawn  until  evening, 
was  not  disagreeable  to  the  ear,  but  rather  pleasing.  Here  we 
wish  to  diverge  a  little  and  then  we  are  done  with  threshing. 

In  these  times  men  would  follow  some  calling  and  make  a 
specialty  of  it,  such  as  "chopping,"  "logging"  or  "threshing." 
A  man  b\-  the  name  of  Carr,  and  an  original  of  the  times, 
moved  into  the  settlement  in  indigent  circumstances.  He  pro- 
fessed to  be  a  great  thresher,  and   talked  a  great  deal  of  what 


he  was  able  to  accomplish  in  this  peculiar  line.  Finally  he 
took  a  job  of  "  Square  "  Frye  to  thresh  out  sex-eral  hundred 
bushels  of  grain.  The  first  day  Carr"s  efforts,  when  measured 
up,  were  very  meager,  being  onh'  about  one-third  what  an}- 
active  man  would  hax'e  accomplished  in  the  same  time,  and 
this  fell  so  far  short  of  Carr's  professions  and  the  "'Square's" 
expectations  that  there  might  have  been  something  said.  How- 
ever Carr,  at  the  supper  table  that  night,  all  of  a  sudden, 
dropped  his  knife  and  fork,  and  looking  the  old  man  in  the  face 
said,  "  '  Square,'  you  need  have  no  fears  about  my  not  being 
able  to  thresh  your  grain  ;  I  shall  do  a  great  deal  better  to-mor- 
row, for  I  have  got  the  hang  of  your  barn."  This  excited  the 
old  man  to  a  hearty  laugh,  and  ever  after  if  he  undertook  a  task 
that  did  not  savor  of  success,  he  would  always  say  to  those 
about  him,  "  Wait  until  I  get  the  hang  of  the  barn." 

As  the  grain  has  been  cut  and  threshed,  it  must  be  separated 
from  the  chaff  by  "winnowing"  in  the  wind.  This  was  done 
by  a  "hand-fan,"  an  implement,  semi-circular  in  shape,  bottom 
composed  of  thin,  light  wood,  with  sides  of  same  material, 
about  eight  inches  high.  The  shape  of  this  fan  would  be  similar 
to  a  large  semi-circular  dustpan,  made  of  wood,  with  the  handles 
on  the  sides.  The  operator  filled  the  fan  with  the  grain  to  be 
cleaned,  and  stood  with  his  back  to  the  wind.  Then  by  a 
quick  and  skillful  movement  of  the  fan,  the  grain  would  be 
thrown  into  the  air,  the  light  chaff  caught  by  the  wind  and 
carried  away  while  the  grain  would  fall  back  again  into  the  fan, 
to  have  the  operation  repeated  until  it  was  free  from  all  chaff. 
A  skillful  man  would  clean  from  thirt)-  to  fort}'  bushels  ot 
grain  per  da}-  in  this  manner. 


Although  the  year  1776  had  been  numbered  v\  ith  the  [)ast. 
and  most  of  the  active  participants  in  the  stirring  events  ot 
that  period  in  our  nation's  history-,  rested  from  their  toils 
"  where  heaves  the  turf  in  man}'  a  mouldering  heap."  still  that 
spirit  which  formed  a  lodgment  in  the  hearts  of  the  ]\iritan 
Fathers  had  been  transmitted  to  their  descendants,  and  not  onl}- 
this,  but  the  Statutes  of  the  State  made  it  imperative  on  ever}- 
male  citizen  who  had  attained  the  age  of  eighteen  years,  and 


who  was  of  sound  boil}'  aiul  mind  lo  do  niilitar\'  duty  until 
he  had  reached  the  ai^e  of  forty-five.  This  law  was  strictly 
enforced  and  there  was  no  way  of  evading  it  unless  prevented 
by  some  temporar\-  sicknes...  The  law  required  that  the  rank 
and  file  should  drill  two  days  in  each  year.  These  "  drills  " 
were  termed  traininy;s,  and  were  held  in  June  and  September. 
The  former  was  termed  comixun-  training;-,  when  only  the  mem- 
bers of  eacli  individual  compan)' a.ssembled  and  were  instructed 
in  the  manual  of  arms,  or  the  science  of  war,  by  the  captain, 
or  his  under  officers.  The  latter,  or  that  held  in  September, 
was  termed  General  Training,  or  more  properly  General 
Muster,  when  the  companies  of  one  or  more  Regiments,  would 
assemble  upon  one  common  parade  ground,  and  where  they 
would  be  under  the  command  of  some  field  officer,  accompan- 
ied by  a  full  staff. 

Aside  from  these  drills  there  was  another  drill  held  by  the 
officers  and  musicians  in  the  month  of  August,  and  continued 
for  two  days.  This  was  termed  an  "officer's  drill,"  and  most 
always  the  occasion  would  be  honored  by  the  presence  of  a 
Colonel,  who  with  all  the  rest  would  appear  in  full  dress,  and 
as  may  be  readily  inferred,  this  band  of  plumed  heroes  were 
much  ob-served  by  all  the  small  boys  wdio  were  out  in  full 
attendance.  But  the  day  of  all  others  for  Young  America,  and 
those  who  loved  the  pomp  and  circumstance  of  glorious  war, 
was  general  muster.  The  ear-piercing  fife  and  the  spirit-stirring 
drum  would  call  the  a.ssembled  hosts  to  order.  Then  there 
would  be  a  hurrying  to  and  fro  on  prancing  steeds,  who  at  the 
sound  of  fife  and  drum  seemed  to  possess  the  military  .spirit 
and  zeal  of  the  occasion,  and  would  proudly  keep  step  and 
time  to  the  martial  strains,  as  rank  upon  rank  was  being  formed 
in  line  Then  the  officer  in  com.mand  accompanied  by  his  staff 
would  take  charge  of  the  field,  and  the  troops  would  be  drilled 
in  the  manual  of  arms.  These  officers  would  be  mounted  on 
richly  caparisoned  horses.  Their  bright  uniforms  were  tasty, 
and  made  of  the  most  costly  material ;  their  flashing  sabers 
hung  from  silken  sashes;  their  heavy  plumed  caps  and  the 
shimmer  of  their  epaulets,  reminded  one  of  the  splendor  of 
Oriental  pageantry. 

Sometime  during  the  da)'  the  troops  would  be  marshaled  into 


line  where  the}-  would  be  reviewed  by  the  Brigade  Inspector, 
whose  duty  was  to  give  to  each  soldier's  arms,  a  personal 

The  day  would  close  with  a  solemn  invocation  to  the  Lord 
of  Hosts.  The  troops  would  be  formed  into  a  hollow  square, 
with  the  commanding  officers  and  staff  in  the  center,  dis- 
mounted. Then  the  Regimental  Chaplain  would  step  forth, 
arms  would  be  brought  to  rest  and  heads  uncovered,  while  the}' 
attentively  listened  to  the  brief  religious  exercises,  and  the 
order  w^ould  be  given  to  break  ranks. 

In  early  times,  the  }'oung  men  at  the  most  of  the  gatherings 
indulged  more  or  less  in  athletic  sports,  such  as  jumping,  run- 
ning and  wrestling.  Wrestling  was  the  favorite,  as  it  displayed 
the  skill,  strength  and  agility  of  the  contestants.  A  ring  would 
be  formed  and  two  of  these  modern  gladiators  would  step  in. 
"  Collar  and  elbow"  or  "  square  hold  "  was  the  favorite,  and  a 
very  exciting  and  spirited  contest  would  be  witnessed,  until 
one  or  the  other  had  won  a  fall,  then  it  was  the  dut}-  of  the 
defeated  to  select  some  wrestler  from  those  present  to  take  his 
place  in  the  ring,  and  the  sport  would  continue,  and,  as  'before 
stated,  the  result  depended  on  the  strength,  skill  and  agility  of 
the  contestants.  It  has  been  known  for  one  of  these  to  enter 
the  ring  and  by  his  own  personal  prowess  vanquish  all  com- 
petitors. In  such  an  event,  he  was  accorded  the  champion,  an 
honor  he  had  to  maintain  in  all  future  rings  and  against  all 
aspiring  competitors. 

Hard  as  it  was  and  rough  as  it  ma}-  appear  to  us  of  the  pre- 
sent day,  the  life  of  the  pioneer  during  the  long  drear}-  Winter 
was  not  w-ithout  its  attractions.  The  log  house  had  been  made 
comfortable  b\'  chinking  it  with  moss  and  mud.  and  the  great 
open  Dutch  fire-place  always  lent  its  welcome  cheer.  If  the 
weather  was  severe  the  great  forests  shielded  his  abode  from 
the  chilling  winds  that  blow  now  so  keenly  from  the  North. 
If  his  larder  was  supplied  with  a  plenty  of  breadstuff,  an  exist- 
ance  more  conducive  to  robustness,  more  free  from  artificial 
worries  and  more  hostile  to  disease  in  all   its  forms,  cannot  be 



conceived,  and  it  was  not  witliout  its  creature  comforts  either. 
What  if  the  Winters  w  ere  loni^  and  the  snows  were  deep,  his 
wood  pile  was  near  and  in  abundance.  An  liour's  chopping  or 
thereabouts  suppHed  his  stock  with  plenty  of  "browse."  and  if 
his  store  of  meat  was  ji^ettiui^  low,  he  knew  tlie  range  of  the 
deer,  and  deep  as  the  snow  was  he  could  reach  them  on  his 
trust}'  "  snow-shoes."  These  shoes  were  an  indispensable  arti- 
cle to  the  earh'  pioneer,  and  were  made  b\'  bendin_L(  two  sticks 
of  any  strong,  fje.xible  wood,  about  half  an  inch  in  thickness 
and  five  feet  long,  as  you  would  shape  an  ox-bow,  by  bringing 
the  ends  together  and  firmh-  fastening  them.  Two  of  these 
formed  the  skeleton  work  for  a  right  and  left  shoe.  The  skele- 
tons were  fineh'  interlaced  with  strings  of  "  moose  wood."  elm 
bark,  or  more  often  the  rawhide  of  the  deer,  in  ever\-  direction. 


Straps  were  affixed  in  the  center  of  these  shoes  similar  to  those 
on  skates,  and  the}'  \\'ere  read}'  for  use.  These  shoes  brought 
over  three  superficial  feet  of  surface  to  the  }-ielding  snow,  and 
they  enabled  the  hunter  to  trax'cl  wherex'er  he  willed  without 
sinking:  man}-  times  with  his  trust}-  rifle  across  one  shoulder 
a  deer  across  the  other. 


Dancing  in  early  times  was  a  favorite  pastime  and  was  more 
or  less  indulged  in  by  old  and  young.  Frequently  during  the 
Winter,  as  the  shadows  of  cx'ening  deepened  the  gloom  of  the 
forest,  a  sound  of  merriment  would  be  heard  at  the  home  of 
one  of  the  settlers,   perhaps    on  the  occasion  of  a  quilting  or 

148  THE"MONNIE    MUSK  "  AND   "SCOTCH    REEL." 

wedding,  that  would  be  kept  up  until  near  the  hour  of  morn- 
ing. There  was  a  great  deal  of  innocent  hearty  enjoyment  in 
one  of  these  old  fashioned  dances.  The  old  fashioned  tunes 
were  rich  in  melody  and  the  figures,  though  not  so  intricate  as 
some  of  the  modern  dances,  yet  they  were  more  graceful,  and, 
perhaps,  some  might  say,  moral.  The  exercises  frequently  would 
begin  with  the  "  monnie  musk  "  and  close  with  the  "  Scotch  reel  " 
or  "  hunt  the  squirrel,"  where  all  could  join  in  the  dance.  The 
mode  of  traveling  during  the  Winter  through  the  woods,  was 
with  ox  team  and  sled  and  horses  and  sleigh,  reference  to  this 
has  been  made  in  another  place,  while  in  Summer,  riding  horse 
back  was  common  upon  such  occasions.  The  saddles  of  those 
times  most  always  had  a  "  pillion,"  or  padded  cushion  afifixed 
to  the  rear  of  the  seat.  The  rider  would  mount  and  if  a  part- 
ner was  to  bear  him  company  she  took  a  seat  in  the  rear  upon 
the  "  pillion  "  and  away  they  would  gallop  through  the  woods 
and  "o'er  hill  and  dale,"  withthegrace  and  ease  of  the  ancient 
cavaliers.  Buggies  were  entirely  unknown  in  those  days.  If 
the  occasion  was  a  public  dance,  upon  a  holiday,  the  young 
men  would  assemble  three  or  four  weeks  previous  and  choose 
three  managers,  whose  duty  was  to  make  all  the  arrangements. 
They  issued  the  cards  of  invitation  and  no  one  was  entitled  to 
join  the  dance  unless  formally  invited.  These  managers  con- 
ducted the  exercises  in  every  respect ;  secured  the  music,  and, 
if  wines  or  liquors  were  to  be  used,  they  also  obtained  these 
and  fixed  the  price  of  admission.  The  dancing  generally  com- 
menced sometimes  in  the  afternoon  and  continued  until  near 
morning.  The  landlord's  duty  was  to  furnish  supper  and  a 
hall  and  to  see  that  the  teams  were  properly  cared  for.  The 
friendliness  and  hearty  good  will  existing  among  the  families 
of  the  early  settlers  added  greatly  to  the  interest  and  enjoy- 
ment of  the  old  fashioned  pioneer  dances. 

THE    GREAT   WOLF   HUNT   OF    183O. 

One  of  the  greatest  annoyances  to  the  early  settlers,  and  that 
which  occupied  his  night  thoughts  with  the  gravest  concern, 
was  the  depredations  of  the  wolf  upon  the  sheep  fold.  These 
depredations  were  always  to  be  found  where  deer  and  other  game 
abounded,   and   when    impelled    b}-  the  pangs   of  hunger,  the 



blood}-  instinct  of  the  cowardly  animal  was  brought  out  in  all 
ferocity  and  a  pack  of  them  became  a  dangerous  foe  to  man  or 
beast.  They  usually  betook  themselves  to  the  fastness  of  some 
great  forest,  where  they  would  lay  concealed  until  night  had 
drawn  her  sable  curtain  and  then  they  would  sally  forth,  and 
woe  unto  the  luckless  farmer  who  had  neglected  to  have  his 
sheep  safe  in  the  fold — for  a  bloody  field  of  carnage  would  meet 
his  gaze  the  next  morning — sheep  with  their  throats  torn  open, 
sheep  with  their  sides  bitten  through,  their  vitals  laid  bare,  and 
their  entrails  dragging  upon  the  ground  ;  some  dead  and  some 
in  the  last  agonies  of  dissolution.  This  particular  field  might 
be  but  a  small  part  of  the  bloody  work  done  that  night,  and 
the  day  would  perhaps  bring  the  news  that  the  floocks  for 
miles  around  had  suffered  from  these  same  blood-thirst}' fleet- 
footed  marauders.  Of  course,  this  general  slaughter  of  the 
flocks  aroused  a  just  indignation  in  the  breasts  of  the  farmers, 
and,  on  this  particular  occasion  (1830),  it  was  resolved  upon  to 
turn  out  and  surround  them  in  their  lair.  Their  retreat  was 
known  to  be  in  the  west  woods,  a  tract  of  land  lying  west  and 
northwest  of  Morton's  Corners,  some  three  miles  square,  extend- 
ing north  and  south  from  the  Morton's  Corners  road  that  leads 
due  west  into  Collins,  to  the  old  Genesee  road  three  miles 
north,  and  thence  running  west  on  these  respective  roads  about 
three  miles,  making  an  unbroken  wilderness  of  about  twelve 
miles  in  circumference.  This  tract  embraced  the  Reaver  Mead- 
ows and  all  that  now  known  as  New  Michigan,  which  was  at 
that  time  very  densel}-  timbered.  A  day  was  designated  and 
word  sent  to  the  people  of  Concord,  Collins  and  North  Collins, 
and  they  did  not  require  a  second  bidding,  but  at  the  time 
named,  came  flocking  in  b}'  the  scores.  Leaders  were  chosen, 
the  territory  in  question  surrounded,  and  the  siege  began  from 
all  quarters,  the  objective  point  being  the  Beaver  Meadow. 
The  lines  were  formed  and  those  who  carried  arms  were  placed 
in  shooting  range  of  each  other.  Horns  were  used  as  signals 
and  cow  bells  indicated  the  line  of  march,  and  every  inch  of 
the  ground  was  carefully  patrolled,  but  for  some  cause  no  wolf 
scalp  was  secured.  The  onl}-  man  that  secured  any  trophy 
that  day  was  Windsor  King.  The  noise  startled  a  big  buck 
and  he  undertook  to  run  the  guard,    but  was  "  caught  on  the 


fly"  and  killed  dead  by  King's  unerring  aim.  It  was  claimed 
by  some  that  the  wolves  ran  the  guard  on  the  south  side  and 
made  good  their  escape  into  the  Otto  woods.  Be  this  as  it 
may,  there  was  something  at  that  time  that  gave  them  a  terri- 
ble fright  tor  they  have  never  disturbed  the  flocks  here  since. 
As  to  the  numbers  that  were  present  at  this  hunt  it  has  been 
variously  estimated,  but  it  is  safe  to  say  that  there  were  between 
five  and  six  hundred.  The  author,  then  twelve  years  of  age, 
was  there. 


It  is  not  more  than  thirty-five  or  forty  years  ago,  since  our 
highways  and  thoroughfares  used  to  teem  with  great  herds  of 
horses,  cattle,  sheep  and  hogs.  These  "  droves,"  as  they  were 
usually  termed,  were  mostl}'  bred  west  of  here  and  were 
bought  up  by  the  local  and  eastern  dealer,  and  driven  hun- 
dreds of  miles  to  market,  weeks  being  consumed  on  the  way. 
Of  those  who  drove  from  this  town  we  remember  the  names 
of  Augustus  G.  Elliott,  John  Van  Pelt,  Seth  W.  Godard,  Geo. 
Richmond  and  Aimer  White,  &c.  At  times  as  high  as  two  or 
three  hundred  head  of  cattle  would  be  contained  in  one  drove  and 
would  require  the  assistance  of  three  or  four  men  to  take  charge 
of  them.  Usually  the  proprietor  would  be  mounted  and  as 
the  day  waned  he  would  gallop  in  advance  and  look  out  for  a 
stopping  place  for  the  night.  The  most  favorable  times  for 
"driving"  was  after  the  haying  season  had  passed,  as  the 
"  rowen  "  or  "  aftermath  "  on  the  meadows,  afforded  the  travel- 
worn  stock  a  fresh  and  bountiful  repast  for  the  night.  Fifteen 
and  twenty  miles  a  da)'  would  be  usuall}'  made  by  the  cattle 
droves,  while  those  whose  droves  were  made  up  exclusively  of 
horses  and  mules  nearly  double  that  distance  would  be  accom- 
plished. If  the  drove  were  hogs,  usuall)'  a  team  would  accom- 
pany them  and  feeci  would  sometimes  be  carried  from  one 
station  to  the  next  one  ahead,  but  as  a  general  rule  the  farmers 
along  the  way  were  abundantly  able  to  entertain  man  and  beast 
for  one  night.  Sheep  would  be  driven  in  herds  of  several 
hundred  and  after  driving  a  da)'  or  so,  they  would  become  so 
tractable  that  two  men  and  a  shepherd  dog  would  take  charge 
of  the  largest  flocks.     Usually  the  drove  would  be  supplied  with 

HUNTING    I-'OR   THE   LOST   CTHLD.     '  151 

one  "  bell  weather,"  which  took  the  lead  and  the  rest  were  cer- 
tain to  follow.  After  the  introduction  of  steam  and  the  advent 
of  the  stock  car,  a  great  change  has  taken  place  in  supplying 
the  Eastern  markets  with  stock.  Hardly  as  many  hours  are 
now  required  under  the  new  order  of  things  as  days  were  con- 
sumed under  the  old. 

THE    LOST    HOY. 

Some  time  in  the  Fall  of  1828  or '29,  Arey  Smith,  a  farmer, 
lived  on  a  farm  south  of  the  Jones  place, some  three  miles  south 
of  Springville,  across  the  Cattaraugus  creek.  His  family  con- 
sisted of  a  wife  and  a  son  by  another  woman,  a  bright  little  lad 
some  ten  years  old.  The  story  goes  that  the  last  that  was  seen 
of  the  boy  his  stepmother  sent  him  with  a  basket  to  the  log- 
ging field  where  his  father  and  several  men  were  at  work.  His 
basket  was  afterwards  found  on  the  way,  but  never  after  was  a 
trace  of  the  missing  boy  found.  "One  touch  of  nature  makes 
the  whole  world  kin,"  and  when  it  became  known  that  a  little 
boy  was  missing  the  great  public  heart  for  many  miles  around 
was  touched,  and  men  came  in  from  all  directions  to  join  in 
the  search.  By  sunrise  on  the  following  day  the  child  hunters 
were  formed  in  line  and  the  search  began  and  extended  for 
man)'  miles  and  was  continued  for  more  than  a  week.  Every 
conceivable  spot  and  place  where  the  boy  might  be  concealed 
was  closely  examined.  It  was  understood  that  should  any 
traces  of  the  lost  one  be  found  a  signal  should  be  given  by  the 
firing  of  a  gun.  One  day  the  welcome  signal  was  heard,  and 
soon  the  cry  of  "child  found"  was  raised,  and  the  hunters 
rushed  to  headquarters  ;  but  it  was  a  mistake  due  to  one  of  the 
searcher's  over  zeal,  taking  the  tracks  of  a  young  bear  for 
those  of  the  missing  child.  It  is  said  that  the  search  was  so 
thorough  that  all  the  missing  cow-bells  were  found.  The  shores 
of  the  streams  were  examined  for  ten  or  fifteen  miles  for  the 
foot-prints  of  the  little  wanderer,  but  without  avail.  In  the 
course  of  time,  everybody  gave  up  the  search  as  hopeless,  and 
many  theories  were  advanced  concerning  his  disappearance. 
Some  held  that  the  little  boy  had  been  stolen  by  the 
Indians ;  others  that  he  had  fallen  a  prey  to  the  ravenous 
appetites  of  wild  beasts;  while  suspicion   pointed    strongly  to 


Smith  or  his  wife  or  both  as  the  ones  responsible  for  his  dis- 
appearance. Be  this  as  it  ma}-,  the  father  and  mother  have 
long  been  dead,  and  the  grave  has  set  its  seal  forever  on  the 
solution  of  this  mystery. 


In  early  times  every  year  that  the  beech  forests  produced 
their  fruit,  this  bird  flocked  here  in  countless  numbers  and  they 
were  hailed  as  were  the  quail  by  the  famishing  Israelites  in  the 
wilderness.  Their  nesting  grounds  and  roost  were  chosen  in 
the  fastness  of  the  great  forest,  awa)'  from  the  settlers.  To- 
wards evening  they  would  commence  winging  their  way  from 
their  feeding  grounds  to  the  roost  and  for  hours  one  ceaseless 
stream  of  birds  would  pour  into  this  retreat.  After  dark  the 
hunter  \\ould  repair  to  this  ground  armed  with  a  shot  gun  and 
in  a  very  short  time  he  could  secure  more  than  he  could  carry 
away  by  a  promiscuous  firing  into  the  tops  of  the  trees.  Those 
who  had  nets  and  a  tame  pigeon  for  a  deco}-,  secured  them 
alive  by  the  thousand.  During  the  nesting  season  the  old 
birds  became  a  great  pest  to  the  settler  as  they  were  sure  to 
forage  upon  the  crops  of  early-sowed  grain.  The  Indians  used 
to  secure  them  in  great  numbers  b)-  watching  the  nesting 
grounds  and  just  before  the  young  bird  had  learned  to  use  its 
wings,  they  would  camp  upon  these  grounds  and  make  a  gen- 
eral harvest.  The  pigeon  roost  at  night  was  a  wild  and  weird 
field  of  action  and  excitement,  especially  after  the  hunters  (I 
have  known  five  and  six  different  parties  in  the  same  woods  at 
once)  had  begim  to  stir  them  up  all  over  the  nesting  grounds 
by  the  noise  and  blaze  of  their  guns.  The  woods  were  literally 
alive  with  them  and  a  light  would  be  instantly  extinguished  by 
the  current  of  air  set  in  motion  by  the  m}-riad  of  wings.  These 
birds  would  rise  with  the  morning  sun  above  the  tops  of  the 
trees  and  wing  their  way  for  miles  and  miles  out  to  the  feeding 
grounds.  The  noise  they  made  when  leaving  the  roost  resem- 
bled that  of  distant  thunder  or  the  roar  of  mighty  waters,  and 
so  dense  would  be  their  flight  at  times  that  the  sun  for  many 
minutes  would  be  hid  as  beneath  a  cloud.  At  one  time  they 
nested  on  the  Buttermilk;  another,  between  Frye  hill  and  Mor- 
ton's creek.     One  year  upon   the    Smith    brook,   and  again  in 


tlic  north  [)art  of    the  town,   west    of   the   Eighteen  mile  creek. 
Tlie}-  also  nestetl  in  tlie  Otto  woods. 


The  pioneers  of  these  towns  were  mostly  from  New  Eng- 
land and  came  of  Puritan  stock,  and  they  observed  Thanks- 
giving day  to  a  considerable  extent  after  the  manner  of  their 
forefathers,  and  although  the  fields  did  not,  in  every  instance, 
produce  in  fruit  and  grain  in  such  abundance  as  they  might 
desire,  still  the  early  settler  felt  when  the  harvest  moon  waned 
that  there  was  a  great  deal  in  his  wilderness  home  to  be  grate- 
ful for.  The  seed  that  he  had  planted  and  sowed  on  his  newly 
cleared  grounds  had  not  been  barren  of  results.  Health  and 
strength  had  been  vouchsafed  during  seed-time  and  harvest, 
and  he  could  look  forward  to  the  coming  winter  and  feel 
assured  that  his  wx'll-garnered  store  was  abundant  and  as  the 
appointed  day  drew  near  when  the  grateful  hearts  join  in  a 
general  thanksgiving  to  Him  who  causeth  the  out-going  of  the 
morning  and  maketh  the  evening  rejoice,  and  "who  appointeth 
the  seed-time  and  the  harvest,"  appropriate  preparations  were 
made  for  its  observance.  It  was  a  season  when  the  family 
circle  and  kindred  were  expected  to  meet  beneath  some  famil\- 
roof-tree  and  there  to  partake  of  the  bounty  of  the  land. 

The  out-door  oven  was  made  to  contribute  its  share  of  good 
things  in  the  way  of  cakes,  puddings  and  the  immortal  pump- 
kin pie,  while  the  great  open  fire-place  with  its  back-log  and 
fore-stick  piled  high  with  beech  and  maple  not  onh'  sent  out 
its  welcome  and  ruddy  cheer  but  its  broad  and  open  bosom 
was  made  the  receptacle  for  various  dishes  that  needed  the 
generous  heat  to  prepare  them  for  the  feast.  Fhe  iron  dinner- 
pot  hung  from  the  chain  or  trammel  on  the  lug-pole  and  boiled 
and  bubbled  while  the  tea-kettle  simmered  and  sung  in  the 
corner  and  by  its  side  was  the  earthern  or  Britannia  tea-pot  in 
readiness  to  dispense  "  the  bcxerage  that  cheers  but  not  ine- 

Rut  the  crowning  glory  of  all  and  that  which  occupied  the 
good  wife's  greatest  care  was  the  roasting  turkey  that  was  sus- 
pended by  a  string  in  front  of  the  fire  and  so  near  that  in  the 
course  of  two  or  three  hours,  by  continual  turning  and    basting. 


it  was  ready  for  the  table.  A  dripping-pan  was  placed  on  the 
hearth  beneath  the  turkey  and  a  ladle  or  a  large  spoon  length- 
ened by  the  addition  of  a  wooden-handle,  was  used  to  dip  the 
gravy  from  the  dripping-pan  and  pour  it  over  the  turkey  as  it 
was  constantly  turned  by  the  string. 

When  all  was  in  readiness,  and  with  appetites  made  keen  with 
waiting,  around  the  generous  board  were  gathered  old  and 
young  and  a  bountiful  dinner  was  enjo)'ecl.  After  which  per- 
haps pipes  and  tobacco  for  the  aged  would  be  introduced  and 
the  day  would  be  passed  in  social  intercourse,  and  we  young- 
sters of  fifty  or  sixt}'  years  ago  always  felt  like  blessing 
the  man  who  first  invented  roast  turke\'s  and  Thanksgi\'ing 

The  following  lines,  describing  the  accidental  meeting  of  a 
family,  although  penned  many  years  after  the  scenes  described 
above  were  enacted,  are  eminent!}'  fitting  and  suggesti\e  of  the 
old-time  Thanksgiving  re-unions: 

We  are  all  here  I 

Father,  Mother, 

Sister,  Brother, 
All  who  hold  each  other  dear. 
Each  chair  is  filled—we're  all  a/  home  ! 
To-night  let  no  cold  stranger  come  ; 
It  is  not  often  thus  around 
Our  old  familiar  hearth  we're  found  ; 
Bless,  then,  the  meeting  and  the  spot  ; 
For  once  be  every  care  forgot ; 
Let  gentle  Peace  assert  her  power, 
And  kind  Affection  rule  the  hour  ; 

We're  all — all  here. 

We're  not  all  here  ! 
Some  are  away — the  dead  ones  dear, 
Who  thronged  with  us  this  ancient  hearth, 
And  gave  the  hour  to  guiltless  mirth. 
Fate,  with  a  stern,  relentless  hand, 
Looked  in  and  thinned  our  little  band  ; 
Some  like  a  night-fiash  passed  away, 
And  some  sank,  lingering,  day  by  day  : 
The  quiet  grave-yard — some  lie  there — 
And  cruel  Ocean  has  its  share — 

We're  tiot  all  here. 

"  we'rk  ai.l— ALi,  Hp^.rk."  155 

We  on-  all  here  ! 
Even  they— the  dead— though  dead,  so  dear  • 
Fond  Memory,  to  her  duty  true, 
Brings  back  their  faded  forms  to  view. 
How  life-like,  through  the  mist  of  years, 
Each  well-remembered  face  appears  I 
We  see  them  as  in  times  long  past. 
From  each  to  each  kind  looks  are  cast ; 
We  hear  their  words,  their  smiles  behold, 
They're  round  us  as  they  were  of  old — 

We  are  all  here. 

We  are  all  here  ! 

Father,   Mother, 

Sister,  Brother, 
You  that  I  love  with  love  so  dear. 
lliis  may  not  long  of  us  be  said  ; 
Soon  must  we  join  the  gathered  dead  ; 
And  by  the  hearth  we  now  sit  round. 
Some  other  circle  will  be  found. 
Oh  !  then,  that  wisdom  may  we  know, 
Which  yields  a  life  of  peace  below  ; 
So,  in  the  world  to  follow  this, 
May  each  repeat,  in  words  of  bliss: 

We're  all — all  Jiete  ! 



The  First  Settlers — Land  Sales — The  First  Deed — Early  Roads — The  First  Set- 
tlers on  Each  Lot — Hotels,  Mills  aid  Manufactories — Professional  Men, 
Merchants,  Traders  and  Mechanics— '' Fiddlers  Green" — Mails,  Mail 
Routes  and  Post-Offices— Land  Owners  in  1S45— Concord's  Soldier 
Record — Churches — Societies  —  Springville  Academy  —  Schools  and 
Teachers—  Miscellaneous. 


This  honor  belongs  to  Christopher  Stone,  and,  although  the 
author  has  made  diligent  research  for  records  concerning  the 
birth,  nativity  and  early  histor)'  of  the  man,  still  his  efforts 
have  been  in  vain  and  from  whence  he  came  or  whither  he  went 
is  an  unsolved  mystery.  The  records  of  the  Holland  Land 
Company  show  that  Christopher  Stone,  on  the  2nd  day  of  De- 
cember, 1807,  articled  lot  3  containing  357  acres,  also  on  the 
same  day  articled  lot  9  containing  245  acres,  and  on  the  follow- 
ing day,  December  3d,  articled  lot  14  containing  185  acres,  all  of 
T.  6,  R.  6.  The  greater  portion  of  the  Village  of  Springville  is 
located  on  the  two  former  lots.  His  cabin  was  on  Buffalo 
street,  on  a  lot  now  owned  and  occupied  by  William  Joslyn, 
and  stood  very  near  the  latter's  residence.  Stone  must  have 
sold  the  north  part  of  lot  3  to  John  Albro  prior  to  1810,  on 
which  the  latter  built  a  log  house  and  barn,  for,  in  the  Summer 
of  1 8 10,  we  learn  that  the  said  barn  was  used  as  a  school  room. 
The  south  part  of  lot  3  was  sold  to  Rufus  Eaton,  and  posses- 
sion was  given  in  the  Spring  of  18 10.  After  selling  out  here. 
Stone  did  not  remain  but  a  short  time.  In  the  Summer  of 
18 10,  he  lived  up  b\'  the  big  spring  and  his  children  attended 
.■!.chool.  His  son,  Lucius,  was  the  first  white  child  born  in  the 
town.  It  is  conceded  by  all  that  John  Albro  was  the  next  set- 
tler, and  that  Stone  and  Albro  with  their  families,  were  the  sole 
inhabitants  that    passed    the    Winter   of    1807    in    the  Town  of 


Concord.  Tlic  imagination  of  the  reader  will  naturally  turn 
back  to  that  period  in  our  histor\-,  to  these  pioneer  families 
and  their  immediate  surroundings.  It  was  fully  ten  miles  to 
the  nearest  settlement  and  the  way  was  rendered  almost  im- 
passible by  the  snows  of  Winter  and  the  obstacles  to  be  sur- 
mounted in  journeying  through  an  unbroken  wilderness.  And, 
again,  will  the  reader's  thoughts  go  back  to  the  infant  settle- 
ment on  the  following  Summer,  when  death,  the  unwelcomed 
guest  at  all  seasons  and  places,  had  invaded  the  home  of  John 
Albro,  and  rendered  it  desolate  by  removing  his  wife.  The  oc- 
casion of  that  burial  in  the  woods  must  have  been  one  of  ex- 
treme solemnity,  as  the  hardy  pioneers  who  had  come  from  a 
distance,  gathered  around  that  cofifined  form  and  bore  it  away 
to  rest  beneath  the  deep  shadows  of  the  mighty  forest.  This 
was  the  first  Christian  burial  in  the  town.  In  the  Fall  of  1808. 
the  population  of  the  new  settlement  was  augmented  by  the 
families  of  Deacon  John  Russell  and  Samuel  Cochran.  The  for- 
m-cr  articled  the  whole  of  lot  i,  upon  which  he  built  a  log  cabin. 
This  stood  on  the  northeast  corner  of  the  lot  north  of  Franklin 
street,  near  where  it  turns  to  the  northwest  up  the  hill.  Samuel 
Cochran  articled  one  hundred  acres  on  the  south  part  of  lot  2. 
His  cabin  stood  on  the  north  part  of  his  claim,  at  the  foot  of 
the  hill  near  Miss  Goddard's  residence.  Albro  went  east  and 
the  families  of  Stone,  Cochran  and  Russell  were  the  only  inhabi- 
tants in  the  town  in  the  Winter  of  1808.  From  1808,  up  to  the 
declaration  of  war,  1812,  settlers  came  in  cjuite  fast  and  we  find 
by  the  records  and  by  further  investigation,  that  previous  to  the 
first  of  January,  181 5,  about  eighty-five  settlers  had  located  in 
the  present  limits  of  the  Town  of  Concord  (although  some  of 
them  did  not  remain  permanently)  but  the  list  on  the  following 
page  docs  not  include  their  families. 





Christopher    Stone 
John    Albro. 
Samuel  Cochran. 
Joseph  Yaw. 
Rufus  Flaton. 

David  Stickney 
David  Leroy. 
Isaac  Knox. 
Samuel  Burgess 


Chris.  Douglas. 
Benj.  Douglas. 
Asa  Cary. 

Joshua  Mathewson. 
Hale  Mathewson. 
Xoah  Culver. 
Deacon  Jennings. 
James  Bascom. 

Benjamin    Gardner.    James  Henman. 
Elijah  Perigo.  .Doctor  Rumsev. 

David  Stannard. 
Jery  L.  Jenks. 

Wm.  Wright. 
Nathan  King. 
Almon  Fuller, 

ON    THE    CREEK. 

David  Shultus. 
George  Shultus. 
William  Shultus. 
Moses  White. 
Frances  White. 
Truman  White. 
Enoch  Chase. 
Abner  Chase. 
Henry  Hackett. 


Isaiah  Pike. 
James  Pike. 
Lewis  Trevitt. 
John  Ures. 
Je.ssie  Putnan. 
Thos.  M.  Barrett. 
Reuben  Metcalf. 
Sylvenus   Kingsley. 
Comfort  Knapp. 
Arad  Knapp. 

NORTH    OF     SPRtN(;V(LLE. 

Giles  Churchill 
Luther  Curtis. 
Luther  Hibbard. 
John  Drake. 
Jacob  Drake. 
Elijah  Dunham. 
Seneca  Baker. 
Benj.  C.  Foster. 


Jonath'n  Townsend 
Uzial  Townsend. 
Amaziah  Ashman. 
Benjamin  Fay. 
Solomon  Field. 
James  Stratton. 
Samuel  Stewart. 
Thomas  McGee. 


Julius  Bement. 
Elihu  Bement. 

us  TO  JAN.  I,  1815. 

j     IN    THE      COOPER     NEIGH- 

I  Samuel  Cooper. 

Smith  Russel. 
i  Cary  Clemens. 
<  James  Brown. 

Obadiah  Brown. 

Channing  Trevitt. 

James  Armisteatl. 
j  John  Clemens. 
I  Isaac  Lush. 

Hira  Lush. 

Ezra  Lush. 

Daniel  Lush. 

Capt.  J.  Hanchett. 


Lyman  Drake. 
Geo.  Killom. 
James  Thurber. 


John  Russell. 
Gideon  Parsons. 
Mr.  Stevens. 


Wm.  Smith. 
Elijah   Pamenter. 
Luther  Pratt. 


Sylvenus  Cook. 
Nehemiah   Paine. 


There  were  no  set- 
tlers in  this  part  of 
the  town. 

THE    EAKLV    LAND    r)WM:RS. 



The    followini;    tables   show    the    name   of   each  person    who 

boui^lit  land  of  the  Holland  Comi^an)'  within  the  limits   of  the 

present  Town  of  Concord,  the  number  of   the  lot,  the  number 

of  acres  purchased,  ;ind  the  price  paid  : 



Christopher  Stone . 
Christopher  Stone. 
Christopher  Stone . 
(rcorge  Richmond . 
Samuel  Cochrane. . 

Joseph  Yau 

John  Russell 

Benjamin  Douy;lass 
Calvin  Doolittle.  . . 
David  Shultus.  .  .  . 
.Vpollos   Hitciicock 

Moses  White 

Klihu  Bement 

.Vlmon  Fuller 

Isaac  Knox 

Cijors^'e  Shuhus  .  .  . 
Truman  White.  .  .  . 

Moses  White 

\o.ih  Culver 

Samuel    Burgess... 

Rufus  Eaton 

Hale  Mathewson.  . 
(ieorge  Richmond. 

(Oliver  Dearth 

.\lva  Plumb 

Benjamin  Rhodes. 
Benjamin  Rhodes. 
Luther  Austin  .  .  . . 

Alva  Plumb 

.Moses  Wiiite 

-Silas  Rushmore.  .  . 
William  Weeden .  . 




1 80S, 


1 80S, 

1 809. 






I  -^lo 

1 8 10, 





18 1 3. 

1 8 14. 
1 8 1  5 . 

181  5, 
1 8 16, 

18 16, 



Dec.  2.. 
Dec.  2. . 
Dec.  3.. 
Dec.  22 
June  8.. 
June  8. . 
Sept.  I  . 
June  3.. 
June  [2 
June  8.. 
June  8. . 
June  28 
Sept.  1 1 
Sept.  28 
Oct.  16. 
Oct.  29. 
Dec. 3 1 . 
Dec. 3 1 . 
Dec.  31 
July  12. 
Oct.  27. 
Nov.  12 
Dec.  7.. 
Mar.  20 
July  6.. 
Oct.  14. 
Oct.  24. 

Nov.  9  . 
Sspt.  17 
Oct.  19. 
Mar.  16 


'  0   •  • 

1 14.. 

1  23  &  24 

S  pt  1   2 . 

n  pt  1  2  . 

1  I 

1  4  &  10.. 

1  20 

[  22 

1  21.!  ... 

1  18 

n  pt 1  II 


n  pt  1  8. . 

1  19 

1  16 

1  17 

s-w  p  1  5  . 

w  pt  1  8 . 
s-e  pt  1  8 
s-e  pt  1  5 
n-e  pt 1  5 
w  pt  1  7 . 
n  pt  1  7. . 

1  12 

s  pt  1    II 

cKin  pt  1 3 

s-w  pt  1  8 

1  15 

s-e  pt  1  13 
s-wpt  1  1 3 







































1 10 




















4  00 

15  00 
34  00 
10  00 

'  5  75 

I  00 

12  00 


12  GO 

16  GO 
16  GO 
19  GO 
2G  GG 
19  GG 

16  GG 

17  GG 

17  GO 
17  GO 

15  GO 
17  GO 
17  GO 

9  GG 

16  GO 

16  GO 
13  00 
12  GO 

28  GO 

17  GO 
24  GO 
22  GO 
15  GO 



*  By  Deed .  But  very  few  of  the  old  settlers  took  deeds  of  their  land  al  the  time  of  pur- 
chase, but  took  instead  a  contract,  or,  as  it  was  then  called,  an  "  article,"  by  which  they  were 
allo.ved  to  pay  for  their  land  in  six  equal  annual  installments,  after  which  they  received  a 
deed.  It  was  the  custom,  however,  of  the  Holland  Company  to  give  a  second  article  al  the 
end  of  the  six  years  if  any  of  the  money  remained  unpaid,  providing^  there  was  a  prospect  of 
its  being  finally  paid. 



Luther  Hibbard 

John  Albro 

Ehjah  Dunham 

Jedediah  Cleveland..  . 

Gideon  Parsons 

James  Vaughan 

Samuel  Cooper 

Benjamin  Foster 

Seneca  Baker 

Philip  Van  Horn 

John  McAllister 

Luther  Curtis 

*Luther  Curtis 

Josiah  Fay 

Jonathan  Townsend .  . 

Benjamin  Fay 

Fred.  Richmond 

William   Wright 

Benjamin     Sibley     & 

Joshua  Agard 

David  Cunningham. .  . 

James  Miller 

Samuel  Bunnell 

Calvin  Warren 

Timothy  Moors 

William  Smith 

Calvin  Warren 

Ebenezer  Ferrin 

David  Leroy 

David  Leroy 

Orrin  Sibley 

Giles  Churchill 

James  Downs 

Simeon  Bishop,  jr.  ..  . 

Luther  Landon 

William  Southworth .  . 






1 809, 

1 8 10, 


1 8 10, 











181  I, 










Dec.  2. 
Jan.  14 
Jan.  14 
Aug.  2-] 
Nov.  I 
Oct.  I  I 
Oct.  I  1 
Mav  3. 
May  3. 
June  19 
Aug.  I. 
Aug.  31 
Aug.  31 
Oct.  I  . 
Oct.  I . 
Nov.  9 
May  6. 
May  9. 

May  15 
May  15 
May  23 
June  5 
Sept.  3( 
Nov.  4 
Oct.  30 
Oct.  30 
Nov.  28 
Mar.  12 
Mar.  12 
April  25 
Oct.  26. 
Aug.  I . 
Oct.  23. 
Oct.  28. 
Oct.  26. 


n  pt  1  41 
s  pt  1  50 
n  pt  1  50 
1  49 ... . 



\\  pt  1  5  I 
e  pt  1  5  I 
w  pt  1  58 
1  28  ..^.  . 
n  pt  1  42 
s  pt  1  42. 

1  60  ...  . 
e  pt  1  58 
w  pt  1  27 
e  pt  1  34 

1  63  ...  . 
e  pt  1  64 
w  pt 1 56 
s  pt  I  35 

1  54  ■  •  •  • 
w  pt  1  26 
pt  I34.. 
n  pt  1  62 

wpt  1  52 
n  pt  1  35 
e  pt  1  36 

s  pt  1  55 
s  pt  1  41 
1  29  ...  . 
e  pt  1  26 
w  pt  1  47 . 
pt  1  56  .  .  . 

AcuES.  Price 












'  330 

;  683 



i  748 

I  567 


:.  787 


,  435 


I  958 
I  700 
i  350 
1 1 260 



;  285 

.  846 







Jcdcdiah  Cleveland.  .  . 

C}'rus  Cliene\' 

ICphraim  Need  ham  .  .  . 

William  Chapin 

William   Yaw 

John  Pratt 

John  Rector 

Abraham  Middaugh.  . 
Christopher  Douglas  . . 

Sillick  Canfield 

Aaron  Cole 

William  Southworth,  jr 

Nathan  Goddard 

E.  A.  Briggs 

David  Smith 

Stephen  Pnitt 



Orrin  Sible\- ! 

Reuben  Thurber [ 

Ethan  Fember 

Sala  W.  Barnes 

Prentis  Stanbro.  .'....] 
Henry  J.  Vosburg.  .  .  . 

Calvin  Smith 

Jonathan  Mayo j 

Elam  May 

Andrew  Pember 

Sala  W.  Barnes 

Henr)'  Ingalls 

William   Wright 

William  A.  Calkins.  .  .' 

W.  Smith 

Josiah  Wheeler 

Constant  Trevett 

Jonathan  Griffith 

S\-lvester  Frink 

Jabez  &HoratioChapin 
Franklin  Twichcll  .... 

Robert  Flint 

Ezra  &  Homer  Barnes 

Hezekiah  Griffith 

William  Baker 







Aug.  7 .  . 
April    14 
June  5  .  . 
June   16. 
July  17.. 
Aug.  5  .  . 
Oct.  8.  .  . 
Nov.  29. 
Dec.   24. 
May.  29, 
Jan.  31. 
Feb.  26 
Nov.  5  . 
Oct.  2.  . 
Oct.  I .  . 
May  22 

Sept.  23 
Sept.  9. 
Ma}'  8. . 
June  10 
Mar.  SI. 
Mar.  24. 
Mar.  24. 
Mar.  24. 
Mar.  12. 
Mav  13. 
Oct.  15. 
Dec.  5  . 
April  21 
Oct.  10. 
Dec.  25. 
Dec.  25. 
Oct.  7.". 
Sept.  2S 
Mrv  16. 
Feb.  24. 
April  23 
Feb.  10. 
Feb.  ]0. 
Dec.  3  I . 
Dec.  I  7. 

Acres.  Price 

w  pt  1  1 8 .  . 
pt  I35.... 
pt  1  45  .  .  .  . 
pt  I45.  ... 
n  pt  1  39 . . 
pt  1  47  .  .  .  . 
n  pt  1  40. . . 
w  pt  1  34 . . . 

pt  I35 

n  i)t  1  46.  .  . 

pt  1  46 

e  pt  1  56. .. 

n  pt  1  26 . . . 

e  pt  1  68 . .  . 

pt  I45 

1  13,30,  31  & 

pt  1  39  .  .  . 

s-e  pt  1  55.. 

pt  1  46 

n  pt  1  56.  .  . 
n-w  pt  1  39  . 
n-w  pt  I  43. . 
s-w  pt  1  29  . 

pt  1  43 

pt  1  43 

e  pt  1  44. . . 
n-w  pt  1  64 . 

pt  1  40 

.s-w  pt  1  64  . 
n-e  pt  1  29  . . 

pt  1  56 , 

n-e  pt  I34.  •! 
e  pt  1  56.  .  .i 
n-w  pt  1  60. 
n-w  pt  i  37 . 
pt  1  46 .  .  ^.  .  . 

pt  1  45 

s  pt  1  6 1 .  .  . . 

pt  1  39 

n  i)t  1  32  .  .  . 
n  pt  I38...' 

pt  1  37 ; 

1 00 
























i  212 
I  382 

,  200 


TOWNSHIP  SEVEN.   RANGE  SlX  —  ConUnmc/. 


Purroy  Wilson 

George  D.  Williams. .  . 
Elijah  B.  Williams..  .  . 

John  Wilson 

Abel  Merryman 

Caleb  Abbott 

Frances  Ferren 

William  Judd 

Milan  Holly 

*  William  Judd 

James  L.  Bacon 

Smith  &  Horatio  Buys 

Richard  Luddick 

Jesse  Ferren 

Samuel  Haines 

Bela  Graves 

Silas  Wheelock 

John  Griffith 

William  Smith,  jr 

William  Smith,  jr 

William  Griffith 

William  Field 

William  Olin 

*Sylvester  Abbott .  .  . 

Arnold  Cranston ' 

Joseph  Cottrell I 

John  Cottrell 

John  Philips 

Peter  Kinner 

Abram  Gardinier 

Sylvester  Abbott 

Calvin  Smith > 

Samuel  A.  Jocoy 

David  Campbell 

Prentis  Stanbro 

Edward  Cram 

Henry  Akely 

David  Meeker 

Henry  J.  Vosburg.  .  .  . 
*Rebecca  Putnam  .... 

Barney  Graff ] 

E.  A.  Briggs 





















P\'b.  10  . 
Feb.  24  . 
Feb.  24  . 
Feb.  24  . 
Aug.  1 1  . 
Jan.  31 .  . 
Dec.  18  . 
July  20.  . 
July  20.  . 
July  8... 
Nov.  8.  . 
Nov.  8 .  . 
Nov.  8.  . 
Dec.  17  . 
Dec.  18  . 
Jan.  14.  . 
Feb.  8.  . 
May  22.. 
May  21.. 
Jan.  8.  .  . 
Dec.  25  . 
Jan.  22 .  . 
Dec.  30  . 
May  5... 

June  16 
Sept.  16. 
Sept.  16. 
Oct.  6..  . 
Oct.  6... 
Sept.  13. 
Dec.  I  .  . 
Dec.  31.. 
Dec.  6. .  . 
Dec.  6. .  . 
Oct.  13.  . 
Nov.  13. 
Jan. 6. . . 
Aug.  1 1  . 
April  12 
June  19.. 
Feb.  2..  . 
Mar.   10. 

pt  1  40  . 
pt  1  40. 
pt  1  40. . 
pt  1  40. . 
pt  1  40. . 
w  pt  1  48 
s-e  pt  1  29 . 
n-\v  pt  1  31 
s-w  pt  1  3 1 . 
w  pt  1  32 
pt  1  32.. 
pt  1  32.  . 
pt  1  32  .  . 
pt  152.. 
w  pt  1  36 
w  pt  1  38 
ptl38.  ... 
s-e  pt  1  38. 
ptl  44.  ... 
s-\v  pt  1  75 
s-\v  pt  1  38. 
s-w  pt  1  62 
pt  1  29. . 

ptl  56.. 
pt  1 44. . 
pt  130.. 

e  pt  1  30 
s  e  pt  1  3 1  . 
s  e  pt  1  62. 
n  w  pt  1  29 
n  e  pt  1  55 
n  e  pt  1  43 
n  e  pt  1  44 
s  e  pt  1  44 
w  pt  1  44. 
pt  1  36. .  .  . 
n  w  pt  1  61 
pt  1  36. . 
pt  1  57- 
pt  1  37- 
pt  1  37- 
pt  1  53- 

























FROM     rilH    HOl.LAXl)   COMPANY. 
TOWNSHIP  SEVEN,    RANGE  ^\\—Conli,nuJ. 




1 84 1,  Mar.  10.. 
1 84 1,  Oct.  23.. 
1 841,  Nov.  I .  . 
1837.  Jan.  5...' 




Albert  Sliippy 

Edward  (loddard 

Henry  Dye 

Wheeler  Drake 

spt  I    53... 

pt  1  53---- 

pt  1  61  

w  pt  1  47 . . 







Ephraim  Hall 

Ahaz  Allen 

Peter  Pratt 

Amiah  Rogers 

Geori^e  Hicks 

Nathan  Hicks 

Jessee  F"rye 

Enoch  N.  Frye 

Simeon  Bishop,  jr .  .  .  . 

David  Bowen 

Zina  Fenton 

Moses  M.  Frye 

Jeremiah  Richardson. 
Elijah  Richardson.  .  . 
Chandler  C.  Foster.  . 

Day  Knii^ht 

John  Battles 

Simeon  Holton 

Alanson  Richardson. 

Price  F.  Kellogi,^ 

Nathaniel   Knight ... 

Simeon  Holton 

Elijah  Richardson..  . 

Stephen  Kni^^ht 

Jeremiah    Richardson 

James  Field 

Joshua  Steele 

Enoch  X.  I'Vye 

Elias  Van  Camp 

Elijah  Richardson  .  .  .  . 

J  essee  Frye 

Giles  H.  Newton 

Jeremiah  Richardson 
James  Tyrer 

8 10 




May  2  . 
Dec.  3  . 
Oct.  8.. 
Jan.  19. 
Feb.  I T 
1-^eb.  1 1 
July  II. 
Oct.  31 . 
Sept.  I . 
July  1 1. 
Dec.  24. 
Dec.  13 
Nov.  28 
Nov.  28 
Aug.  27 
Aug.  13 
Oct.  26. 
Mar.  10 
June  1 1 
April  17 
Aug.  14 
Dec.  I  5 

July  15- 
Sept.  20 
Jan.  10. 
Sept.  7. 
Aug.  19 
Feb.  21. 
Oct.  25. 
Dec.  24 
July  28. 
April  15 
May  2.. 
Sept.  2 . 


1  56 
1  58 
1  46 
e  pt 
I  47 


^\'  pt  I  49 
pt  1  49 .  .  . 

1  59 

1  60 

pt  1  49 . . 
w  pt  1  61 
s-e  pt  1  9 1 
e  pt  1  91 
pt  1  81  . 
n  pt  1  8 1 
n  pt  1  82 
pt  1  8 1  . 
s  pt  1  81 
n  pt  1  72 
pt  1 
pt  1 

pt  1 
pt  1 
pt  1 
pt  1 
pt  ■ 

81  . 
I  90 



w  pt  1  73 
n-e  pt  1  9 
pt  1  62. 
w  pt  1  89 
w  pt  1  91 
pt  1  89. 





























164  NAMES   or   PERSONS    BUYING    LAND 

TOWNSHIP  SIX,  RANGE  SE\Y.^—ConCinueii. 


Lyman  Steele 

John  Van  Pelt.  .  .  . 
Luther  Thompson . 
Robert  Trumball . . 
Stephen  Kniijht .. . 

Amos  Stanbro 

Jeremiah  Richardson 

Charles  Printjle 

Thomas  Davis , 

*James  S.  Frye 

EHzor  Stocking 

Tristram  Dodge 

Austin  Pratt .  .^ 

Stephen  Williams.  .  . 

John  A.  Williams  .  .  .  . 
Heman  W.  Williams.  . 
Stephen  Churchill .  .  .  . 

Mason  Hicks 

Simeon  Holton 

Alanson  P.  Morton .  .  . 

Matthias  Heath 

Milo  M.  Baker 

David  German 

Isaac  Nichols 

Isaac  Nichols 

James  Wheeler 

Stephen  Ingersoll  .  .  .  . 
Joseph  Hammond,  jr. . 
George  W.  Richardson 

*Eleanor  Curtis 

James  Wheeler 

David  Witherel 

Hosea  P.  Ostrander. .  . 
William  Smith 

Asahel  Nye 

Ephraim  Hall 

John  Williams 

Otis  Buttervvorth 

Jedediah  Cleaveland.. 









Si  I 


Oct.  27. 
Sept.  3. 
Aug.  31 
Aug.  17 
Nov.  2. 

P'eb.  20 
July  8.. 
Dec.  7  . 
July  17. 
July  10. 
Feb.  28. 
Jan.  19 . 


May  3.. 
May  30. 
Jan.  15. 
June  5. 
Aug.  12 
Feb.  7  . 
Dec.  29 
June  25 
Dec.  31. 
Dec.  29. 
Dec.  24. 
Dec.  29. 
June  2  . 
Aug.  31 
April  23 
June  29 
Dec.  29. 
Oct.  II. 
Jan. 15. 
June  27 

April  9. 
May  2.. 
Nov.  26 
May  30. 
Aug.  7. 


Acres  1  Price 

pt  1 
pt  1 
w  pt 

1  90. 
1  87. 
1  72. 
1  82. 

79  & 

e  pt  1  80 

pt  1  80 .  .  . 
n  pt  1  7 1  .  . 
w  pt  1  80. 
pt  1  73... 
n-w  pt  1  49 
pt  1  49 ... . 



1  56  &  e  pt 


1  56 

w  pt  1  6 1 .  . 
n-e  pt  1  72. 
pt  1  48 . . . . 
n-w  pt  1  72 
n  pt  1  8 1  .  . 

pt  1  81  

pt  1  81  ..  .. 
s  pt  1  8 1  .  . 
pt  1  91.... 
n-w  pt  1  90 
pt  1  91.... 
n  pt  1  90. . 
pt  1  72  .  .  .  . 
n-e  pt  1  91 . 
e  pt  1  90  .  . 
pt  1  90.  ... 
n-w  pt  1  82 
pt  1  81..  .. 

e  pt  1  53 
s  pt  1  66 
w  pt  1  67 
w  pt  1  67. 
s  pt  ]  68  . 
n  pt  1  68  . 
e  pt  1  86. 



1 00  400 
1 00  400 






75  I  431 
130  I  715 

95  I  433 

30   172 
100  615 






60  240 









TOWNSHIP  SLX.  RANGt  SEVEyi—Cou/i/irtec/. 







Stillman  Andrews.  .  .  . 

1828,  Aug.  21 . 

n  pt  1  66 . . . 



loel  Chaffee       

1828,  Nov.  26. 

s  pt  1  77  ..  . 
Ptl  77 



Veter  Bost 

1831,  July  I... 


Alanson  Loveless  .... 

1832,  Jan.  9.  .. 

e  pt  1  67 . . . 



Ebenezer  Dibble 

1832,  Jan.  II.. 

pt  1  77 



Almar  White 

1833,  Sept.  7.. 

pt  1  77 



John  Van  Pelt 

1836,  Sept.  3.. 

pt  1  87 



John  Van  Pelt 

1836,  July  25.. 

n  pt   1  78  & 

s  pt  1  87.. 



Kichard  Dowd 

1836,  Aug.  5.. 

pt  1  87 



Nancv  Harkness 

1837,  Feb.  27.. 

pt  186 



Charles  Watson 

1837,  March  15 

pt  1  78 



John  Williams 

1837,  Sept.  21. 

s  pt  1  69  .  .  . 



Edward  Blodgett 

1841,  Oct.   14.. 

n  pt  1  69 . . . 


Lansing  Tooker 

1841,  Sept.  15  . 

w  pt  1  86 . . . 




James  Brown 

John  Clemens 

George  Killom 

John  Stewart 

Amaziah  Ashman  .  .  .  . 

Solomon  Field 

Thomas  M.  Barrett..  . 
Sylvenus  S.  Kingsley. 

Ebenezer  F.  Pike 

Jessee  Putnam,  jr 

Samuel  Abbott 

John  H.  Cuming 

Benjamin  C.  Pratt.  .  .  . 
Joseph  Yaw 

1 8 1  o, 
1 8 10, 
1 8 10, 
1 8 10. 

Oct.   16 
Oct.   16 
Sept.  3c 
Oct.  24 
Oct.  24 
Sept.  8 
Jan.  1 1 
Jan.  18 
June  7 
Jan.  10 
June  7 
Sept.  7 
April  23 
Jan.  18 

1 8 10,  Aug.  2 
1 8 10,  Mar.  5 
18 10,  Nov.  29 

Obadiah  Brown .... 
■"Thomas  M.  Barrett 
Comfort  Knapp.  .  .  . 

Joseph  Hanchett i  181 1,  Feb  20 

James  Pike 18 10,  June  7 

Thomas  McGec.  .  .  . 

Smith  Russell 

Lyman  Drake 

1 8 10,  April  23 

1 8 10,  May    5. 

181 1,  May  27. 

w  pt  1  20. .  . 


e  1/  1   201 .  < 


n  y,  1  24 .  .  . 


e  pt  1  4. ... 


w  pt  1  4. .  .  . 


1  3 


n-e  pt  1  40.. 


1   31 


1  22 


w  14  1  23... 


1  39 


n  ><138... 


e  pt  I  21..-. 


1  19  &   n  pt 

1  18 


e>^  1  28      .  . 


s-e  pt  1  40 .  . 

.     50 

n-e  pt  1  48. . 


w  >^  1  21  .. 


1  30 

330      ; 

1  II 

343  . 

w  pt  1  I  2  .  .  . 


n  pt  1  16. . . 

1    100 


1 107 












Richard  Stevens i8ii.  Au 

Timothy  Stevens. 
Samuel  Cooper  .  . 
Samuel  Cooper  .  . 
Hall  &  Metcalf.  . 
Israel  Clark 

James  Brisbane \ 

Reuben  Metcalf \ 

James  Willson ! 

Channing  Trevett .  .  .  . ; 

Arad  Knapp ; 

Ezekiel  Cook ' 

Nehemiah  Paine | 

Andrew  Clemens | 

David  Cunningham ... 

Isaac  Drake 

Wheeler  Drake 

Amos  Thompson 

Jacob  Thompson 

Amos  Thompson , 

David  Stanard j 

David  Stanard i 

Joel  Gillet..  .  ." 

Jireh   Phinney 

Andrew  McKlen 

Jane  Thompson 

William  Dye 

John  McKlen 

Joseph  Potter 

Justus  Hinman 

John  Horton 

Benjamin   Fay 

Ebenezer  Ferrin 

Daniel  Persons 

Emery  Sampson 

John  S.  Newell 

Jonathan  Townsend.. 

Ezekiel  Cook 

James  Pike 

Charles  C.  Reynolds.  . 





181 1, 

&  I 



18 1 2, 















1 8 16, 





182 1. 





1 8 16, 







Aug.  5 .  . 
Dec.  12.. 
Dec.  12.. 
April  19. 
Feb  27 
March  6.  . 

July  7... 
Dec.  II.. 
Feb.  7. .  . 
June  13. 
March  6. 
April  6.  . 
April  6.  . 
July  10.  . 
May  29.. 
Oct.  26.. 
June  12. 
Dec.  6. .  . 
Dec.  6. .  . 
Dec.  6..  . 
Sept.  8.  . 
Sept.  8.  . 
Dec.  s-  •  • 
Mar.  I... 
July  16.. 
Jan.  18.. 
April  17. 
Sept.  5  .  . 
July  28.  . 
July  28.  . 
Oct.  18.  . 
July  II.. 
Nov.  28. 
April  19. 
July  20.  . 
Aug.  7 .  . 
Dec.  31.. 
Jan. 22. . 
Mar.  7 .  . 
Sept.  30. 

Acres.  1  Price 

n  pt  1    I  & 
pt  1  2  .  . . 

pt  1  2 

n-e  pt  1  12. 
s-e  pt  1  12  . 
n  pt  1  29. . 
s-e  pt  1  48  & 
w  pt  1  40 
w  pt  1  27. . 
s  pt  i  29. . 
s  pt  1  32  .  . 
pt  1   18... 
n  ])t  1  47  .  . 
s  pt  1   i^.. 
e  pt  1  41  .  . 
pt  1  28  .  .  . 
s  pt  1   7  .  .  . 
pt  1  7  .  .  .  . 
w   pt  1   16. 
p  1  10.... 

pi  10 

w  p   1   10. . 
s  p  1    16... 

pi  7 

n  p  1  7 .  .  . 
n  p  1  6. . . 
spt  1  13 
pi  13... 
s  p  1  8 .  . 
p  1  I  .  .  .  , 
pi  15.. 
n  p  1  I  5  . 
n-w  pt  1  48 
s  pt  1  26 
s  pt  1  1 8 
e  i)t  1  44 
pt  1  35- 
pt  1  33- 
n  pt  1  17 
s  pt  1  25 
s-w  pt  1  24 
n  pt  1  33.. 
















FROM  THE  Holland  co.\rpANY. 




Emery  Sampson 

William  Hcrrick 

Lewis  Trevett 

Rebecca  Lush 

Masury  Giles 

Zebedee  Simons 

Daniel  Ingalls 

Daniel  Putnam 

Jonathan  Townsend .  . 

James  Coh'ille 

Robert  Curran 

Samuel    Fosdick 

Francis  Koiser  &  Jean 


Elias  M.  Chapel 

Charles  Mosier 

David  Heath 

Rufus  Thurbur 

Irena  Drake 

Jehiel  Mitchel 

Jasper  Thompson.  .  .  . 

Oliver  Needham 

^Lemuel  Twitchell.  .  . 

Samuel  Lake 

George  A.  Stewart .  .  . 

Obadiah  Russell 

Hosea  L.  Potter 

Barzillai  Briggs 

Amos  Stanbro 

*Reuben  C.  Drake  .  .  . 

Fllam  Booth 

John  Brooks 

Hosea  E.  Potter 

Ebenezer  Drake 

Zebedee  Simons 

James  Coh  iile 

Truman  V^anderlip .... 

Michael    Haas,  jr 

Stephen  Churchill.  .  .  . 

Phineas  Scott 

Pliny  Wheeler 

Laban  A.  Needham  . . . 







Oct.  16.. 
Sept.  19. 
Jan.  12.  . 
P'eb.  21.. 
Nov.  17. 
Nov.  17. 
Sept.  8 .  . 
Sept.  8.  . 
Dec.  7..  . 
Dec.  19.. 
Jan.  21 .  . 
Jan.  21  .  . 

Oct.  16.. 
Oct.  27.  . 
July  16.  . 
Nov.  2.  . 
April  8.  . 
July  II.. 
Oct.  31.. 
Dec.  25.. 
Nov.  5  .  . 
Jan.  20.  . 
April  27. 
Oct.  3... 
Feb.  25.. 
Oct.  14.. 
Nov.  19. 
Feb.  8... 
Nov.  22 . 
Nov.  22 . 
Nov.  27. 
April  12. 
Aug.  20. 
Dec.  21.. 
Mar.  9.  . 
Oct.  10.  . 
Mar.  21  . 
Dec.  13.. 
Dec.  14.. 
Nov.  7.  . 
Oct.  28.  . 


e  pt  1  36. 
w  pt  1   28 

-S-W  pt   1    2 

c  pt  1  27. 

s  pt  1   34. 

pt  1   34  •  • 
pt   I   38 
n-w  pt  1 

n-e  pt  1  24 

pt  1  24. 



n  pt  1  32 . 
w  pt  1  36, 
w  pt  1  41. 
pt  1  42 . . 
pt  1  8 . .  . 
n-w  pt  1  8 
n  pt  1  9 .  . 
pt  16... 
pt  1  6.  .. 
pt  1  15.. 
s  pt  1  I  .  . 
n  pt  1  2 .  . 
n  pt  1  1 3  . 
n  pt  1  14. 
s-w  pt  1  I  5 
spt  1  5.." 
pt  1  5 .  .  . 
pt  1  5  .  .  . 
n  pt  1  5  .  . 
pt  1  14.. 
n-e  pt  1  8 
pt  1  42 .  . 
w  pt  1  44. 
n  pt  1  45 . 
pt  1  47 .  . 
.s-w  pt  1  48 
pt  1  44. . 
n-e  pt  1  25 
s  pt  1   6. 




























2  I  2 


22  1 
2  12 



1 68  REAL   ESTATE   DOCU^rE^•TS. 




Land.         IAcres.  Price 

John  Hcaland i  1841,  Nov.   i .  . 

Isaac  Woodward i  1841,  Nov.   I  .  . 

Thoma.s  Pound |  1842,  July    1  .  . 

Harvey  Twichell.  .  .  .    j  1841,  Nov.   i  .  . 

Mary  Bement I  1841,  Nov.    i  .  . 

Phineas  Peabody 1841,  Sept.  10.'  pt 

Zacheus  Preston 1838,  Dec.  26.  .|  pt 

e  pt  1  43  .  .  . 
pt  1  44 .  .  . 
pt  1  38.... 
s-w  pt  1  14. 
s-e  pt  1    14. . 

34 ... . 


Isaiah  Pike 1836,  Oct.  6.  .  .    s-e  pt  1  2^. 








The  following  copy  of  a  land  article  taken  by  Samuel  Cooper, 
father  of  Varnum  Cooper,  a  resident  of  Concord,  will  show 
something  of  'the  manner  of  dealing  in  and  transferring  real 
e.state  during  the  first  j^ears  that  settlements  were  made  : 

"ARTICLES  OF  AGREEMENT,  indented,  made,  con- 
cluded and  fully  agreed  upon,  this  12th  day  of  December,  in 
the  }'ear  of  our  LORD  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  eleven, 
between  WlLIlEL.M  WiLLiNK  and  Jax  Willlnk,  VVilhel.m 
WiLLINK  the  younger  and  J.VN  VVlLLIXK  the  younger,  all  of 
the  City  of  Amsterdam,  in  the  Republic  of  Batavia,  b}-  Jo.SEl'H 
Ellicott,  their  attorney,  of  \.\\c  first  part  and  SAMUEL  Cooi'ER, 
of  the  County  of  Niagara  and  State  of  New  York,  of  the  second 
part.  Whereas  the  said  party  of  the  second  part  is  justly 
indebted  to  the  said  parties  of  the  first  part  in  the  sum  of  two 
hundred  and  sixty-nine  dollars  and  fift)-  cents,  New  York 
currency,  to  be  paid  to  said  jiarties  of  the  first  part,  their 
executors,  administrators  or  assigns,  in  manner  following,  that 
is  to  say,  the  sum  of  twelve  dollars  and  fifty  cents  immediatel)- 
upon  the  execution  of  these  presents,  and  the  remaining  two 
hundred  and  fifty-seven  dollars  in  six  eciual  \-earh'  instalments 
with  the  interest  from  the  date  hereof,  to  be  [)aid  \early  and 
every  year  (together  with  the  said  instalments)  upon  such  part 
of  the  said  last-mentioned  sum  as  shall,  at  the  time  of  such 
respective  payments  be  due  and  uni)aid.  The  first  of  said 
instalments  and  annual  pa}'ments  of  interest  to  commence  on 
the  12th  da}'  of  December,  in  the  \ear  of  our  LokD  one  thou- 
sand eight  hundred  and  fourteen. 

ARriCt.KS   01-'  ACREf^NtKXT.  169 

"  Now,  rili;KKl'(  )Ri;,  in  consideration  thereof,  the  said  parties 
of  the  first  part,  for  themselves,  tlieir  heirs,  executors  and 
administrators,  do  b)'  these  presents  covenant,  promise  and 
a^i^ree.  to  and  with  the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  his  heirs, 
executors.  athninistrat(M-s  or  assigns,  and  e\'er)'  of  them,  that 
if  the  said  part}'  of  the  second  part,  his  heirs,  executors, 
athninistrators  or  assigns,  or  any  of  them,  shall  and  do,  well 
and  truK-  {)a}-  or  cause  to  be  paid  unto  the  said  parties  of  the 
first  part,  their  executors,  administrators  or  assigns,  the  afore- 
said several  sums  of  money,  at  the  times  hereinbefore  men- 
tioned for  payment  thereof,  according  to  the  tenor  and  effect 
of  the  covenant  and  agreement  hereinafter  contained,  on  the 
part  of  the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  that  then  and  in  such 
case,  the  said  parties  of  the  first  part,  their  heirs  and  assigns, 
shall  and  will  well  and  sufficiently  grant,  bargain,  sell,  release, 
convey,  confirm  and  asssure  to  the  said  party  of  the  second 
part,  and  to  his  heirs  and  assigns  forever,  or  to  whom  he  or 
the\'  shall  appoint  or  direct — 

"Arxthat  certain  tract  of  land,  situate,  lying  and  being  in  the 
County  of  Niagara,  in  the  State  of  New  York,  being  part  or 
parcel  of  a  certain  township,  which  on  a  map  or  surve}'  of 
divers  tracts  or  townships  of  land  of  the  said  parties  of  the 
first  part,  made  for  the  proprietors  by  JoSEl'H  ElJJt'O'iT,  sur- 
veyor, is  distinguished  b}'  township  No.  7  in  the  se\-enth  range 
of  said  townships.  And  which  said  tract  of  land  on  a  certain 
other  map  or  surve)'  of  said  township  into  lots  made  for  the 
proprietors  by  the  said  Joseph  PVlliCOTT,  is  distinguished  b\- 
the  north-east  part  of  lot  No.  12  according  to  the  following 
plan,  containing  se\enty-se\'en  acres,  be  the  same   more  or  less. 

••  PRoxiDEl)  AI. WANS,  that  if  default  shall  be  made  in  the  per- 
formance of  the  coxeiiant  ne.xt  hereinafter  contained,  on  the  part 
of  the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  for  the  punctual  payment 
ot  the  said  instalments  and  annual  pa}'ments  of  interest  in 
manner  hereinafter  mentioned,  then  the  said  covenant  next 
hereinbefore  contained  on  the  part  of  the  said  parties  of  the 
first  part  shall  become  void  and  of  no  effect.  And  the  said 
party  of  the  second  part,  for  himself,  his  heirs,  executors 
and  administrators,  doth  covenant,  promise  and  agree,  to  and 
with   the  said   parties  of  the   first   part,  their  heirs,    executors. 


administrators  and  assigns,  that  he  will  well  and  truly  pay  to 
the  said  parties  of  the  first  part,  their  executors,  administrators 
and  assigns  the  said  remaining  sum  of  two  hundred  and  fifty- 
seven  dollars,  in  six  equal  yearly  instalments,  together  with  the 
lawful  interest  to  grow  due  thereon  from  the  date  hereof, 
yearly  and  every  year,  in  manner  hereinbefore  mentioned,  the 
first  of  the  said  instalments  and  annual  payments  of  interest  to 
commence  on  the  I2th  day  of  December,  in  the  year  of  our 
Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  fourteen.  And  the 
said  parties  of  the  first  part,  for  themselves,  their  heirs,  execu- 
tors and  administrators,  do  hereby  further  declare  and  agree, 
that  if  the  said  party  of  the  second  part  shall  on  or  before  the 
1 2th  day  of  December  next  erect  or  cause  to  be  erected,  on  the 
tract  of  land  and  premises  hereinbefore  described,  or  some  part 
thereof,  a  messuage  fit  for  the  habitation  of  man,  not  less  than 
eighteen  feet  square,  and  shall  live  and  reside  or  cause  a  family 
to  live  and  reside  therein  during  the  term  of  three  years  from 
thence  next  ensuing,  and  shall,  on  or  before  the  12th  day  of 
December  next,  clear  and  fence  or  cause  to  be  cleared  and 
fenced,  not  less  than  five  acres  of  the  said  tract  of  land  to  the 
satisfaction  of  the  said  parties  of  the  first  part,  that  then  and 
in  such  case  they  the  said  parties  of  the  first  part,  shall  and  will 
relinquish  and  release  to  the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  all 
the  interest  which  shall  have  accrued  upon  such  principal  sums 
of  money  for  the  period  of  two  years. 

"■  In  testimony  whereof,  the  parties  to  these  presents  have 
hereunto  interchangeably  set  their  hands  and  seals  the  day  and 
year  first  above  written. 

Signed,  sealed  and  delivered  J 
in  the  presence  of 

David  Goodwin.      ) 

WiLHELM  WiLLINK,  [  L.  S.] 

Jan  Willink,  [l.  s.] 

WiLHELM  Willink.  the  Younger,  |  L.  s.  ] 

Jan  Willink.  the  Younger,  [l.  s.] 

By  their  Attorney. 

Joseph  Ellicott,  [l.  s.  | 
Samuel  Cooper,  [l.  s.]" 

TXT)nRSE^rE\T   AMD    ASStGNMENtf;.  1/1 

riic  followiiii^'  is  the  iiuloi'scmcnt  and  the  assii^nments  that 
ai)pear  on  the  back  of  tlie  article  : 

"  Receivetl.  December  I2th,  i.Sii,  of  Samuel  Coo[)er,  twelve 
dollars  and  fift\'  cents,  bein;^  the  first  paj'ment  within  men- 
tioned. I^'or  Joseph    PLllicott, 

$12.50.  David  Goodwin. 

"  F"or  value  received,  I  sign  over  all  my  right  and  title  to  the 
within  article  of  agreement,  with  all  the  rights  and  privileges 
thereunto  belonging  to  Nicholas  Armstead. 

Samuel  Cooper. 

"  For  value  received,  I  sign  over  all  my  right  and  title  to  the 
within  article  of  agreement,  ^\'ith  all  the  rights  and  privileges 
thereto  belonging,  to  Samuel  Cooper. 

Concord,  May  9th,  18 16.  NICHOLAS  Armstead. 

"  For  \alue  received,  I  sign  over  all  my  right  and  title  to  the 
within  article  of  agreement,  with  all  the  rights  and  pri\-ileges 
thereunto  belonging,  to  Stephen  Russell. 

Aug.  21st,  1816.  Samuel  Cooper. 

"  For  value  received,  I  '  sine'  over  all  my  '  wright'  and  title 
to  within  article  of  agreement,  with  all  the  rights  '  privalege' 
'  thereonto'  belonging,  to  Sylvester  Russell. 

Januar>-   14th,   1 82  I.  STEPHEN    RuSSELL. 

"  For  value  received,  I  '  sine'  over  all  my  'wright'  and  title  to 
within  article  of  agreement,  with  all  the  '  wrights'  and  '  pri\a- 
leges'  thereunto  belonging,  to   Tracy  J.  Russell. 

March  17.  1833.  Sylvester  Russell. 

"  This  may  certify,  that  we  assign  all  of  the  land  on  the  west 
side  of  the  road,  it  being  the  west  part  of  the  northeast  part  of  lot 
12,  R  7,  T.  7,  said  land  to  be  fifteen  or  twenty  acres,  to  Pliin- 
eas  Scott,  his  heirs  and  assigns  forever,  for  a  valuable  consider- 
ation in  hand  paid,  and  give  the  said  Scott  peaceable  possession 
of  the  same,  this  13th  da}'  of  October,  1842. 

Tracy  J.  Russell, 
Sylvester   Russell. 
April  the  28th,  1843. 

"  For  value  received,  I  assign  this  article  and  all  "mi"  'wright' 
and  title  to  the  w  ithin  contract, 

Sylvester  Russell." 

172  THK    FIRST   DEED    GIVEN    FOR    LAND 

COPY    OF    THE    FIRST    DEED    GIVEN    FOR    LAND    IN    THE  TOWN 


"  THIS  INDENTURE,  made  this  Fifth  day  of  March  in  the 
year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  ei^^lit  hundred  and  ten,  bctz^een 
Wilhem  WiUink,  Pieter  Van  Eeghen,  Hendrick  Vollenhoven, 
Rutger  Jan  Schimmelpcnnick,  Wilhem  WilHnk  the  younger, 
Jan  Willink,  the  younger,  son  of  Jan,  Jan  Gabriel  Van  Stapf- 
horst,  Cornelis  Vollenhoven  and  Hendrik  Seye,  all  of  the  City  of 
Amsterdam,  in  the  Republic  of  Batavia,  hy  Joseph  Ellicott,  their 
attorney,  of  the  first  Part,  and  Thomas  M.  Barrett  of  the  County 
of  Niagara  and  State  of  New  York  of  the  second  Part: — WIT- 
NESSETH, that  the  said  parties  of  the  first  part,  for  and  in  con- 
sideration of  the  sum  of  NINETY  Dollars,  to  them  in  hand 
by  the  said  party  hereto  of  the  second  part,  the  receipt  whereo- 
is  hereby  acknowledged,  and  themselves  to  be  therewith  fully 
satisfied,  contented  and  paid,  Have  granted,  bargained,  sold, 
aliened,  released,  enfeoffed,  conveyed,  confirmed  and  assured, 
and  by  these  presents  Do  grant,  bargain,  sell,  alien,  release, 
enfeofT,  convey,  confirm  and  assure  unto  the  said  party  of  the 
second  part,  and  to  his  heirs  and  assigns  forever,  ALL  that  cer- 
tain tract  of  land,  situated,  lying  and  being  in  the  County  of 
Niagara  in  the  State  of  New  York,  being  part  or  parcel  of  a 
certain  Township,  which  on  a  map,  or  survey  of  divers  tracts  or 
Townships  of  land  of  the  said  parties  of  the  first  part,  made  by 
the  Proprietors  by  Joseph  Ellicott,  surveyor,  is  distinguished  by 
Township  number  seven,  in  the  seventh  range  of  said  Town- 
ships, and  which  said  tract  of  land  on  a  certain  other  map  or 
survey  of  said  Township  into  lots,  made  for  the  said  Proprie- 
tors, by  the  said  Joseph  Ellicott,  is  distinguished  by  the  south- 
east part  of  lot  number  fort)'  in  the  said  Township. 

"  Bounded  east  by  K)t  number  thirt\'-two,  t\\  ent\'-seven  chains, 
sixty-seven  links;  south  by  lot  number  thirt)'-nine,  eighteen 
chains  seven  links  ;  west  by  a  line  parallel  with  the  west  bounds 
of  said  lot  number  32,  twenty-seven  chains,  sixt}'-seven  links  ;  and 
north  by  a  line  parallel  with  the  north  bounds  o{  said  lot  num- 
ber thirty-nine,  eighteen  chains  seven  links,  containing  fifty 
acres,  be  the  same  more  or  less,  according  to  the  plan  laid  down 
in  the  margin  hereof:     TOGETHER   with   all   and    singular  the 

signaturp:s  of   tiif.  iwrtiks,  ktc.  173 

Appurtenances,  Privileges,  Advantages  and  Hereditaments 
whatsoever,  unto  the  above  mentioned  and  described  i)remises 
in  any  wise  appertaining  or  belonging,  And  the  Rex'crsion  and 
reversions.  Remainder  and  remaindjrs.  Rents.  Issues  and  Profits 
thereof,  and  also  all  tli;:  estate.  Right,  Title,  Interest.  Proi)ert\'. 
Claim  and  Demand  whatsoever,  as  well  in  law  as  in  ecjuit)',  of 
the  said  Parties  of  the  first  Part,  of.  in,  or  to  the  same,  and  ever\- 
Part  and  Parcel  thereof,  with  the  Appurtenances;  TO  HAVK  AND 
ro  noi,D  the  above  granted,  bargained  and  described  premises, 
with  the  Appurtenances,  unto  the  said  party  (^f  the  second 
part,  his  heirs  and  assigns,  to  his  and  their  only  proper  Use, 
Benefit  and  Behoof  forexer.  A\l)  the  said  parties  of  the  first 
i'art,  for  themsehes,  and  their  and  each  of  their  respectixc 
Heirs,  Executors  and  Administrators,  do  hereb}-  covenant, 
promise  and  agree  to  and  with  the  said  part}'  of  the  second 
part,  his  Heirs  and  Assigns,  that  the}-,  the  said  parties  of  the 
first  part,  the  above  described,  and  hereb}'  granted  and  bar- 
gained premises  and  every  j^art  thereof,  with  the  Appurte- 
nances, unto  the  part}'  of  the  second  part,  his  Heirs  and  Assigns, 
against  the  said  parties  of  the  first  Part,  and  their  Heirs,  and 
against  all  other  persons  whatsoever  lawfully  claiming,  or  to 
claim  the  same,  or  any  part  thereof,  shall  and  will  warrant,  and 
b}'  these  presents  forexer  Dl'.KKND. 

"  Ix  Witness  whereof,  tlic  parties  to  these  presents  have  here- 
unto interehaiigeably  set  their   Hands  anel  Seals  the  Day  and 
Year  first  above  written. 
Scaled  and  delivered  in  j 

the  presence  of  | 

James  W.  Stevens.     | 

William  Peacock.     | 

Wilhelm  Willink,  |  L.  s.  |  Jan  Gabriel  V'an  Staphorst,  [l.S] 

Peter  Van  Eehhen,  |  L.  s.  ]  Cornelis  Vollenhoven,  [i,.  s.] 

Hendrik  Vollenhoven,  j  L.  s.  |       Hendrik  Seye,  [  L.  S.  | 
Rutger  Jan  Schimmelpennick,  |  r..  s.  |       B}'  their  Attorney, 
Wilhem  Willink,  the  Younger,  |  i..  s. )         Jose):)h  P^Uicott.  |  l,.s.| 
Jan  Willink,  the  Younger,  Son  of  Jan.  |  [,.  s.] 

The  first  road  laid  out  in  town  was  the  Genesee  or  Cattaraugus 
road.      It    was   laid  out   by    the   Holland    Land    Company.      It 

174  ROAD    P^ROM    BUFFALO    TO    OLEAX. 

commences  at  the  east  side  of  the  Holland  Purchase  and 
extends  westward  through  Wyoming  county  and  Sardinia, 
Concord  and  North  Collins  to  near  Lawton  station.  The  east 
part  of  the  road  in  Wyoming  count)'  and  a  portion  in  Sardinia 
was  cut  out  by  men  employed  by  the  Holland  Compan\'.  The 
rest  of  the  way  the  work  was  done  by  the  settlers  and  inhabi- 
tants. A  portion  of  the  way  the  lots  are  bounded  by  the  out- 
side limits  of  the  road.  The  intervening  space  being  a  gift 
from  the  company  for  the  purpose  of  a  road. 

In  i8io,  a  road  from  Buffalo  to  Olean  Point  was  laid  out; 
passing  through  Hamburg,  Boston,  up  the  valley  of  the  Eigh- 
teen-mile creek,  through  what  was  formerly  called  the  Sible}'  set- 
tlement, past  the  farm  of  H.  M.  Blackmer  to  East  Concord  ; 
thence  to  Richmond's,  on  the  Cattaraugus  creek  ;  from  there 
through  Yorkshire  and  Machias  and  on  to  Olean.  The  commis. 
sioners  appointed  to  locate  the  road  were  David  Eddy  of  East 
Hamburg,  Timothy  Hopkins,  of  Williamsvilleand  Peter  Vande- 
venter,  of  Newstead.  The  expense  of  opening  this  highway 
was  borne  in  equal  parts  by  the  State  and  the  County  of 
Niagara.  In  earh'  times  it  was  called  the  State  Road.  The 
travel  from  Springville  to  Boston  at  first  went  up  Franklin 
street,  past  where  John  A.  Wilson  lives  and  over  Townsend 

The  first  laid-out  road  from  Springville  to  Boston  passed 
over  Townsend  hill.  It  was  the  same  road  now  traveled.  It 
was  a  mail  route,  a  four-horse  Troy  coach  being  driven  o\'er  it 
daily  at  one  time. 

In  early  times  the  principal  travel  east  and  west  through  this 
section  passed  over  the  road  leading  from  Arcade  westward 
along  the  course  of  the  Cattaraugus  creek  through  Springx'ille 
and  Zoar  to  Gowanda.  It  was  a  mail  and  stage  route  and  a 
post  ofifice  was  located  at  Zoar. 

It  was  as  much  as  fifteen  or  twent)-  years  after  the  first  set- 
tlement of  Concord  before  the  road  from  Springville  to  Mor- 
ton's corners  was  cut-out  ;  previous  to  this  the  jieople  of  Mor- 
ton's corners  and  \icinit}' reached  Springville  b}' w  a}'  of  l\")wns- 
end  hill. 

About  1830  the  road  commencing  as  lot  52  and  ending  on 
l(^t  6,  passing  along  the  main  branch  of  the  Eighteen-mile  creek. 

SPKIN(;\  ll.I.K   \-    SARDINIA    RAILROAD.  I  75 

in  Concord,  was  laid  out.      Vov  nian\'  \-(jars  the  principal  traxel 
from  Sprini(\'illc  to  Buffalo  pas.scd  over  thi.s  road. 

About  1852  a  plank-road  was  constructed  from  Sprin^ville  to 
Hamburg.  It  was  built  in  the  public  highway  and  extended 
along  the  valley  of  the  Eighteen-mile  creek  through  Concord 
and  Boston.  It  was  kept  in  repair  ten  or  twelve  years  when  it 
ceased  to  be  a  toll-road.  It  connected  at  Hamburg  with  a 
plank-road  leading  into  Buffalo. 

S1'RIN(;\I1.I.K    \-    SARDINIA    R.    R. 
This  railroad   compan)'  was  organized   May  6th,    1878.      The 
capital  stock  was  fift)'  thousand  dollars.     Amount  of  stock  sub- 
scribed was  thirty  thousand  two  hundred  dollars, 

The  length  of  road  from  Springville,  N.  Y.,  to  Sardinia 
Junction,  N.  V.,  was  eleven  and  -^^^j^  miles  ;  weight  of  rail  per 
yard,  twenty-five  pounds  ,  gauge  of  track,  three  feet. 

The  cost  of  the  road  and  ec}uipment  was  sixty-one  thousand 
eight  hundred  and  thirteen  dollars  and  ninety-fi\'e  cents.  This 
road  makes  connection  w  ith  the  Buffalo,  New  York  &  Phila- 
delphia R.  R.  at  Sardinia  Junction.  Two  passenger  trains  are 
run  daily,  and,  as  appears  from  the  State  Engineer's  report  on 
railroads  for  the  year  1880,  which  is  the  latest  report  published, 
that  the  capital  stock  subscribed  was  $30,400  ;  and  that  the 
amount  paid  in  was  $30,087.24;  and  the  funded  debt  was 
$25,000,  and  the  unfunded  debt  was  $6,73035,  and  the  names 
and  directors  of  the  corporation  were  C.  J.  Shuttleworth',  Spring- 
ville, Bertrand  Chafer,  Springville,  Alonzo  L.  Vaughn,  Spring- 
ville, James  Hopkins,  Sardinia,  Charles  Long,  Sardinia,  New- 
ell Hosmer,  Sardinia  and  Franklin  B.  Locke,  Buffalo. 

The  officers  were  Bertrand  Chafer,  President,  James  Hopkins, 
Vice-President,  L.  M.  Cummings,  Secretary,  Charles  J.  Shuttle- 
worth,  Treasurer. 

The  construction  of  the  Buffalo  branch  of  the  Rochester  & 
Pittsburgh  R.  R.,  has  given  a  great  impetus  to  the  prosperity 
of  Concord,  more  especially  to  Springville.  After  a  prelimi- 
nary survey  of  routes  the  company  adopted  Jan.  7,  1882,  the 
route  now  in  use.  The  route  was  surveyed  by  C.  E.  Botsford, 
of  Springville. 



Work  was  commenced  at  West  Valley,  Cattaraugus  Count}-, 
in  June.  1882  The  first  locomotive  over  the  road  entered 
Springville  May  i8th,  and  track-laying  was  completed  June  9th. 
at  the  bridge  across  Cattaraugus  creek,  over  which  the  first 
locomotive  passed  on  that  day.  This  bridge  or  viaduct  is  an 
imposing  structure.  It  is  150  feet  in  height,  575  feet  in  length, 
2,777  tons  of  stone,  280  tons  of  iron  and  90  tons  of  wood  were 
used  in  its  construction,  making  a  total  of  3,147  tons.  The 
total  was  $90,000. 

The  names  of  one  or  more  of  the  first  settlers,  on  each  of  the 
several  lots  in  Concord. 

Lot    I    John  Russel. 

2  Samuel  Cochran. 

3  Christopher  Stone. 

4  Asa  Cary. 
"      5   Noah  Culver. 

7  Charles  Chaffee. 

8  Isaac  Knox. 

9  Benjamin  Gardner. 
"     10  Benjamin  Douglas. 
"    II   Julius  &  Elihu  Bennett 
"    M   William  Weed  en. 

TOWNSHIP  SIX,  ran(;e  six. 

Lot  14  Eaton  Bensley. 
"     16  Francis  White. 
"    17  Truman  White. 
"     18   Moses  White. 
"    [9  George  Shultus. 
"    20  Enoch  Chase. 
"    21    William  Shultus. 
"    22   David  Shultus. 
"    23   Christopher  Douglass. 
"    24  Abner  Chase    &    Henry 

Lot  25   Almon  Fuller. 
TOWNSHIP    seven,    RAN(iE    SIX. 





William  Vaughan. 
Nathan  King. 
Mr.  Willard. 
Henry  Gardinier. 
William  Wright. 
John  &  Joseph  Cotrell. 
Capt.  Charles  Wells. 
William  Wright. 
Archibald  Griffith. 
Dustin  &  Saw}"er. 
William  Baker. 
George  Killom. 
Robert  G.  Flint. 

Lot  40  Sala  W.&  Homer  Barnes. 
"    41  Giles  Churchill  &  Seele\- 

"     42  Luther    Curtis    &    John 

"    43  Calvin  Smith. 
"    44  Elam  May. 
"     45  Plphram      Needham 

William  Chapin. 
"    46  Aaron  Cole. 
"    47  Luther  Landon  &W1 

er  Drake. 
"     48  Caleb  Abbott. 




TOWNSHIP  SEVEN,  RANGE  SIX— (V'///?y///,v/. 

Lot  49  William  Smith. 
"     50  Elijah  Dunham, 
•'     51  IkMijamin    C.    Foster    & 

Seneca  Baker. 
"     52  Ebene/er  l^Y-rrin. 
"     53  Albert    Shipp)-  M-    Star\- 

''     54  Kint^sle)-  Martin. 
"     55  Orrin  Siblew 
"     56  William    Southworth    & 
lames  Miller. 

Lot  57  Gideon   Parsons. 
"     58  Benjamin  Wheeler. 
"     59  Benjamin  Fay  &  J.  Strat- 

"    60  Uzial  Towiisend  &  F.  A. 

"    61  Whitman  Stone. 

"     62  William  Field. 

"    63  J.  Agard,  B.  Sibley  .Sr  A. 

"     64  Da\'id  Cunningham. 

Lot  I 


I  I 







Richard  Stevens.  L 

Timothy  Stevens. 
Solomon  Field. 
Amaziah  Ashman  &  Jona- 
than Townsend. 
Reuben  Drake. 
Oliver  Needham  &  Steph- 
en Needman. 
John     Brooks     Cs:     I'Llam 
Booth . 

William  D>e. 
Mr.  Michel']. 
Amos  Thompson. 
Thomas  McGee. 
Smith  Russell. 
Andrew  McLen. 
Joseph  Potter. 
L\'man  Drake. 
Samuel  W.  Al<4"er. 
Channing  Trevett. 
Samuel  Cooper. 
James     I^rown     &     John 

Joseph  1  lanchett. 


ot  22  Lsaiah  Pike. 

'^  2T)  Jesse  Putnam. 

"  24  George  Killom. 

"   27  Samuel  Eaton. 

"'  2'i  Ichabed  Brown. 

"  29  Reuben  Metcalf. 

"  30  James  Pike,  Ezekiel  Ad- 
ams &  T.  Heacock. 

"   31  John  L^res. 

"   33  Sylvenus  Cook. 

"   34  Zebedec  Simons. 

"35  Samuel  Sampson. 

"  36  Emer}'  Sampson. 

''  T,"/  Truman  Vandcrlip  «.^'  Ja- 
cob Rice. 

"   38  Daniel  Putnam. 

•'   39  Samuel  Abbott. 

''  40  Thomas  M.  Barrett. 

"  41  Nehemiah  Paine. 

"  42  David  Heath. 

•'  43  John  Healand. 

"  44  Daniel  Persons. 

"  45  Henr\- Stearns  &  Zacheus 


Lot 46  Mr.  Huff,  William  Hor-  Knapp. 

ton  &  Daniel  Horton.       Lot  48  John     Horton,    Truman 
"  47    John  Reecher    &   Arad  Horton  &  C.  Knapp. 


Lot  46  Peter  Pratt.  Lot  /2  Luther  Thompson. 

'*    47  George  Hicks.  "     73  Lewis  Cox. 

"    48  Nathan  Hicks.  "     j/  Simeon   Holton, 

"    49  Jesse  Frye  &  Enoch  N.   "     78  Chas.  Watson. 

Frye.  "     80  Stephen  Knight. 

"    66  John  Holdridge.  "     81  Simeon     Holton,     Day, 

"     56-67  William  Smith.  Knight  &  C.  C.  Foster. 

"     57  Elijah   Palmerter.  "     82  John  Battles. 

"     58  Austin  Pratt.  "     86  Abiel  Gardner. 

"    68  John  Williams.  "     87  Dickey  Doud. 

"     71  Thomas  Richardson.  "     90  Simeon  Holton. 
Lot  91  Jeremiah   Richardson. 



The  first  hotel  in  town,  a  small,  double  log  house  on  Frank- 
lin street,  near  the  opera  house,  was  opened  by  David  Stickney. 
in  1 8 10.  There  is  a  tradition  that  here  the  name  of  "  taking  a 
horn  "  first  originated.  The  house  was  supplied  with  liciuor 
and  a  bar,  but  not  a  glass  to  meet  the  wants  of  the  thirst}'. 
Stickney  improvised  one  out  of  the  horn  of  an  ox,  hence  "  tak- 
ing a  horn"  of  whiskey,  in  those  days,  was  literalh'  true. 

Second  Hotel — By  John  Albro,  in  a  log  house  on  the  east 
side  of  Buffalo  street,  on  the  north  confines  of  the  corporation, 
just  south  of  the  forks  on  Sharp  Street  and  Townsend  Hill 
roads;  opened  about  181 1. 

Third  Hotel — Amaziah  Ashman,  in  a  log  house  on  Town- 
send  hill;  opened  about  1812. 

Fourth  Hotel — In  a  log  house  on  Morton's  Corners,  by  John 
Battles.  He  was  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution  and  a  pensioner. 
Opened  in  1817. 

Fifth  Hotel — Framed  building  on  Franklin  street,  opposite 
the  park.      Built  b}-  David  Stannard  in  1817  or  1818  ;   kept,  first 


nil",  ii()Tf:i,s  ok  si>ri.\(;vii,i.e.  179 

b\-  Harry  Scars,  tlicn  h)-  a  Mr.  Wright,  as^ain  b\-  Harr)-  Scars, 
t(i  be  succeeded  b\'  Seth  Allen,  tlien  b\-  l)a\'i(l  Hensle\'  and 
James  F.  Crandall,  and  lastly  by  Mr.  Bentley. 

Sixth  Hotel — By  Jonathan  Townsend,  on  Townscnd  hill ;  first 
in  a   frame  buildinL;',  in   1S19,    tlien  in  a  brick   building;-,  in   1822. 

Seventh  Hotel — Isaiah  Pike  commenced  on  the  Pike  home- 
stead in  1821,  and  kept   for  sixteen  years. 

Flighth  Hotel  — 15\- Samuel  Cociirane,  on  Main  street,  Sprin^;-- 
\'ille,  in  a  frame  building  on  the  (Cochrane  homestead,  wliere 
V.  K.  Davis  now  is;   opened  in  1822. 

Ninth  Hotel — The  (Md  Springville  Hotel  on  Main  street, 
where  the  Leland  House  now  stands;  built  in  1824,  by  Rufus 
C.  Eaton,  and  kept  b}'  him  for  a  time  ;  he  was  succeeded  b\' 
Jonson  Bensley,  Richard  Wadsworth  and  others. 

At  one  time,  Daniel  Peck  ran  a  hotel  at  Morton's  Corners. 
I'or  many  }x'ars  the  Morton  Brothers  entertained  the  traveling 
public.  In  1843,  they  erected  a  very  creditable  two-stor\- 
frame  building,  with  a  suitable  hall,  that  is  in  a  good  state  of 
preservation  at  the  present. 

Another  hotel  was  conducted  on  Townsend  hill,  first  b\-  a 
Mr.  Currier,  to  be  succeeded  by  Mr.  Mitchel. 

Henry  Ingalls  conducted  a  hotel  for  a  while  in  the  north 
part  of  the  town  in  the  valle\'. 

The  American  Hotel  was  built  b\-  Phelps  Hatch,  in  1843  and 
'44.  He  conducted  it  for  a  few  years,  then  leased  it  to  James 
F.  Crandall,  then  Smith  and  Beebe  purchased  the  property  and 
for  man\-  x'ears  the\'  were  the  landlords.  Afterwards,  the 
property  was  rented  and  run  b\'  Gaston  D.  Smith  ;  soon  after 
the  property  j^assed  into  the  hands  of  Theodore  Smith;  in 
i860,  he  sold  to  E.  S.  Pierce,  who  conducted  the  house  until 
1863,  when  he  sold  to  Clinton  Hammond,  who  occupied  it  one 
\'ear  and  then  sold  it  back  to  E.  S.  Pierce,  who,  in  turn,  after 
running  it  two  \'ears,  in  1866,  sold  it  again  to  Hammond: 
Davis  &  lladlc)'  ran  it  a  short  time.  In  1874,  A.  E.  Torre\' 
bought  the  j)ropert\'  and  for  a  time  he  remained  the  proprietor; 
then  he  associated  himself  with  his  brother,  A.  R.  Torrey,  \\ho 
after  a  time  bought  the  propert\-  and  conducted  it  until  the 
Spring  of  1880.  when  he  sold  to  the  present  jiroprietor,  Peter 

I  So  HO'l'ELS     AND    SAW    MILLS. 

Phineas  Scott  kept  a  liotcl  on  Townsend  Hill  for  sex'eral 
years.  Jedediah  Starks  and  a  Mr.  Parker  kept  a  hotel  on  the 
V^osburg  place,  a  mile  and  a  half  east  of  Springville.  Fox- 
hotel  was  first  opened  by  Carl  'Ludeman,  to  be  succeeded  by  L. 
Rrenckle.  Fred  P'ox  bought  the  hotel,  and  after  conducting  it 
a  few  years  he  sold  to  Andrew  Oyer,  who  sold  after  a  time  to 
his  brother  Augustus,  who  kept  the  house  a  while,  and  then 
sold  to  Clinton  Hammond,  who  soon  after  sold  to  Fred  Fox. 
This  was  in  1874;  in  1883,  Fox  sold  out  to  Theodore  Trew, 
who  now  conducts  the  house. 

The  Farmers'  Hotel  was  first  opened  by  George  Kopp,  then 
Phillip  Herbold,  then  Louis  Fiegel,  then  William  Biegel,  Phil- 
lip Newbeck,  John  Haut,  Martin  Bury,  Michael  Miller,  Peter 
Nenno,  Jr.,  Charles   Miller,  and,  lastly,  by  Henry  Saltzer. 

Delevan  House — Fred  Miller,  Chester  Priggs,  Albert  C. 
Michael,  George.  A.  Richmond,  Crawford  &  Green,  Crawford 
&  Norton,  and,  lastly,  by  Webster  Norton. 


The  Eaton  mill  was  built  about  18 13.  It  stood  on  the  west 
bank  of  Spring  brook,  a  short  distance  north  of  Franklin  street. 

Channing  Trevitt  put  up  the  frame  for  a  saw  mill  at  Wheeler 
Hollow  in  18 1 3.  He  died  that  Fall  and  the  mill  was  not  com- 
pleted until  a  year  or  so  after,  by  Capt.  James  Tyrer. 

The  Bloomfield  mill  in  Springville,  was  built  in  or  about  1816. 

The  Bensle}'  mill  at  the  mouth  of  Spring  brook  was  built  in 
1816  or  1817. 

The  Phillips  saw  mill  was  commenced  in  1 8 16  or  18 17  b)- 
Nicholas  Armstead,  who  sold  out  to  Asa  Phillips,  who  com- 
pleted the  mill  in  1818.  This  mill  was  on  the  Smith  brook  just 
below  the  cross  road  at  the  John  Martin  farm. 

Robert  Auger  built  a  saw  mill  on  Spring  brook  in  the  south 
part  of  the  village  of  Springville  in  1822.  This  mill  stood  near 
the  tannery  of  Jay  Borden.     Auger  had  an  oil  mill  also. 

Joseph  McMillan  built  a  saw  mill  in  1828  ;  it  stood  on  the  race 
just  back   of  Victor  Collard's  wagon  shop  on   Mechanic  street. 

Lemuel  Twichell  built  a  saw  mill  on  the  east  branch  of  the 
Fighteen-mile  creek,  in  the  north  part  of  the  town,  in  or  about 

SAW    MI  1,1.    l-ROI-RIKIORS.  I  Si 

l)anicl  ami  Isani  Williams  commcncctl  the  erection  of  a  mill 
on  the  Smith  brook,  near  its  mouth  in  1825  or  US26.  They 
were  both  taken  sick  soon  after  with  tyi^hus  fe\er  and  died. 
The  mill  was  not  finished  until  .some  time  after,  but  b\-  whom 
the  writer  is  ignorant. 

John  and  Masur\-  Ciiles  built  a  mill  three-fourths  of  a  mile 
south  of  Morton's  corners,  in   1824. 

W'm.  Potter  built  a  mill  on  the  east  branch  of  the  I'"Jghteen- 
mile  creek,  at  i'\)wler\  ille,  in   1829. 

Homer  Barnes  built  a  mill  at  \\'ater\ille,  on  the  BufTalo 
creek,  about  1830.  This  mill  stood  on  the  same  site  of  the 
Vance  mill  to-day. 

Henj.  Crump  built  a  mill  that  stood  further  down   the  stream 

A  short  distance  above  the  Vance  site,  Paris  A.  Spray;ue 
built  a  mill. 

Treat  Brothers  built  a  mill  on  the  same  stream.  This  mill 
stood  on  the  Treat  farm. 

Still  farther  up  the  stream  Lewis  Wheelock  built  a  mill  on 
the  Wheelock  farm. 

Lewis  janes  built  a  mill  on  the  PLiL^hteen-mile  creek,  on  lot  16. 

Sellick  Canfield  built  a  mill  on  the  P^ighteen-mile  creek,  on 
lot  6,  in  1845. 

Theodore  Potter  built  a  mill  on  the  same  site,  in  1857.  Orrin 
Baker  re-modeled  this  mill  some  time  after  and  put  in  a  steam 

Mr.  Clark  owns  a  steam-mill  at  P'owlerville. 

At  quite  an  earh'  day  a  saw-mill  was  erected  at  Woodsward 
Hollow.  This  mill  or  a  mill  that  stood  on  the  same  site,  was 
burned  down  two  or  three  years  ago.  Philo  Woodsward  built 
a  steam-mill  there  several  years  ago,  which  is  in  active  opera- 
tion at  the  present  time. 

Many  years  ago  a  water-mill  was  erected  in  Spooner  Hol- 
low, b\'  Simeon  I  lolton,  on  the  Smith  brook.  This  site  was 
abandoned  some  years  ago. 

A  saw  mill  was  built  by  Sellew  &:  Popple  on  the  east  branch 
of  the  Darby  Brook.  This  mill  is  now  owned  by  N.  Bolander, 
Jr.  &  Bro. 

A  mill  was  built  at  the  mouth  of  this  brook  some  time  in 
1865  or  1866.     The   frame  was  put   up  by  Daniel  Pierce,  and 

1 82  SAW    MILLS    AND    GRIST    MILLS. 

then  passed  into  the  hands  of  Jacob  Rush.  This  mill  is  in 
good  repair,  having  been  rebuilt,  and  is  owned  b}'  James  O. 

Three  or  four  }'ears  ago  a  mill  was  erected  b}'  D.  \\' .  Bensley 
on  the  Smith  brook  above  Spooner  Hollow. 

Charles  J.  Shuttleworth  built  a  mill  on  the  Wells  brook,  sev- 
eral years  ago.  This  mill  is  located  half  a  mile  south  of  the 
Liberty  Pole  corners,  and  is  in  acti\e  operation  at  the  pres- 
ent time.    He  also  built  a  mill  near  his  foundry  and  machine  shop. 

Gaylord  and  Watkins  in  865  erected  a  steam  mill  one-fourth 
of  a  mile  east  of  Gaylord's  Corners,  ^\'hich  is  in  actixx-  operation 

About  fifty  )-ears  ago  a  small  mill  was  built  on  a  little  stream 
since  known  as  the  Dry  Brook.  This  mill  was  built  b}'  the 
citizens  of  Townsend  Hill  for  their  own  convenience,  and  stood 
on  the  southeast  corner  of  the  old  Fay  farm. 

Lewis  Trevitt  bought  the  frame  of  the  old  Phillips  mill  and 
moved  it  on  to  the  little  brook  that  runs  just  south  of  his  place. 


First — Benjamin  Gardner  built  a  grist  mill  in  Springville  in 
1814.  It  was  the  first  grist  mill  built  in  Concord,  and  was 
located  about  t^\•enty-f^ve  rods  south  of  Main  street,  on  Spring 
brook  and  opposite  the  bend  in  Mill  street. 

Second — Jonathan  Townsend  built  the  second  grist  mill  in 
1 8 16,  on  the  south  part  of  lot  eighteen,  township  seven,  range 
seven,  now  known  as  Wheeler  Hollow. 

Third — Rufus  Eaton  built  the  third  grist  mill  in  Springville, 
about  18 1 8.  It  stood  on  the  race  just  back  of  the  Leland 
House  barn,  on  Mechanic  street. 

Fourth — About  1832  Barnes  &  Wilson  built  a  grist  mill  on 
lot  thirty-nine. 

Fifth — About  1830  a  grist  mill,  or  corn  mill,  was  built  three- 
fourths  of  a  mile  south  of  Morton's  Corners,  by  Simeon  Holtoii. 

Sixth — In  1835  Manley  Colton  built  the  mill  on  Main  street. 

Seventh — E.  W.  Cook  built  a  mill  on  the  site  of  the  old 
(iardner  mill. 

Eighth — W.  G.  Ransom  changed  the  Cook  woolen  factory 
into  a  grist  mill.     It  commenced  business  in  February,  1877. 

r)IS'l'f[J-KRIES    AND    WOOLEN    FA("^()K^■.  1S3 


J.'ii-st — Frederick  Richmond  built  the  fust  distillery  iiear 
where  Franklin  street  crosses  Sprin<;-  brook.  He  made  whisky 
out  of  potatoes  as  well  as  corn.  It  was  burned  down  after  a 
few  x'ears. 

Second — Silas  Rushniore  built  and  run  a  distiller)-  on  the 
east  side  of  SpriuLj-  Hrook  a  short  distance  north  of  (ieorgx- 
C'randall's  house. 

Third — AuL;ustus  d.  h'dliotl  had  a  distiller}-  on  the  .Shuttle- 
worth  lot  east  of  the  railroad  antl  south  of  I'^'anklin  street. 

Fourth — George  Shultus  had  a  distiller}-  down  near  the  Cat- 
taraugus creek. 

l^'ifth — Townsend  &  'r}-rer  had  a  distiller}-  in  Wheeler  Hollow. 

Si.xth — There  was  a  ilistiller}-  on  lot  forty-nine,  township 
seven,  range  six,  on  the  farm  now  owned  by  Fred  Clark. 

Seventh — John  Van  Pelt  had  a  distillery  back  of  A.  F.  Rust's 
grocer}'  between  Main  street  and  the  creek. 

Eighth — David  Williams  had  a  distillery  on  the  Cattarau- 
gus, do\\-n  towards  Fr}-es. 


The  first  \\oolen  factor}-  comprising  carding,  spinning  and 
cloth-dressing,  was  built  b}-  a  company  of  towns'  people,  con- 
sisting of  Maj.  Samuel  Bradley,  Deacon  John  Russell,  Silas 
Rushman  and  George  Shultes.  The  date  of  the  erection  of 
this  building  can  not  be  ascertained,  but  it  was  at  an  early  day. 
Its  location  was  on  the  west  side  of  Buffalo  .street,  about  equally 
distant  from  W.  G.  Ransome's  flouring  mill  and  the  residence 
of  Sanford  Mayo.  This  building  was  quite  large  for  the 
times,  and  w  as  two  stories  high.  The  lower  story  was  divided 
into  suites  of  roonis  for  residences,  and  the  upper  story  was  ar- 
ranged for  factor}-  purposes,  the  basement  was  used  for  color- 
ing and  other  purposes  requiring  heating  apparatus.  .\  con- 
siderable time  elapsed  before  the  building  was  finished  and  sup- 
plied with  machinery,  and  during  this  interval  the  upper  part 
was  used  for  school,  church  and  Sunday  school  purposes.  The 
first  Sunda}-  scht)ol  was  organized  by  Deacon  John  Ru.ssell  and 
Major  Samuel  Bradle}'.  Religious  meetings  were  also  held 
here  for  some  time  and  a  common  school  was  taught   in  this 


buiklin^-.  Subsctiucntl}-  the  upper  part  of  the  buildini;-  was 
furnishccl  with  machincr\-  for  manufacturing  woolen  cloth, 
wool  carding  was  done  near  at  hand  with  a  full  mill  attached 
to  water  power.  Machinery  for  spinning  and  weaving  was  pro- 
pelled b)'  hand,  this  manufactory  was  operated  for  several 
years.  David  Seymour  and  a  Mr.  Silsbee  were  the  bosses  for 
a  time  and  Isaac  White — a  brother  of  Francis  White,  now  of 
Springville — was  one  of  the  spinners.  Other  buildings  were 
erected,  utilizing  the  water  power  now  owned  by  G.  W.  Ran- 
som, and  at  a  subsequent  date  the  flourishing  mill  now  owned 
by  him,  built  and  operated  as  a  woolen  factor)-,  where  all  the 
machinery  was  run  by  water  power,  and  at  the  present  time 
wool  carding  is  done  by  Mr.  Harvey  Spaulding  in  the  basement 
of  the  Ransom  mill.  This  propert}'  comprising  the  factory 
buildings,  water  power,  including  the  old  grist  mill,  was  pur- 
chased by  Elbert  W.  Cook  and  owned  and  occupied  b}'  him 
for  many  years. 


Mr.  Bascomb  did  the  first  tanning  in  Concord,  on  the  Dodge 
place,  about  one  and    one-half  miles  east  of  Springville. 

Second — The  first  tannery  in  Springville  was  built  by  Jacob 
and  Silas  Rushmore  in  1817,  on  the  lot  fronting  on  Main  street, 
lying  between  Elk  and  Pearl  streets,  and  known  as  the  Mc- 
Aleese lot.     Lexinus  Cornwell  owned  and  operated  it  afterwards. 

Third — The  second  tannery  was  built  about  1823  or  '24,  by 
Hoveland  &  Towsley.  It  stood  on  the  Shuttleworth  lot,  east 
of  the  mill  race,  and  between  Franklin  and  Main  streets.  After- 
wards Augustus  (j.  Elliott  owned  and  operated  this  tannery; 
also  Joseph  D.  Hoyt,  and  Hoyt  &  McEwen. 

Fourth — About  1830,  Willard  and  Josiah  Algar,  built  and 
afterward  run  a  tajiner\-  on  Lot  18.  T.  7.  R.  7,  in  Wheeler 

i^^ifth — .About  1832,  a  tannery  x\as  built  in  the  north  part  of 
the  town  at    Fowlerville  by  Towsle\-  and    Tuttle. 

About  1836,  Joseph  McMillan  and  Wm.  Watkins  built  a  tan- 
ners- on  the  east  side  of  .Spring  brook,  about  thirt)-  rods  north 
of  iM-anklin  street.  Mr.  McMillen  died  in  1846,  but  Mr.  Wat- 
kins  carried  on  the  leather  and  shoe  business  many  years. 

TA X X I". K I  l':S    AX D    ASH  1". R I KS —  I , A W  \' K RS .  I  S  5 

111  1861,  rcrcL;i'inc  Maton  niotlclctl  t)\'cr  the  woolen  factoi-y  that 
stootl  down  the  creek  near  the  corporation  hne.  into  a  tanner)'. 
After  about  a  \'ear  he  sokl  to  Sampson  &  Wilcox.  In  1866  .S. 
II.  McKwen  bought  in,  and  remained  ten  months.  Wilcox 
died,  and  Sampson  &  Sexerance  ran  the  business  some  years. 
In  1873,  Ja}'  Borden  bous^ht  the  tanner}-.  It  burned  uj)  in 
1877,  and  the  present  tannery  was  built. 


First — Samuel  Lake  built  an  asher\-  on  h'ranklin  street  on 
the  north  side  and  near  the  creek. 

Second — A.  G.  Fllliott  built  an  asher\-  north  of  I-~ranklin 
street  and  near  where  S.  R.  Smith's  barn  stands. 

Third — John  Van  Pelt  had  an  ashery  on  Franklin  street, 
south  side  of  creek,  about  where  Orvil  Smith's  barn  stantls. 

I'oiu'th — Moses  &  Asa  .Saunders  had  an  asher\-  on  land  now- 
overflowed  by  the  north-west  part  of  Shuttleworth's  pond. 

h'ifth — Hallady  &  Shepherd  run  an  ashery  on  the  east  side 
of  the  pond  near  Pearl   street. 

.Sixth — At  one  time  there  was  an  ashery  at  Morton's  Corners, 
near  where  the  cheese  factor)-  stands. 


Earl)-  Pettifogj^ers — Dax'id  Stickney,  "  Jack"  \'aw,  Nehemiah 
Waters,  Wales  Emmons. 

First — The  first  attorney  and  counselor,  Thomas  T.  Sherwood, 
came  to  this  town  about  1823  or  '24,  staid  a  short  time  and 
removed  to  Buffalo,  and  practiced  there  man\-  )'ears,  where  he 

Second — rile  second  law)-er  was  Elisha  Mack,  who  remained 
here  twent)-  years  or  more  when  he  removx'd  to  Illinois,  where 
he  died. 

Third — Wells  Brooks  practiced  here  fifteen  or  twent)-  years 
then  removed  to  Buffalo. 

Fourth — C.  C.  Severance  has  practiced  here  over  fifty  years. 

I*"ifth — Morris  Fosdick  practiced  here  many  years  and  died 
in  Springville. 


Peter  V.  S.  Wendover  staid  a  short  time  and  went  back  to 
Columbia  county. 

Merrill  &  Treadwell  staid  a  short  time  and  went  away. 

Wales  Emmons  went  to  Wisconsin  and  died  there. 

Miner  Strope  went  to  Chatauqua  count)'. 

Sydenham  S.  Clark  died  in  Springville. 

Seth  W.  Godard  died  in  Springville. 

Alonzo  Tanner  lives  in  Buffalo. 

A.  W.  Stanbro  lives  in  Buffalo. 

Hosea  Heath  lives  in   Hamburg. 

L.  Le  Clear  lives  in  Buffalo. 

Augustus  Hanchett  died  in  Michigan. 


Giles  Churchill  doctored  some  in  early  times. 

Dr.  Rumsey  was  a  young  man  and  in  a  year  or  two  died  here. 

Drs.  Woodward  and  Reynolds  were  young  men  and  remained 
but  a  short  time. 

Dr.  Daniel  Ingals  remained  several  years  and  then  went 
away  and  has  since  died 

Dr.  Varne}'  Ingalls  practiced  several  years  and  died   here. 

Dr.  Carlos  Emmons  died  in  Spring\'ille  alter  a  residence  here 
of  over  fifty  years. 

Dr.  John  Allen  died  recenth'  on  Long  Island,  at  an  advanced 

Dr.  Alden  S.  Sprague   removed  to  Buffalo   and  died  there. 

Dr.  H.  H.    Hubbard   removed  to  Wisconsin   and   died  there. 

Dr.  Alexander  Hubbard  removed  to  Wisconsin  and  died 

Dr.  D.  V.  Folts  removed  to    Boston.    Mass.,  anci   lives  there. 

Dr.  Morrell,  Dr.  B.  A.  Battle  and  Dr.  Simeon  Pool,  went  away. 

Dr.  E.  C    Pool  died  in  Springville,  after  practicing  sometime. 

Dr.  Wm.  Van  Pelt  resides  at  Williamsville,  this  county. 

Dr.  John  ("i.  House  removed  to  Independence,  Iowa,  and 
died  there. 

Dr.  Charles  House  died  here;   Dr.  Daniel   Nash  died   here. 

Dr.  U.  C.  Lynde  lives  in    Buffalo:   Dr.  W.  Gillett  died  here. 

Dr.  Lyman  Packard  lives  in  Michigan. 

Dr-  George  Abbott  lives  in  Hamburg, 


J'lIVSICIANS,    MERCHANTS,    'rRADHRS.    i;'rc.  1 87 

])\\  W  .  S.   I  ones  dic'il  in  California. 

Dr.  Joseph  Sibic)-  died  in  Colden. 

Dr.  Win.  W'atkins  lives  in   Orei^on. 

Dr.  Wnison  remained  one  year. 

Dr.  Ru---.  Dr.  Crawford,  Dr.  Nichol,  Dr.  K-er)-,  Dr.  llib- 
bard.  Dr.  Manninn',  Dr.  .S])err\-,  Dr.  SoNerit^n  and  Dr.  Brewer, 
went  aua\'. 

Dr.  Lane,  Dr  Habcock  and  Dr.  Buckingham  lived  at  Mor- 
tons  Corners. 


About  1 814  David  Stannard  and  Jerr\'  Jenks  came  from  Boston 
to  Spriny;\ille  (or  "Fiddler's  (ireen"),  and  commenced  trading- on 
a  small  scale  ;  about  the  same  time  Frederick  Richmond  started 
in  the  same  business  on  a  still  smaller  scale.  .Some  authcjri- 
ties  claim  that  Richmond  started  first,  while  others  are  quite 
as  sanguine  that  ".Stannard  &  Jenks"  were  the  pioneers. 
Their  business  was  carried  on  in  a  log  building  east  of  the 
park,  and  afterwards  they  moved  to  a  building  that  stood  be- 
tween the  Methodist  and  Baptist   churches  on  Buffalo  street. 

Rufus  C.  Faton  was  the  next  trader,  he  occupied  a  building 
back  of  the  opera  house,  near  the  pond. 

In  i<S2i,  Samuel  Lake  built  a  small  store  on  the  corner  o{ 
Main  and  Buffalo  streets,  where  the  American  hotel  now 
stands.  This  was  the  first  store  on  Main  street.  Two  or  three 
\-ears  after  he  built  the  store  now  occupied  b}'  R.  W.  Tanner 
and   mox'ed   into  it. 

Varney  Ingalls  traded  on  Franklin  street,  whei'e  the  k'ree 
liaptist  church  stands  at  the  present  time. 

August  G.  FUiott,  in  1826,  commenced  business  in  a  store  on 
the  Peter  Weismantel  lot  on  l^ranklin  street,  near  the  race. 

In  1828,  William  Smith,  Jr.,  built  a  small  store  on  the  corner 
of  Main  and  Buffalo  streets,  where  the  First  National  bank 
now  stands  and  traded  a  short  time. 

Rufus  C.  Faton  «^  Otis  Butterworth  formed  a  partnership 
and  commenced  trading  in  i830on  Mechanic  street,  to  be  soon 
after  followeil  b\'  Moses  and  Asa  Sanders,  Jolm  \'an  I'elt, 
Plin\-  and  Theodore  Smith  and  Manly  Colton.  In  1S34,  Henry 
Bigelow  sold  goods  here. 


M.  L.  Hadi^el}' came  to  Spring\'ille  in  1835  and  was  enij;ai;cd 
in  the  mercantile  business  many  \'ears.  These  have  been  suc- 
ceeded by  the  foUowing" : 

EHsha  Mack,  S.  &  E.  C.  Pool,  O.  C.  Morton,  Badgely  &  God- 
dard,  Rufus  C.  Eaton,  Butterworth  &  Fox,  Smith  &  Richmond, 
C.  Osgood,  McCall,  Long,  Spencer  &  Nash,  Eaton  &  Blake, 
Spencer  &  Blake,  J.  G.  Blake.  Abbott  Frye,  Robbins  &  Cronk- 
hite,  Levi  Wells,  E.  N.  Brooks,  l^lemings  &  Baily,  Jewett  & 
Cochran,  Gardner  Brand,  Hallida}^  &  Shephard,  George  Drul- 
lard,  Asahel  Field,  J.  H.  Ashman,  John  F.  Sibley,  Edwin 
Wrig-ht,  Edward  Godard,  D.  C.  Bloomfield,  Philetus  Allen, 
Chester  Spencer,  Charles  Hcnise,  Joseph  Tanner,  John  Hedges 
&;  Son,  Vosburg  &  Son,  Clinton  Hammond,  Daniel  Nash,  Lake 
&  Tabor,  Taber  Brothers,  A.  R.  Taber,  Richmond  &  Griswold, 
Richmond  &  Holman,  Richmond  &  McMillen,  Richmond  & 
Shaw,  Cyrus  (jriswold,  James  F.  Crandall,  G.  W.  Canfield, 
Frank  Thurber,  Stanbro  Brothers,  George  R.  Bensley,  Jacob 
Widing,  J.  Chaffee  &  Son,  Kilburn  &  Parmenter,  Frederick 
Clarke.  William  Weber,  Agard  &  Co..  O.  S.  \\:ard.  G.  W. 
Spaulding,  C.  J.  Lov\e,  C.  J.  Lowe  &  Co.,  Horace  Spencer, 
Thomas  Spencer,  Thomas  Prowler,  Mrs.  Prowler,  C.  C.  Smith, 
Jr..  I'errin  Sampson,  Graves  &  Shaw,  Walter  P'ox,  Tanner  & 
Bensley,  Nichols  &  Gardinier,  Eaton  &:  Hall,  M.  L.  Hall,  \V. 
H.  P'reeman,  Holland  &  Prior,  P^rank  Clark,  J.  O.  Churchill, 
Rust  Brothers,  John  Ballon,  PY-rrin  &  Guardinier,  I^'errin  is: 
Jones,  Joseph  Capron,  Judson  Wiltsee,  Reed  &  Stanbro,  John 
Reed,  Reed  &  Holman,  Holman  &  Mayo,  Smith  &  Chandler, 
Mr.  Weinberg,  Albro  &  Freeman.  R.  J.  Albro. 


Elijah  Brigo,Abel  Holman,  Lothrop  Beebe,  Reuben  Holman, 
Elijah  Richardson,  Jonathan  'Pownsend,  Suel  Townsend,  Joel 
Holman,  Hiram  McMillen.  Mr.  Hawkins,  Esdel  F.  Wright, 
C.  G.  P.  T.  Goss,  William  Hull,  Stoel  Collins,  Mr.  Bunnel, 
(William  K.  Blasdell,  Henry  Blasdell  and  William  Holmes  were 
edge-tool  makers,  Mr.  Curtis  was  a  sc)'the  maker,  and  Mr.  Bur- 
nam  and  Constant 'Previtt  were  auger  makers),  John  Robinson, 
Levi  Ballou,  Ebenezer  Darling,  George  Shultus,  Jr.,  Albert  Oyer, 
George  Kopp,  Stoel  Collins,  Jr.,  E.  Burlinbach,  Sylvester  P^itch, 

lU.ACKSMI  rilS.    WAl.ONMAKKKS,    I!  IC  I  Sq 

C'aKin  Tuincr.  llcnr}-  Tease,  (^rson  Tease.  Charles  Iloldeii, 
]ohn  McAleese,  Harrison  Cobleii^ii,  Thoii  Cook,  Mr.  (luin. 
A.  Trest(Mi.  Henr\'  F\-ke,  Charles  Conrad,  Mike  Tender^rass, 
Mr.  Towers.  Nathan  Ihiniphry,  John  Hull,  Sjiencer  Fay,  John 
Morrison,  Le\ant  Stanbro,  Mike  Carmody,  F^u<i^h  McAleese, 
Nicholas  Weaver,  Victor  Rider,  John  Miller,  (ieor^e  Neff, 
Henry  Benthusen,  Richard  Blaisdell,  Kdwin  Smith,  Charley 
T' raiser,  William  Morrison,  John  Twichell.  i^eter  Shontz, 


Joel  White,  I-'rederic  White.  Tat  ,McCaul\-.  Mr.  Bristol. 
Martin  .Vspland.  lulson  Terkins,  Thilo  and  Edward  Herini^^ton, 
[oel  Cobleij^h,  Hiram  Cobleigh,  Henr\-  Watson,  Elea/.er 
W'eeden,  Jehiel  Tast,  William  McMillen  (a  brother  of  Hiram 
made  the  first  buij^y  made  in  Springville),  Mr.  Swain,  P.  Trube, 
T>ed  Rider,  Morris  Freeman,  William  Woodbur\',  B.  A.  Fay, 
M.  Cornwall,  J.  T\dler,  Nick  Brass. 


O.  D.  Tibbitts,  Robert  Bidleman,  Johnson  Bensley  ,  L.  B. 
Towsley.  William  Darrow,  H.  T.  Wadsworth,  Abner  Chase, 
^Vindsor  Chase,  Geor<j^e  Kin<^man,  Ray  Green,  Miles  Hayes,  C. 
Van\'alkenburi;h,  John  and  Huel  Blakelw  J.  D.  Blakely,  Frank 
Ga}'lord,  C.  R.  Wadsworth,  Thilip  Newback,  Alonzo  Blake,  Clark 
T'erren.  A.  W.  Blackmar,  Henr}'  Bay,  James  Thomas,  Charles 
BallcHi.  H.  N.  Shreider.  S\l\ester  Bamhart,  William  Josl\-n. 
James  Blake,  T'rederick  Williams. 

Ira  Eddy,  Jacob  Rushmore,  Levinus  Cornwall,  Stephen  Al- 
bro,  Towsley  and  Tuttle,  Jacob  Frank,  Kingsbury  and  Hove" 
land,  George  C.  Graham.  C.  C.  McClure,  John  Loomis,  Noah 
Townsend,  Enoch  Sinclair,  Ik-njamin  VanName,  John  Reed, 
T.  L.  Tyler,  Nathan  Shaw,  Christian  HutTstader.  Mr.  Bibbins, 
L.  IC.  B.  McClure,  William  Watkins,  Terrin  Sampson,  Peter 
Huffstader,  R.  l-^.  Iluffstader,  Samuel  Wheeler,  Seth  \Mieeler. 
John  McEwen,  William  l^ierce,  George  McClure,  Seth  \\\ 
Godard.  Julius  McClure,  C.  C.  McClure,  Jr.,  Henr}-  Welling, 
William  Stone,  H.  ().  Tuckerman,  John  Groin,  H.  H.  Harris, 
Tryon  Smith,    Benjamin    Bartlett,    Philander   E.  M}-ers,  Abner 

190  siiof:makers,  hit-rhkrs,  tailors,  etc. 

Pettitt,  (jorham  Newcome,  William  Brown,  S.  B.  La)'t()n,  C. 
C.  Smith,  Henry  McEwen,  Amanzo  Rcecl,  Henry  Wilcox,  Mr. 
Jones,  Mr.  Cady,  Austin  Graham.  E.  N.  Er\'e,  Mr.  Gedne\', 
Chi'i'^topher  Beardsley  Wiltsee. 

Amo.s  Melvin,  Pamenter  &  Kilburn,  Freman  Baily,  Barmen- 
ter  &  Andrews,  Edwin  Wright,  Hamper  &  Sweet,  William 
Beagle,  Damon  Dodge,  Dodge  &  Pamenter,  Clinton  Hammond, 
Hedges  &  Crandall,  Windsor  King  &  Son,  J.  D.  Blakely, 
Thomas  Davis,  Jacob  Widrig,  Widrid  &  Palmer,  Palmer  & 
Smith,  Calvin  Smith,  Jr.,  Philetas  Widrig,  Norman  Crandall. 
Mayo  &  Cox,  A.  J.  Blakely,  Nicholas  &  Foster,  William 
Schlacter,  Nicholas  Rassel,  Spencer  Widrig,  Matthew  Pitts, 
J.  Morrison,  Ezra  Vasburg,  George  Hibeck,  Horton  &  Wandall. 

Mr.  Thompson,  Mr.  Botsford,  Thomas  Nicholson,  Jeremiah 
Schallen,  David  Bensley,  Mrs.  Mahlem,  tailoress,  Sylves- 
ter B.  Peck,  Samuel  Shaw,  B.  B.  Mason,  L.  B.  Hibbard,  C. 
Vandenburgh,  P.  Fitzgerald.  Jonathan  Bloomfield,  Constant 
Graves,  Eugene  Ciraves,  John  Dodge,  Daman  Dodge,  E.  L. 
.  Norris,  T.  B.  Norris,  Mr.  McCormick,  Henr}- Jerns,  Peter  Hein, 
T.  G.  Murphy,  Hiram  Beardsle)'. 

Charles  W'ells.  Eliakim  Rhodes,  Charles  C.  WT-lls.  William 
Chapin,  Whitman  Stone,  Car}-  Clemens,  Ben  Eaton,  Orren 
Lewis,  James  P^lemming,  Stillman  Andrews,  Joseph  D.  Evans, 
Abial  J.  Vary,  Thomas  Var\-,  Robert  (i.  Flint,  (ieorge  Mat- 
thewson,  Frederick  Matthewson,  Ephraim  T.  Briggs,  William 
Field,  Camden  C.  Lake,  Volney  l-Jelden,  J.  (1.  Blake.  William 
McMillin,  Marcus  McMillin.  Dexter  Rhodes.  Cyrus  Rhodes. 
James  Curtis.  Ste])hen  Hooker,  Marvin  I^^cld.  Charles  Field. 
Manl)-  iMeld.  Abijah  Sible\-,  Levi  W\'lls,  Wesley  Demon, 
.  Era.stus  Lake,  Mike  J^rass,  'I"rac\-  J.  Russell.  Asa  R.  Trevitt, 
James  Drury,  Edward  Churchill,  Ambrose  Upson,  L}'man 
Shepard,  Comfort  Knapp,  Chester  Loveridge.  (iifford  Pierce, 
Joshua  Steele,  Alva  Dutton,  Hiram  Donalson,  ().  D.  Curtis,  E. 
Briggs,  Chester  Holt,  joiner  and  cabinet  makers  :  Benjamin 
Knight  and  Caleb  Knight. 

'I'lNSMrrns.  Mii.iAVRicins,   m.\(  iiinists.  ktc.         191 

II()(l<;c    Brothers.    l'criL;i'in    Eaton.  Judson    I^aton.    J^cnjaniin 
l'\    Joslin,    Thomas   Spencer,    David    Bloomfield.  J.  Chaffee    & 
Son,  Ferren  &  (iuarchnier,  h'errin  &  Jones.  \\\  I).  Jones,  I).  W. 
Hensle)',  \\  .  1).  Jones.  Albert  Pierce. 


Jar\-is  BlooniCield.  Janies  T)'rcr,  L.  M.  Kellos^i:^.  Mr.  Good- 
sell,  Geori^-e  Walker.  Benjamin  V.  Joslin.  L.  (i.  Vnvd.  James 
Titus,  Morris   Williams. 


Mr.  Marshall.  C".  J.  Shuttleworth,  Homer  Bloomfield,  Wal- 
lace McMaster,  Theodore  Baker,  Milton  Yount,^ 


H.  M.  Waite,  Alva  King,  Wm.  French  George  E.  Crandall, 
Nathan  Shaw,  A.  (loodell,  Welcome  Sprague,  Langdon  Steele. 


Abial  Var\-,  (iec^rge  E.  Crandall,  Cieorge  (iliddon,  William 
Nash.  William  \\Y>ber,  ().  S.  Ward,  James  Weber,  Weber  ,S: 
Holland,  H.  P.  Spaulding. 


Icabod  ]-5ro\vn,  Samuel  Cooper,  Lewis  Childs,  John  Peabody, 
Sylvester  Peabody,  Emery  Sampson,  Alanson  Wheeler,  Isaac 
Childs,  Mr.  Titus,  Gates  Brothers,  James  Fay,  vMford  .Shi])py, 
Mr.  Pratt,  Chester  Wheeler. 


Wales  Emmons.  ()tis  Butterw  orth,  Wales  Butterworth,  Wal- 
ter Wadworth,  Mr.  Holt,  M.  L.  Arnold,  P.  G.  Eaton,  Daniel 
Shaw,  Shaw  &  Brothers,  William  Sherman,  E.  Rundall,  Major 
Wells.  William  Barclay,  Mr.  Rider,  M.  W.  Douglass,  S.  B. 
Gaylord,  Joel  Norton,  Robert  Shultus,  Philip  Herbold,  Her 
bold  &  Prior.  L.  D.  Chandler,  Hiram  Thomas. 


Lemuel  Twichel,  Richard  Wads^\■orth,  l^enjamin  Nelson, 
Jonathan  Nelson.  Mr.  Hill,  Mr.  Ryder,  Mr.  Gates.  James 


Among'  the  business  and  professional  citizens  of  Concord  in 
I<S<S3,  are  the  following: 

Rev.  \V.  A.  Robinson,  Pastor  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  ; 
Rev.  Mr.  Williams,  Pastor  of  the  Methodist  Church;  Rev.  A. 
F.  Bryant,  Pastor  of  the  Free  Baptist  Church  of  Springville 
and  Fast  Concord  ;  Rev.  Mr.  (3wen,  Pastor  of  the  Baptist 
Church  ;  Rev.  Mr.  Fromholzer,  Pastor  of  the  Catholic  Church  ; 
Rev.  Mr.  Baker,  Pastor  of  the  P'ree  Baptist  Church  of  Morton's 
corners;  Rev.  Mr.  Jackson,  Pastor  of  the  M.  E.  Church  at 
Morton's  corners  and  Rev.  Mr.  Weiderman,  Pastor  of  the 
Lutheran  Church  at  Morton's  corners. 


Hon.  C.  C.  Se\'erance.  W.  H.  Tichnor,  PVank  Chase,  A.  F.. 
Scott,  D.  J.  Wilcox,  Lowell  M.  Cummings  and  Scott  Cum- 


Dr.  George  G.  Stanbro,  Dr.  W.  H.  Jackson,  Dr.  W.  E.  Long, 
Dr.  M.  M.  Sperry  and  Dr.  L  C.  Blakeley,  Nichols' corners  ;  Dr. 
T.  Calkins,  Woodwards  Hollow. 

Leland  House,  li.  S.  Pierce,  Proprietor;  Poorest  Hotel,  T.  K. 
Davis,  Proprietor  ;  P^armers'  Hotel,  Theodore  Trew,  Proprietor; 
American  Hotel,  Peter  Neno.  Proprietor ;  Delavan  House, 
Webster  Norton,  Proprietor;  Miller's  Hotel,  Henry  Saltzer, 


P^irst  National  Bank  of  Springxille — Cash  capital  paid  in, 
$50,000.  Wm.  O.  Leland,  President;  H.  G.  Leland,  Vice-Pres- 
ident ;  E.  O.  Leland.  Cashier.  Directors — Hon.  C.  C.  Se\'er- 
rance.  Almond  D.  Conger,  Joseph  Demmon,  Wm.  O.  Leland. 
Geo.  W.  Oyer,  Wm.  Z.  Lincoln,  F.  O.  Leland.  Morris  L.  Hall. 
H.  G.  Leland. 

Farmers'  Bank  of  Springville — Capital  stock,  $30,000.  .S.  R. 
Smith,  IVesident ;  B.  Chafee,  Vice-President;  P".  ().  Smith, 
Cashier.  Directors — S.  R .  Smith,  B.  Chafee,  J.  1).  Larribee, 
A.  D.  Jones. 

KKriicisis,   mii.i,ini;ks,  \c.  iq.i 


r.  Ilci"l)i)l(.l,  niainifacturcr  ami  dcak-r  in  rurniluic  ami  uiukr- 

L.  1).  Chaiullcr,  (-iealL-r  in  turnilurc  and  undertaker. 

C.  J.  Sluittlcw'orth.  furnace,  machine  shop,  saw-nnll  and 

W.  G.  Rawson.  mill  owner  and  farmer. 

lUnl  Chafee.  mill  owner  and  farmer. 

E.  L.  Hoopes,  miller  and  dealer  in  floor  and  ^ccd. 

S.  R.  Smith,  manufacturer  and  farmer. 


George  E.  and  Nel.son  Crandall,  M.    P.   Spauldiny  and  E.  If. 



S.  H.  and  X.  K.  Thomson,  Bcebe  and  M\-ers,  dr\-  L;oods, 
•groceries  and  L;eneral  store;  C.  AI.  Hadley.  J.  D.  Hlakele\-,  R. 
\V.  Tanner,  A.  F.  Rust,  E.  A.  Scott,  groceries  and  pro\isions; 
J.  O.  Churchill,  groceries  and  provisions  and  dealer  in  dr\- 
goods;  William  Briggs  and  J.  S  Tarbox,  general  store  in  Mor- 
ton's Corners,  Maltb)'  and  Parmenter  general  store  in  Wocxl- 
uard's  Hollow  ;  B\'ron  Walters,  general  store  in  East  Concord. 

Frank  Prior,  L.  B.  Nichols  and  E.  C.  Smith,  drugs,  medicines, 
paints  and  oils. 


.Mien  and  Weber,  A.  D.  Jones,  13.  W.  Jones,  and  J.  Wheeler, 


.\.  L.  Ilolman  and  J.  W.  Reed. 


W.  Stone,  J.  W.  Reed,  Antliony  Lei.ser.  A.  L.  Molman,  C.  C. 
AlcClure  and  George  McClure. 


Harris  Cohen,  Peter  Hein  and    I  Ienr\' Jerns -Tailor. 


Mrs.  O.  Smith,  Mrs.  L.  M.  Cummings,  Mrs.  George  Myers, 
fancy  .store.  Miss  Clara  WHieeler  and  Mrs.  L.  U.  Hcmstreet. 


194  I'AIX'J'KRS.    I'klN'IKKS    AND    1!I  .\(  KSM  ITl  IS. 

Airs.   S.  Sweet.  Mrs.    I'erkins.    Mrs.   H.    Palmer.    Mrs.    R.    U. 
Ticbnor,  Mrs.  (Xstrander,  Mrs.  A.  E.  Torrey. 


Thomas  H.  Prior.  James  Prior.  Marshal  Kingsley.  Peter  H. 
Prior,  Levi  Prior.  P^red  Childs,  Robert  Yates.  Ryron  Bristol. 
David  Hernden,  Lemuel  Parker,  William  P>ye,  Nicholas  Dcet, 
PVank  Span  Id  iiiL;',  John  Pratt,  Lyman  Covel.  Morris  Harnett. 


S.  Swertz,  M.  Colin,  Charles  Colin,  J^'rank  Thurber  &  Sons. 
Dell  l^inney,  Mr.  Ouigle)',  Gideon  Matthewson,  Mr.  Doane. 


\V.  \V.  Blakeley,  job  printer  and  proprietor  of  Jounuxl  and 
Herald,  Melvin  &  Myers,  job  printers  and  proprietors  of  Local 
Ncivs,  Nelson  Thurber,  printer.  Charley  Briel.  printer,  William 
Lowe,  printer,  William  P>\'e,  printer. 


Jay  Borden,  proprietor  of  Sprin<;ville  Tanner}-.  I'atrick  Flan- 
igan  and  Mr.  Philips,  tanners. 


V .  O.  Smith,  coal  and  wood  dealer. 


Nicholas  Rassel,  Spencer  Widri<^r  and  Cook  Brothers. 


Victor  Collard,  Matthew  Metzler  and  Mr.  Hassett.  I'eter 


Frank  Weismantel.  Peter  Weismantel.  Samuel  Wheeler.  Jr.. 
Jacob  Wcnzel,  Charles  Thurber,  William  hVase.  llenry  Krepjis. 
John  h'ink  and  Cie(.)ry;e  Beaumont. 


C.  R.  Wadsworth.  Clark  Fcrrin,  S.  PL  Barnhart.  .\.  Thillen. 
llenry  Bay. 

i'i;i;i.ic   iMii.DiN'cs,    iiAi.Ls,    I  ii  .  195 

Carlos  W'aiicaiul  A.  I,.  X'au^hn. 


S.   I',.  SpauldiiiL;- ami  Miss  Ann   11.  Pierce. 
E.  S.  iS:  J.  Pierce  and  K.  1).  Henient. 

M.  I).  Scoby. 

!  Iar\-e)'  Spauklin^-. 


( )l)era  Iliuise,  I'resb)'tei'ian,  Methodist.  l''ree  l)a])tist.  Baptist 
and  Catholic  churches,  Ciriffith  Institute.  Masonic  Hall  and  the 
E.  A.  U.llall.  I'"ree  Ba])tist.  Methodist  and  Lutheran  churches 
at  Morton's  Corners,  and  h'ree  Baptist  chui'ch  at  Ivist  Concord. 


1..  M.  KelloL;\L;.  Jesse  i""r)'e.  James  B.  Titus,  Benjamin  Josl)'n 
and  Morris  Williams. 


C.  J.  Sluittleworth  and  Wallace  McMaster. 


John  Demuth.  Anson  J.  MeminLj;,  Campbell  Hu^eland  Lewis 


K.  1).  Bement,  (jeori^e  Identic}-  ami  Herbert  P'errin. 


Thomas  Lincoln.  William  McMillen,  Joseph  Flcmin<^,  Wil- 
liam IMackmar,  Benjamin  Joslyn,  Lbenezer  S.  Cady,  J.  L.  Steele, 
Ransom  Davis,  Morris  Williams.  William  Josh-n.  ]).  O.  Bab- 
cock,  Carlos  Co.x,  .\.  J.  Moon.  I'eter  Zimmer.  James  Titus, 
I'Vank  Spauklin^-.  (ieort;e  11  Clark,  Kutloli^h  Rust,  Ward  F'crrcn, 
Waldo  Morton.  William  Widriti^,  lliram  Laffcrty,  James  Rey- 
nolds, David  (iritfith,  (jeorL;e  Wood,  Theron  (ireen.  Albert 
Davis,  Cypher    Haas,   (ieori^e   Norton.    Met.  Lincoln.    Charles 

\()6  "  fii)1)1,i;k's  crkkn." 

Laffcrty.  Artluir  Churchill,  Alfred  Churchill,  Will  Stanbrci. 
O.  D.  Curtis.  Will  Griffith,  Mr.  Shaw.  Perry  Scott.  Tom  Wil- 
liams. Mr.  Grace.  Lee  Rider.  Gottlieb  Krantz.  James  Cranston. 
Mr.  Huyck.  Edward  Beaver. 


It  has  been  a  query,  even  among  those  to  the  "  Manor  born.' 
iL'/ic/i  or  by  ivhoiii  this  name  of  "  Fiddler's  Green  "  was  first 
<^iven.  But  it  has  now  become  a  pretty  well  established  fact,  from 
the  testimon)-  of  persons  now  living,  and  who  lived  here  at  thai 
time,  that  the  name  was  applied  as  early  as  1815  or  1816.  And 
it  is  also  equally  as  well  ascertained  by  the  testimony  of  the 
same  old  settlers  that  the  person  who  first  applied  the  name 
was  Uavid  Stickney,  who  then  kept  a  log  tavern  w  here  the 
Opera  House  now  stands,  and  adjoining  the  "Green.  " 

The  plot  of  ground  where  the  park  now  is,  in  early  times  was 
larger,  smoother  and  much  more  beautiful  than  it  is  at  present 
and  was  at  first  called  "The  Green."  The  theory  that  there 
were  several  fiddlers  living  adjoining  or  near  there  at  the  time 
the  name  was  given  is  not  sustained  by  evidence.  It  is  true 
that  at  one  time  there  were  several  fiddlers  living  in  the  vicinity, 
but  it  was  many  }-ears  after  it  had  received  its  title  :  but  the 
following  are  well  established  facts: — 

First — That  David  Leroy  came  here  about  1 812. 

Second — That  he  was  a  famous  and  inveterate  fiddler. 

Third — That  he  lived  a  few  rods  north  of  the  present  park, 
and  adjoining  the  "  Green." 

Fourth — That  his  house  was  the  favorite  resort  of  other  fiddlers 
who  frecjuently  came  some  distance  to  practice  with  and  learn  of 
him,  and  that  the  sound  of  his  fiddle  almost  nightly  floated  out 
upon  the  evening  air,  and  all  the  villagers  listened  to  its  rich 
melody.  From  these  facts  we  have  become  satisfied  after  due 
investigation,  that  from  David  Leroy  anci  the  music  of  his  and 
other  fiddles  at  his  house,  the  "  Green  "  by  which  he  lived  took 
the  name  of  "  Fiddler's  (ireen,"  and  that  there  were  )io  other 
Jieidlcrs  living  tJiere  at  that  time. 

From  this  the  little  village  took  the  same  na//u\iind  for  man\' 
years  it  was  know  n  as  "  Fiddlers  (ireen  "  from  New  England 
to  the  1^'ar  West.  Fifty  and  sixty  years  ago  the  name  Spring- 
ville    was   seldom    applied    to   the   village,  and   it    was  only  on 

MAM.    KOi'lKS    .Wn    I'osi     1)1  KICKS.  I97 

special  (occasions  ami  when  (inc  wished  to  be  \ery  ])recise  in  his 
language  that  the  full  name  "  Fiddler's  Green  "  was  used,  but 
among  the  surrounding  farming  communit\-  the  name  almost 
universally  applied  was  the  "Green."  If  you  went  to  a  neigh- 
bour's house  and  enquired  of  the  wife  where  her  husband  was, 
the  answer  would  be  he  has  gone  to  the  "  Green."  If  }-ou 
called  at  another  house  and  asked  the  children  if  their  father 
was  at  home,  the  answer  might  be  no,  he  has  gone  to  the 
"Green."  And  even  to-day  the  name  of  the  "Green  "  remains 
indelibly  stamped  upon  the  minds  of  sivut  of  our  \enerable 
men  and  women  whose  first  and  earliest  recollections  of  the 
place  was  the  little  hamlet  that  nestled  in  the  midst  of  nature's 
richest  verdure  around  that  spot,  and  this  impression  remains 
to-day  on  their  minds,  and  they  speak  of  it  as  the  "  Green  "  and 
call  it  by  no  other  name. 

In  early  times  the  "  Green  "  was  used  as  a  parade  ground  b}' 
the  military  companies  that  trained  in  Springville.  Sometimes 
caravans  and  other  traveling  shows  exhibited  there.  Some- 
times exciting  games  of  base  ball  were  played  there.  In  the 
memorable  political  campaign  of  1840  a  log  cabin  was  erected 
on  the  south-west  corner  of  the  "  Green,"  and  a  large  political 
mas.s-meeting  was  held  there  on  that  Fourth  of  Jul)-.  In  1880, 
at  the  Semi-Centennial  celebration  of  the  opening  of  the  Spring- 
\ille  Academy,  the  large  compau}'  present  on  that  occasion 
took  dinner  from  tables  erected  on  the  "  Green." 


The  first  post-offices  established  in  this  county  were  at  Buf- 
falo and  Clarence.  There  were  no  post-offices  or  mail-routes 
in  the  south  towns  before  the  war  of    181  2  -15. 

The  earliest  method  adopted  b}-  the  settlers  for  communi- 
cating with  their  friends  east  was  by  watching  their  oppor- 
tunity and  sending  letters  by  some  one  who  might  ha\e  occasion 
to  return  to  the  section  of  countr\- the\-  came  from.  And  their 
friends  east  would  send  letters  whenever  they  knew  of  an\' 
person  coming  from  that  part  of  the  country-  here,  and  such 
person  sometimes  brought  a  dozen  or  more  letters  and  they 
would  be  distributed  to  the  owners  who  sometimes  lived  man\- 
miles  apart.      .\t   one  time  a   man   by   the   name  of  Wm.  Earl 

iqS  I'os  tmastkrs  ai"  si'ki\(;\  ll,I,l•".. 

\\as  employed  b\-  the  settlers  to  l^o  to  Buffalo  once  a  week  to 
cany  the  mail  and  brin;4  that  of  the  settlers  and  distribute  it  to 
whom  it  belonged.  At  first  the  country  extendin^^  for  t\vent\- 
five  miles  north  and  south  and  thirty-fi\'e  east  and  west,  was 
all  included  in  the  one  town  of  Willink,  and  a  letter  addressed 
to  a  person  in  Willink  mi^ht  ne\er  reach  its  destination,  there- 
fore the\'  were  addressed  to  persons  in  the  township  and  ranj^e 
in  which  the}'  lived.  In  this  w  a\-  the\'  coidd  be  distributed 
w  ith  measurable  accurac}'. 

In  the  Spring"  of  1820,  a  new  mail-route  was  established, 
running  from  Buffalo  to  Olean,  with  three  new  offices  in  this 
county:  one  at  Hamburg,  formerly  called  Smith's  mills;  one 
at  Boston,  formerh*  known  as  Torrey's  corners,  and  one  at 
Springville,  Ralph  Shepard  was  the  first  post-master  at  Ham- 
Inirg,  Krastus  Torr\-  at  Boston,  and  Rufus  C.  Eaton  at  Spring- 
cille,  who  held  the  office  nine  \'ears.  Since  that  time  the 
post-masters  at  Sj)ringville  ha\  e  been — 

In  i828,Klisha  Mack,  under  Andrew  Jackson,  two  terms, 
Martin  Van   Buren,  one. 

In  1840,  Samuel  Lake,  under  Harrison  aiui  of  T\-ler's 

In  1842,  Dr.  Hubbard,  under  part  of  Tyler's  and  [)art  of 

In  1846,  Major  Blasdell,  under  Polk's  administration. 

In  1848,  Morgan  L.  Bacigiey,  under 'ra}-lor  and  h'illmore. 

In  1852,  Camden  C  Lake,  under  Pierce. 

In  T856.  Camden  C.  Lake,  under  Buchanan. 

In  i860,  Perrin  Sampson,  under  Lincoln. 

In  T864,  Perrin  Sampson,  under  Lincoln  and  part  of  John- 

In  1866,  Luther  Killom,  under  Johnson. 

In  1868,  Carlos  Emmons,  under  Grant. 

In  1872,  Carlos  Emmons,  under  part  of  Grants  2d  term. 

In   1872,  T.  B.  Norris,  under  part  of  Grant's  2tl  term. 

In  1876,  T.  B.  Norris,  under  Hayes. 

In  1880,  T.  B.  Norris,  under  (iarfield,  who  i..  post-master  ;it 
the  present  time. 

Aliout  fift)'  )-ears  ago  a  post-office  was  establisiu'd  011  Tow  ns- 
end  Mill,  with  .Ama/.iah  Ashman  as  postmaste'i".    At  the  jjresent 

ro.M  MISSION    ol      II!  K    II  RSI     I'oS  I'M  AS  TKK.  199 

time  there  are  four  post-offices  in  the  town  of  Concord — Sprini;- 
ville,  Morton's  Corners.  Wooclward's  Hollow  and  Mast  Concord. 
•At  first  tlu-  mail  was  carried  o\-er  Tow  nsend  llill  to  Boston 
and  on  to  Jkiffalo  ;  then  it  was  carried  down  the  east  branch  of 
Ei<4'hteen-mile  creek  to  Boston,  then  to  Buffalo.  And  it  has 
been  carried  past  I-last  Concortl  ami  tlirouLi'h  Coklen  to  Buffalo. 
It  is  now  carried  on  the  cars  from  SprinoviHe  to  Sardinia  and 
to  Buffalo  ;  and  also  through  Boston  to  Buffalo. 

In  early  times  there  was  a  mail  from  the  Kast  carried  through 
Springville,  Zoar,  and  on  West.  Afterwards  there  was  a  mail 
from  Pike  through  Springville,  Morton's  Corners,  Collin's 
Center,  and  on  West.  At  the  present  time  there  is  a  mail 
route  from  Collin's  Center,  througli  Morton's  Corners,  Wood- 
ward's Hollow,  New  Oregon,  &c.  There  is  a  mail  route  from 
Springville  to  Cattaraugus  Station.  There  is  also  a  mail  route 
from  Springxille  t(>  Ashford  Station. 


'^Ri'tuni /.  A/n]<^\\\  Jr.,  Posf-i/instrr  (jciirrol  of  the  (  'nitctf  S/a/cs  of 

To  ALL  who  shall  see  these  presents,  greeting: 

"  Kxow  VE,  that  confiding  in  the  Integrit}-.  Abilit\-  and 
Punctuality  of  Rufus  C.  Katon,  P^scp,  I  do  appoint  him  a  Post- 
master, and  authorize  him  to  execute  the  duties  of  that  Officu 
at  Springville,  Niagara  Count)',  and  State  of  New  \'ork. 
according  to  the  laws  of  the  United  States,  and  such  Regula- 
tions conformable  thereto  as  he  shall  receive  from  me. 

To  HOLD  the  said  office  of  Post-master,  with  all  the  Powers. 
Privileges  and  Flmoluments  to  the  same  belonging,  during  the 
pleasure  of  the  I'ost-master  (ieneral  of  the  L^nited  States  for 
the  time  being. 

In  TESITMONN'  whereof,  1  have  hereunto  set  m\-  hantl  and 
caused  the  Seal  of  my  Office  to  be  affixed  at  Washington  Cit\ , 
the  thirteenth  day  of  April,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thou- 
sand eight  lumdred  and  twent}-,  and  of  the  indej)endence  of  the 
United  States  the  fort>'-fourtli. 

Registered  19th  day  of  Jul)-,  1820.  R.  J.  Mek.S. 

Tiios.  Aruuckle,  Clerk. 

200  NAMKS    ()]•■    OWM'.RS    OK    1-AKMS    1\     1S43. 

/\  list  of  tlie  owners  of  farms  and  farvninL;-  lands  in  the  town 

of  Concord  in   1S45  : 


25.  Calvin   Blake,    L.    C.  X'ani^han,  lames  V^aui^han,  Epenetus 


26.  W.    W.  Cornwell,   Asa  W'ells,   J.   X.  Yates,    H.    Freeman, 

J.  Mayo. 

27.  John    Gardinier,    J.    Bloodgood,    W'm.    Smith,    Archibald 

2(S.   Jared  Davis,  John  Vaughn,  Wm.  Smith. 
29.    H.  J.  Vosburg,  Abram  Gardinier,  \Vm.  Olin,  G.  Newcomb. 
:^o.   Wm.  Foot,  'Levi  Finch,  James  Wood,  Joseph  Coteral,  John 


31.  James  Wood,  R.  Foote,  R.  Matthewson,  John  Philips. 

32.  R.  F^oote,  Sam.  Hains,   Mrs.  Beaver,  R.  Matthewson. 

33    Asa  Wells,  Healy  ?^reeman,  Charles  Wells,  Mr.  Kilburn. 

34.  James    Bloodgood,    J.    N.    Vates,   Vincent    Cole,    Weston 

Waite,  Moses  Griswold. 

35.  Archibald    Griffith,     M.    \Wample,    S.    Gardner,    J.    Ma}'o, 

C.  Smith.  J.  Wilson. 

36.  J.  &  A.  South,  Wm.  Smith,  E.  Cram,  L.  Killom,  J.  Ila\-nes, 

L.  Needham. 

37.  H.    Stanbro,  Wm.    J^aker,    Henr}-    Vosburg,    1^.    Graff.    C. 

Vaughan,  David  Clark,  Levi   Finch. 

38.  J.  Griffith,   Louis  Wheelock,   H.   Griffith,   R.    Drake,    Bela 

Graves,  C.  Killom. 

39.  R.  Foote,  John  Treat,    P.   A.   Sprague,  S.   P.   Field,    Bela 


40.  Abner  Wilson,  B.  Crump,  P.  A.  Sprague. 

41.  Josiah  Graves,  Ashle)'    Holland,  Gardner    Stanbro,  Seic)- 


42.  Seley  Scjuires,  J.  C.  Cranston,  Justin   Miner,  Hiram  Mayo, 
,    D.  Sweet,  J.  McMillen. 

4V   L.   Davis.   E.    Mayo,  James  Curtis,  J.   Mayo,   P.   Stanbro, 

C.  Smith. 
44.  7\.  Cranston,  Wm  Smith,  Jr.,  Wm.  Smith,  S.   A.   Jocey,  1'. 

Stanbro,  C.  Stanbro. 
15.   W'm.   Smith,    Wm.    Smith,    jr.,  Patrick     Hogan,    Ej^jhraim 


KAKIA'    FARM    oWMlKS    IN     l(  »\\  \    ()!■    ( ■().\(  OKI  i.  20 1 

46.  Philip  l\)ttcr,  P.  (^s<,H)od,  Josiah   CanfR-Id,  Mr.  Flint.  C.  A. 


47.  Wheeler  Drake,  (non-resident). 

48.  Samuel  Abbott,  Alonzo  Cross. 

49.  Mrs.  Reynolds,  Varne\'   Installs. 

50     K.  E.  Williams.  Daniel  Tice.   Peter  ]^radle\-.   Zimri  Inj^alls, 
Caleb  Ingalls. 

51.  James  Flemings,  Ephraim  T.  Briggs.  Amos  Stanbro. 

52.  Philip  Ferrin.  Nathan  Godard.  l^Mijamin  South,  Lsaac  Knox. 

53.  Albert   Shippy.  Ephraim   A.    Hriggs,  Star}-   King,  C.  Need- 

ham,  E.  Godard. 

54.  K.    Martin,   Jr.,    Mr.    Mason.    A.    Martin.    J.    Agard.  Orrin 


55.  Orrin  Sible\-.  S\-lvester  Abbott,  Harrison  Calkins. 

56.  Henry  Smith.   Wm    Calkins.    C.    Abbott,    S.    Abbott.    D. 


57.  Carlos  Emmons,  V.  Ingalls,  Allan  Drake,  Alanson  Wheeler. 

58.  J.  House,  Orley  Perkins,  Benjamin  WHieeler,  Sen. 

59.  Benjamin  Fay,  Ebenezer  Blake. 

60.  Noah  Townsend,  Constant  Tre\'ett,  Philip  Ferrin,  Mr.  Ste- 


61.  Orrin  Baker,  Jonathan  Canfield,  Orvil  Canfield. 

62.  Wm.  Field,  Almon   Perkins,  Joshua  Agard,  H.  E.   Potter. 

63.  Benjamin  Sibley,  Joshua  Agard.  Abijah  Sibley. 

64.  Moses  Leonard,   Oliver  Dutton,  O.  Wells,   J.    P)artle\-,  Mr. 

Curran,  Mr.  Calkins,  E.  Twichell. 


46.  Mrs.  Prudence  Williams. 

47.  Mrs.  Prudence  Williams. 

48.  Roswell  Alcott. 

49.  Jesse  Frye,  Enoch  N.  Fr)e. 

56.  Henry  Weber. 

57.  Non  Resident. 

58.  Michael  Smith. 

59.  Michael  Smith. 

60.  John  Wells. 

61.  David  Williams. 

62.  E.  N.  JM-ye,  L.  P.  Coxe. 

202  i:arlv  concord  farmers. 

60.   Luther  Austin,  V.  11.  Can-,  John  Ilovcland. 

67.  Henry  Weber,  II.  S.  Post. 

68.  John  Wilhanis,  Le\i  Pahiier. 

69.  John  Williams. 

70.  Non  Resident. 

71.  Thomas  Richardson. 

/2.  Abram  Hammond,  Luther  Thompson,  Mr.  Newman,  S.  G. 
Churchill,  J.  G.  Stor\-. 

JT,.  Thomas  Daxis,  Mr.  Trumball,  S.  A.  Morton. 

JJ.    Elisha  Eaton,  Joel  Chaffee,  Charles  Chaffee. 

/^.   Charles  Watson. 

79.   Mrs.  Knii^ht. 

So.  Mrs.  Knii^ht.  Amos  Stanbro,  Geory;e  Thompson,  Charles 

81.  A.  P.  Morton,  A.  K.  ( )strander,  Ambrose  J(_)hnson,  Widow- 
German,  Milo   Paker. 

^2.  A.  P.  Morton,  Pomro\-  Johnson,  Jose[)h  A^^ard  Ostrander, 
Mr.  Harxe}'. 

86.   Samuel  Churchill. 

i>/.   Pelei^  Cranston,  AL-.  \'an  Hurau. 

88.  J.  Agard,  W.  Agard,  S.  Agard.  L.  (jerman. 

89.  Horace  Ga\'lord,  Amos  Stanbro,  Washington  T\-rer.  Charles 


90.  Isaac   Nichols,   (jeorge   \\'oodbur\-,   James   Wheeler,  P.    C. 

Holt,  Mrs.  Tyrer-Ostrander. 

91.  Jeremiah  Richardson,  James  Wlieeler,  Widow  Richardson. 
Parts  of  lots  61,  62,  71,  79,  80,  i>j   ;ind    /^,  and    lot  70   were 

wild  or  unoccu[)ied  land. 


1.  Carlos  Lmmons.  \'.  Ingals. 

2.  V.  Ingals,  Mrs.  L  )veridge,  S.  Wheeler,  Mr.  Ilutchins. 

3.  Mr.  Hutchins. 

4.  P.  Scott,   A.   /Vshman.    Mr.    Hutchins,    Mr.    Ste\enson,  Mr. 


5.  R.  C.  Drake,  lUam  Booth,  Parle\-  Marten. 

6.  Sillick  Canfield,  A.  Gra\\  C)li\er  Needham,  Laban  A.  Need- 


•ni.i.i'.ks  (»K  nil'  son.  i\    1S45.  203 

7.  Ilosca  I'otttr.  i..  II.    Twichcll.  II.    lii^als,  A.  (icnsnian,  Mr. 

I  lorton. 

S.  William  l)>-c.  Ira  Wooclwanl.  Whcclcr  iJrakc. 

9.  Jonas  Pcrhani. 

\o.  r.  Cook.  V.  liiL;als,  John   I'^'cnch. 

11.  V.  Scott,  Widow  Scott,  .\.  LoNcridL^a-. 

12.  r.  Scott,  J.  Shears. 

13.  ThacklLMis  I  licock,  Abial  BloclL;"ctt. 

14.  T.    II.   and    II.    Potter,    Charles    Xeedham,    A.   C.    Adam-;, 

Widow  Bement. 

15.  T.  li.  Potter,   William   Twichell,    Samuel  Tuichell,  Joseph 

Potter,  Ira  Drake,  H.  Drake. 

16.  William    Potter,    Widcnv    Drake,    Wheeler    Drake,    G.    W. 

Thurber,  H.  Drake-BridLi'inan. 
I  7.   W.  H>-de,  S.  W.  Alger. 
iS.   W.  Hyde.  Klder  Carr,  James  Tyrer,  O.    Spaulding,  A.  Hall. 

B.   Trevitt,  S.  Stevens. 
\(j.  J.  M.  Spauldinu-,  B.  Alby. 

20.  A.  Hall,  Hicock  and  Trevitt,   E.  Sampson,  Jeremiah  Louk. 

21.  Benjamin  Trex'ett,  Benjamin  Trevitt,  Jr.,  Hiram  C.   i  re\  itt, 

William  Adams,  E.  Adams. 

22.  Eron  Woodward,  Isaiah  Pike,  William  Adams. 
2:,.  S.  Trevett,  I.  Pike,  D.  Janes,  P.  Thurber,  H.  Burt. 

24.  R.  Curren,  J.  Fosdick,  E.    Ellis.  S.  Trexett. 

25.  L)-man  Joslyn,  Mr.  Josl\-n. 

26.  S.  Stexens. 

2J.  r.  M.  Brings,  E.  Eush,  Daniel  Persons,  James  Colwell. 

28.  S.  Cooper,  H.  C.   Trevett,  B.  Fisher.  l\.  Sampson. 

29.  J-5enjamin  Trevett,  lienjamin  Trexett,  Jr.,  Trex  ett  &  l^illou. 

30.  Ezekiel  Adams,  A.  C  Adams. 

31.  H.  Babcock,  Mr.  Brush,  J.  Haxxkins.  R.  Hawkins,  Al})honso,  L.  Trevett. 

32.  D.  Janes,  P.  Roach,  Joseph    Roach.  W.    Burt,  P^-ancis  Tat- 

too, John  Goffinett,  Francis  Wiser. 
^T).  Calvin  Johnson,  John  Nichols,  A.  Nichols,  J.  Steele,  Ezekiel 

34.   E.  Simons,  Z.  Simons,  John    Martin,   John    PealxKlx ,  Phiu- 

eas  Peai)od)'. 

204  HUSBANDMEN    OK    CONCf)RI)    IN    1845. 

35.  Peril!  Sampson,  Emery  Sampson,  William   Sampson,  T.  D. 

Tiffany,  P.  Payne,  S.  Briggs. 

36.  Emer)'  Sampson,  LeGrand  Douglass,  Haw  &  Douglass. 

37.  J.  Rice,  A.  Becker,  —  F"rancisco. 

38.  Joseph  Hawkins,  Levi  Knap,  P2.  Adams,  Mr.  Blakeslc}-. 

39.  Benjamin  Dole,  Alph(^nso  Cross. 

40.  Mrs.  Barrett,  G.   M}'er,    H.   Perkins,    H.    Rathburn,  George 

Barrett,  F.  fiammond. 

41.  A.  Nichols,  M.  J.  Steele,  William  Fessenden.  Eli/.er  Stock- 

ing, L}'man  Steele,  Charles  Mosier. 

42.  Luke  Simons,  Z.  Simons,  William  Fisher,  Nehemiah  Heath, 

Joseph  Tabor. 

43.  J.  L.  Douglass,  D.  Rice,  Jarcd   Tiffany. 

44.  J.  L.  Douglass,  Waters  &  Rice.  E.  Sampson,  Jarcd  Tiffany. 

J.  Colvin. 

45.  William    Beckwith.     Ra\-    Beckwith.    Mr.    Stearns,    (iilbert 


46.  Chockly  Lynde.  Ira  Stebbins,  Mr.  Lj-nde,  William  Horton, 

L.  Barrett. 

47.  John  Becker,  George  Myers,  Zenas  Perkins,  P.  Hucklebury. 

M.  Hucklebury. 
4S.    H.  Jefferson.  D.  Horton,  B.  Rathburn.  F.  Hammond. 


1.  Eaton  Bensley,  John  Russell,  Joseph  Harkness. 

2.  Samuel  Cochran,  Mrs.  Yaw,  D.  Evans. 

3.  George     Holland,    Sylvester     Eaton,    W.    Watkins.    Wells 

Brooks,  William  McMillen. 

4.  J.   Van    Pelt,  James    Hinman.    Charles  Wells.    \'.    Ingalls, 

Christopher  Green. 

5.  1^.    Nelson,    E.   Matthewson.    G.    W.    Kingman,    Parker    & 

7.   Ahner    White,     William    Weeden.    Charles    Chaffee,    Joel 

Chaffee,  J.  Russell,  E.  Bensley. 
S.   Bloomfield,  Shepherd.  White.  Shultus.  William  Weeden.  S. 

9.   E.  Mack,  William  l^allou,  J.  Rushmore,  I'Ltlmonds  I'\  White. 
10.   J.  Van   Pelt,  Selem  Sears,  Isaac  Palmei-. 

coNcoRi)  S()I.iiii;ks    RiicokD.  205 

11.  II.    S.    I'osl,    Julius     Hcmcnt,     Ihirvcy     Aiulrcws.     Luther 


12.  Jarvis  Bk)onificlcl. 

13.  (iilcs  Churchill,  Jacob  Rushniorc,  Luther  Austin. 

14.  I'^.  W.  Cook. 

15.  E.  W.  Cook,  Mr.  Stearns. 

16.  David  Wiley,  Mr.  Stearns. 

17.  Ebcnezer  Dibble,  P'rancis  White,  Mr.  luhiiunds. 

18.  Mrs.  Otis,  William  Ballou. 

19.  William  Smith. 

20.  James  Kini^sle)-. 

21.  L.  R.  Shultus. 

22.  David  .Shultus. 

23.  David  Shultus.  Abel  llolman.  Mr.  Kini;man. 

24.  Abel  Holman. 

2^.   Nathaniel  Howen.  Mr.  Dodi^e,  Parker  &  l^arton. 


'I\)  that  (irand  Arm\'  which  preserved  the  L^nion,  Concord 
contributed  her  full  share  of  volunteers,  a  larg'e  percentage  of 
whom  were  either  killed  or  died  in  the  service.  When  future 
generations  lift  the  \eil  from  b)-i;"one  years  in  their  search  for 
fitting  themes  of  eulogy,  let  their  finest  tributes  fall  upon  the 
heads  of  the  soldier  boys  of  Concord. 

More  than  half  of  those  who  entered  the  service  went  out  in 
two  companies — Company  A  of  the  100th  N.  Y.  .S.  \\,  and 
Company  E  of  the  1  r6tli  N.  Y.  S.  V. 

Company  A  of  the  lOOtli  was  recruited  b}'  Capt.  Daniel  D. 
Nash,  of  Springville,  and  was  the  first  offering  toward  the  for- 
mation of  the  "Eagle  Hrigade."  being  raised  b)'  (ieneral 
Scroggs,  of  Buffalo.  Of  their  service  in  the  field  we  need  not 
speak,  as  its  history  has  already  been  written  b\'  an  able  pen. 
Company  E  of  the  1  i6th  was  organized  by  Drs.  U.  C.  Lynde 
and  Cicorgc  G.  Stanbro,  of  Springville,  in  1862.  Dr.  George  G. 
Stanbro  was  commissioned  as  its  captain.  The\-  reported  for 
duty  in  August,  1862,  at  Eort  Porter,  Buffalo.  Earl\-  in  1863 
they  were  sent  to  Louisiana,  where,  after  particij^ating  in  a 
series  of  hard  fought  battles,  the  regiment  was  ordered  to  Vir- 
ginia.     But  a  history   of   the  1  i6th    has  also   been    written  and 

2o6  II 1 1;  r.KAVK  s(  )I.1)Ii:ks  ok  coxcoRn. 

wc  need  not  tuilher  refer  to  it.  (  )f  those  wlio  were  members 
I  if  the  various  other  reL;'iiiients.  their  records  are  ecjuallx'  deserx- 
iiiL,^  of  a  phice  on  the  ilhistrious  scroll  of  the  nation's  lionoretl  — 
soldier  heroes. 

The  following;"  list  of  the  soldiers  includes  some  who  enlistetl 
in  other  places  but  whose  homes  were  really  in  Concord  : 

■  Died  in  the  service  ;  the  person's  name  will  also  be  found  in  a  list  of  the  dead. 

n\K     HUXDRKDIH    RK(;i  M  KNI'    ^'E^\     \()KK    \()1.U.\  rKllR^.  (  i  >.M- 

I'AW  A. 

Major  Daniel  D.  Nash,  h'rancis  L.  Arnold, 

Capt.  Wm.  L.  Mayo,  Nathan  J.  Arnold. 

Serg.  Carlos   H.  Richmond.  (ieorge  Arnold, 

Scrg.  Thos.  W.  Small,  Thos.  Dillon, 

Scrg.  Byron  Bristol.  Hiram  M.  Fisk. 

*Corp.  Charles  B.  Kellogg.  "Jacob  l^^-iednicUi. 

Corp.  Thos.  M.  Allen,  Ed.  (i.  (iibson, 
■'•'Corp.  Charles  H.  Flanders.        Henr)-  S.  (joodman. 

Corp.  |.  S.  Bibbens,  Nicholas  (ieorgen, 

Emerson  Gates,  James  L.  Gaylord. 

Daniel  Hicks,  "Uriah   F.  Hill. 

Marion  Eincoln,  John  Roller, 

■■^Roswcll  Merrifield.  Ebenczer  Spooner, 

Nicholas  Streit,  Frank  Smith, 

Wm.  H.  Sill,  Daniel  H.  Stebbon. 

"Thos.  C.  Sweet,  Sylvester  Wiser, 

"Geo.  Bishop,  -'^'hillip  Wiser, 
"Clark  C.  Dickerman. 

OXli    IIUXDREI)    AXl)    SIXTKE.Xril    KKGIMEXT,  NKW     ^•()RK    \()L- 

Capt.  (ieorge  .S.  Stanbro.  Rollin  J.  Albro, 

Capt.  Charles  S.  Crary,  George  Annaerter, 

Lieut.  Clinton  Hammond.  "'Peter  Brooks. 

Scrg.  John  Ci.  Dayton.  Morris   Barnett. 

*Corp.  Samuel  A.  Mayo,  Martin  Bui)-, 

Corp.  Anthou)'  Reiser,  Edward  Bement, 

William  A.  hV-rrin,  Marshall  K.  Davis. 

Stephen  E.  .S[)aulding,  Jacob  Earner, 

Benjamin   S.  Goddard.  Alonzo  Hilliker, 

rill'.  \f)i.iN  ri-.i:k  s(ti.i)ii:K>. 


I'l'edcrick   I  li  >\\'i'laiul. 
■■'Marl<s  1  ,ouk, 
"•■'Jolin  1 1.  Mayo, 
Julian   1 1.  KIkhIcs, 
"••■John   1  1 .    Tluirher, 
Carlos  Waitc, 
Cornelius  (iraft. 
Scrq;.  James  1^.  Webber, 
Uriah  C.  L)'nde,  Surgeon. 
Jacob  Chiefferle, 
"•^■Daniel  Wriehl, 

Julius  A.  MeClure. 
Theron  Alatthewson, 
Cornelius  ( )strancler, 
llenr\-  W.  Shultus, 
h'ranklin  C.  Shultus, 
•■'I^'abian  Warner, 
Lorenzo  Johnson, 
Marion  Johnson, 
Joseph  S.  W'.irner, 
■■'■John  W.   rwichell, 
■■'Hiram  H .  Tvrer. 

Theotlore  B.  Norris. 

.MIS(i;i.l,ANE()L^S    LIST. 

"Eugene  Walker-  44th   Re^.,  Inf.  Co.  A,(i'eoi)le's    Rllsworlh. ) 
■"Irvini,r  l^ike — 44th  Re^.,  Inf..  Co.  A,  (l'eo[)le's  Mllsworth.) 
■•■'Jerome  Myer.s — 44th  ReL;.,  Inf.,   Co.    .\,  ( l'eo|)le's    T'Jlsw orth.) 
"•■"ilenr)-  C.  Hammond — 44th    Ke^.,  Inf.,  Co.   A,  (People's    I^lls- 

Tyler  H.  Stearns     44th  KeL;..  Inf.,  Co.  A,  (  l'eoi)le"s    Kllsworth.) 
Lan.son  A.  Stanbro — i  16th  N.  Y.  V.,  Co.  C. 
Alonzo  v.  Killom — 1  i6th  X.  Y.  V.,  Co.  K. 
William  Woodward— 64th  X.  Y.  V.,  Co.  A. 
(ieort^e  Smead — 64th  X.  Y.  V.,  Co.  A. 
Elmore  Hement — 2d  Rey;.  California  Ca\'.,  Co.  (i. 
Frank  I'.  S])auldin<,^ — 36th  Re-.  X.  Y.  \'.,  Co.  A. 
Col.  H.  V.  .Spauldin^- — 7th  Rey;.  U.  S.  colored  troo[)s. 
James  McRea— ist  Ret;-.  111.  Li^ht  Artiller\-,  Batter\-  I. 
Nathan  Humphrey — 1st  l^atalion,  N.  Y.  sharj)  shooters,  8th  Co. 
.\lonzo  I^ooth — 97th  N.  Y.  \.  iConklin  Rifles),  Co.  K.,  drafted. 
Corp.  John  P.  L'nderhill       lolh  X.  Y.   Caw 
Capt.  William  II.  Warner--4th  .\rk.  Cav.,  Co.  V. 
Serg.  Humphrey  Drake — i  i6th  N.  Y.  Cav.,  Co.  H. 
■^'Leroy  Coo[)er — 187th  X.  Y.  V. 
Henry  Himes. 

Elnathan  (Griffith— 1 16th  X.  Y.  V.,  Co.  K. 
EuL^ene  I',  h'.llis. 
William  Henry  Sprai^iie. 
William  Vannatta— 64th  X.  Y.  V. 

208  LIST    ()1-     Till-.    KII.LKI). 

"'^FJias  Vannatta — 64th  N.  Y.  V. 

I'rcston  Richardson. 

Tctcr  Prior — 147th,  Co.  D. 

Job  Woodward. 

Martin  Miller— 21  st  N.  Y.  V. 

W.  B.  Jcwett— 2ist  N.  Y.  V. 

William  Black— 45th,  Co.  I. 

AmericLis  Lincoln — 147th,  Co.  I). 

*Jame.s  Darling. 

*Joseph  Y.  Gardinier — 2d  Minn.  Cav. 

Serg.  George  W.  Pierce — 187th  N.  Y.  V.,  Co.  E. 

*Jacob  F.  Goodbread— i.^7th  N.  Y.  V.,  Co.  15. 

*Thoma.s  Page. 

*Philip  Mentz—iooth  N.  Y.  V.,  Co.  A. 

*Chauncey  Joslin — 64th  N.  Y.  V.,  Co.  A. 

^Alfred  Shippy. 



Corp.  Charles  B.  Kellogg — killed  in  Virginia. 
Corp.  Charles  F.  Flanders — killed   in  the  attack  on    Fort  Wag- 
ner, July  18,  1883. 
Roswell  Merrifield — killed  June  28,  1892,  at   Bottom  Bridge. 
Thomas  C.  Sweet — killed   June  28,  1862,  at   Bottom   Bridge. 
Jacob  P'riedman — killed. 

Uriah  F.  Hill — died  at  Andersonville  prison. 
Phillip  Wiser — killed  May  26,  1862,  at  Seven  Pines. 
Corp.  Samuel  A.  Mayo — died  Aug.  8,  1862. 
Mark  Louks— killed  at  Port  Hudson,  June  14,  1863. 
John  H.  Mayo — died  of  wounds  received,  Aug.  11,  1863. 
John  H.  Thurber — lost  at  sea,  July  10,  1864. 
F'abian  Warner — died  at  Baton  Rouge,  July  26,  1863. 
Eugene  Walker — killed  at  second  battle  of  Bull  Run. 
Irving  Pike — died  in  the  service. 
Jerome  Myers — killed  at  Malvern  Hill. 

Henry  C.  Hammond — killed  at  second  battle  of  Bull  Run. 
Leroy  Cooper — died  in  the  hospital  at  Washington,  in  1864. 
Elias  Vannatta — shot. 

James  Darling — died  in  Andcrsonxille  prison. 
Joseph  Y.  Gardinier — died  at  St.  Louis,  P^eb.  7.  1862. 

■niK  i'RKsii\ri:Ri.\N  chircii  oi'   si'ri.\(;\ii,lk.       209 

lacob  V.  Goodbrcad — starved  to  death  in  Andersonville  prison. 
Daniel  Wright — died  of  wound.  May  17,  1863,  in    Louisiana. 
Peter  Brooks — died  Aug.  13,  1863,  in  Louisiana. 
John  W.  Twichell — died  Sept.  22,  1863,  at  Cairo,  Illinois. 
Hiram  H.  Tyrer — died  May  9,  1864,  at  New  Orleans, 
(ieorge  Bishop — died  of  wounds  received  at  Bull  Run. 
Thomas    Page — died   Sept.    27,    1863,    of   wounds   received    at 

Philip  "Mentz — died  on  Morris  Island. 
Chaunce\'   Joslin — died   of   camp    fcxer,    at   Versailles.    N.    Y., 

Jan.  12,  1863. 
Alfred  Shipey — died  in  the  hospital.  . 
Clark  C.  Dickerman — died  July  18,  1863,  at  Fort  Wagner. 

Owing  to  the  destruction  of  valuable  records,  the  above  rec- 
ord is  imperfect  and  contains  omissions  and  doubtless  errors 
which  are  seemingh'  unavoidable. 


The  Presbyterian  Church  of  Springville  was  first  organized 
as  a  Congregational  Church  Nov.  2nd,  1816,  by  Rev.  John 
Spencer,  consisting  of  but  nine  members  of  whom  John  Russell 
was  chosen  its  first  deacon  and  was  ever  after  looked  up  to  by 
the  church  as  its  father  and  truest  friend.  Rev.  John  Spencer 
was  a  character  that  deserves  more  than  a  passing  notice.  He 
was  a  missionary  sent  out  by  the  home  board  to  labor  on  the 
Holland  Purchase.  His  labors  and  toils  were  abundant  in  this 
county  but  more  particularly  in  Cattaraugus  and  Chatauqua 
counties.  He  was  wonderfully  full  of  vivacit)',  a  rare  wit  and 
a  genial  companion.  In  all  the  anecdotes  related  of  him,  and 
they  are  very  man>',  I  have  never  heard  of  but  one  instance  of 
his  failing  to  ha\e  a  read\'  response.  He  was  once  walking 
through  the  streets  of  Fredonia  leading  his  old  gray  mare, 
which  as  ever  seemed  inclined  to  hang  back.  Passing  a  tailor 
shoj)  where  a  couple  of  tailors  sat  sewing  b)-  the  open  window, 
one  called  out  to  him,  "  Friend,  are  you  traveling  far?"  He 
answers  "  No."  "  Ah,  I  thought  if  you  were,  I  would  advise 
\-ou  to  swap  off  \'our  old  horse  for  a  bob-sled  and  get  some- 
thing you  could   draw   easier."      He  stopped,  took    off   his   hat 

and  bowed,  saying,  "  Gentlemen,  I    have   not  a  word   to  fit  the 


2IO  TWENTV-ONE    MEMBERS    IN    1820. 

occasion,"  and  passed  on  enjoyin<^  the  joke  hugely,  which  he 
often  repeated.  Deacon  Russell  once  said  with  his  eyes  humid 
with  emotion,  "  That  anecdote  always  brings  good  old  father 
Spencer  with  his  old  gray  mare  visibly  before  me."  Father 
Spencer  was  always  ready  for  every  good  word  and  work,  a 
great  worker,  sowing  the  seed  unsparingly,  and  was  very  suc- 
cessful in  securing  an  abundant  har\est.  So  kind,  loving  and 
spiritual  that  he,  under  God,  succeeded  in  drawing  together 
and  organizing  more  churches,  it  is  said,  than  any  other  man 
that  ever  labored  in  these  three  counties.  He  was  pastor  of  a 
great  number  of  churches  at  the  same  time  and  for  many  years. 
The  place  where  this  little  band  met  to  worship  and  encourage 
one  another's  hearts  to  stem  the  tide  of  worldly  influences  was 
the  old  school-house  standing  in  the  rear  of  the  Presbyterian 
Church  which  was  burned  down  about  fift}'-five  years  ago. 
There  they  met  every  Sabbath,  whether  they  had  a  preacher 
to  lead  them  or  not.  If  they  had  they  rejoiced,  if  not 
they  felt  the  command  was  "  worship  God."  Some  brother 
read  a  hymn  and  the)'  all  joined  in  the  hoh-  song  with 
grateful  hearts.  No  doubt  there  would  have  been  some 
harsh,  grating  discords  had  the  song  of  this  little  band  fell  on 
the  ears  of  some  of  the  fashionable  quartettes  of  the  present 
time  (w'hose  artistic  displays  seem  more  in  keeping  with  the 
gymnastics  of  the  day  than  as  a  part  of  religious  service).  But 
the  business  of  this  little  band  here  in  the  w  ilderness  was  to 
worship  and  please  God,  and  the}-  needed  none  to  lead  them 
save  the  Spirit  in  this  most  delightful  and  impressive  part  of 
Christian  worship.  The  h}'mn  sung,  another  brother  prayed 
and  then  some  minister  in  heaven  preached  to  them  b)'  his  ser- 
mon being  read  to  them  here  on  earth.  Thus  they  continued 
about  five  years,  when  a  Mr.  Fitch,  a  son  of  Dr.  Fitch,  of  W^il- 
liams  college,  was  sent  to  them.  The  first  subscription  ever 
drawn  up  in  the  Town  of  Concord  for  the  support  of  the  Gos- 
pel was  for  his  benefit  in  the}-ear  1820.  The  numbers  of  mem- 
bership had  now  increased  from  the  original  nine  to  twenty-one. 
as  follows:  John  Russell,  John  Ewers,  George  W.  Robinson, 
Hannah  Ewers,  Silas  H.  Clexeland,  Ruth  Morrill,  Anna  Robin- 
son, Sergeant  Morrill,  Thomas  McGee,  Hannah  Green,  Cath- 
rina  Cochran,  Betse\'  h'rye,  Asa  Phillips,  Rhoda   Phillips,  Cath- 

THK    FIRST    RKVIVAl,    I\    SPRIN(  ;VII,I,F..  211 

rina  Knox,  L\'dia  Russell.  John  M.  Richards,  I^Hzabcth  Austin, 
William  Hcrrick  and  Mary  Hcnick.  Mr.  Fitch  remained  but 
one  year,  and  was  succeeded  in  1821  or  1822  by  l^'ather  Ingalls, 
who  remained  four  or  five  years,  preachin^^  one-half  the  time 
here  and  receivins;'  his  missionar\-  aid  for  a  part  of  his  supi)ort. 
Under  his  ministry  the  church  and  community  was  blessed  with 
its  first  revival,  and  this  was  a  i^eneral  one  throuLjhout  the  com- 
munity, and  here  man}'  of  the  first  prominent  settlers  took  a 
stand  for  Christ.  The  fruits  of  this  revival  went  in  part  to 
start  the  other  churches.  The  Methodists  had  organized  a  class 
about  1820.  The  Baptists  organized  a  society  from  the  fruits 
of  this  revival  in  1824  and  a  church  several  years  later.  The 
Methodists  were  so  ^strengthened  by  this  revival  that  the)-  com- 
menced building  a  church  edifice  in  1827.  The  house  was 
enclosed,  except  glazing,  and  remained  so  for  some  \'ears. 
Through  the  kindness  of  the  Methodists,  the  Congregational 
church  was  permitted  to  meet  in  their  house  occasionally. 
There  they  worshiped  on  slab  seats  laid  on  blocks  of  wood, 
their  worship  being  in  no  way  incommoded  thereby,  but  as  a 
board  from  the  windows,  or  places  for  the  windows,  had  to  be 
removed  to  let  in  light  iov  the  singers  ;  use  was  found  for  the 
old  bandana  handkerchiefs  to  cover  the  heads  of  the  worship- 
ers. All  the  religious  meetings  held  statedly  in  the  place 
up  to  this  time  were  held  b)-  this  little  band,  others  oiil\- 
having  occasional  meetings,  while  they  met  every  Sabbath. 

The  next  minister  who  labored  with  this  church  was  Kliphalet 
Spencer,  of  Middlebury  academ\-.  who  commenced  his 
labors  in  the  Winter  of  1828-9.  ^  ^''^  number  since  the  revival 
had  increased  to  fifty-one.  Mr.  Spencer's  labors  were  not  suc- 
cessful, as  the  Masonic  excitement  was  then  at  its  height  and 
absorbed  the  public  mind.  Mr.  Spencer  being  a  Mason  found 
it  impossible  to  do  much  good  in  a  community  where  so  many 
were  incensed  against  the  institution.  The  walls  of  the  academy 
were  now  up  and  the  church  met  w  ithin  them  at  anotlier  time  in 
the  ball  chamber  of  the  Johnson  Bensley  Hotel,  later  known  as 
the  Sjjringville  House.  They  worshiped  here  for  sometime  un- 
der the  ministrations  of  Re\'.  S.  H.  Gridley,  since  known  as  Dr. 
(iridley.  He  was  from  Clinton,  Oneida  count\%  and  preached 
his  first   sermon  to  this  church — a  man   of  talent   and  ardent 

212  THE    CHIRCH    DKHKATKI  >    IN     1 832. 

piety.  He  was  the  first  man  who  exer  preached  in  this  phice 
all  the  time.  He  left  in  1830,  the  church  still  weak  but  united 
and  happy  and  was  succeeded  by  Father  \\  ilcox,  an  aged  man. 
who  labored  a  few  months  without  any  special  engagement, 
and  left  in  1S31.  At  this  time  the  erection  of  the  old  house  of 
worship  was  commenced,  under  very  embarassed  circumstances, 
but  few  to  put  their  shoulder  to  the  wheel  and  the  land-debts 
resting  very  heavily  upon  them  In  June.  1832.  this  meeting- 
house was  finished  The  dedication  took  place  on  the  6th  day 
of  June.  The  ministry  present  to  assist  were  Revs.  Abial  Parme- 
lee  and  T.  S.  Harris  The  church  had  now  conveniences  and 
comforts,  of  which  it  had  known  nothing  in  its  previous  exist- 
ence. It  had  Avorshiped  in  the  old  log  school-house,  the  unfin- 
ished walls  of  the  academy,  the  old  factory  where  Deacon  Rus- 
sell furnished  dinner  or  lunch  for  all  who  came,  in  the  ball- 
chamber,  in  the  unfinished  Methodist  edifice,  sitting  on  slabs  of 
the  roughest  material,  and  never  were  privileges  prized  higher 
than  these.  Xow  the\-  had  a  comfortable  and  commodious 
house  of  worship  and  the  celebrated  union-meeting  of  the  Bap- 
tist and  Congregational  churches  was  entered  into  by  previous 
arrangement.  Following  this  dedication  the  ministers  were 
Parmelee  and  Harris.  Congregationalists;  Loomis  and  Med- 
calfe.  Baptists.  This  meeting  continued  for  several  weeks  ;  as 
the  result,  twenty-one  were  added  to  the  church  on  profession 
and  fourteen  by  letter,  increasing  the  number  to  seventy.  Par- 
melee remained  five  years,  closing  his  labors  here  in  Januarj', 
1839.  Number  of  communicants  had  increased  one  hundred 
and  fifty-three.  He  was  succeeded  by  Re\ .  A.  P.  Hawley,  who 
became  the  first  pastor  of  the  church  :    was  installed  Jan.    30, 

1839.  '^  \ery  ardent  attachment  soon  sprung  up  between 
pastor  and  people  with  promise  of  good  results.  But  Mr.  Haw- 
ley was  laid  aside  from  the  pulpit  by  the  fall  of  a  tree  in  the 
winter  of  1840,  from  which  he  ne\"er  recovered,  and  in  August, 

1840.  the  pulpit  was  again  declared  vacant. 

The  church  has  now  reached  a  point  within  the  recollection 
of  most  of  our  citizens  and  we  will  onh'  give  the  names  of 
pastors  and  other  facts  in  a  condensed  manner.  Rev.  Z.  Edd\- 
commenced  his  labors  in  the  winter  of  1840  and  '41.  and  closed 
in  October.  1844.     Number  of  communicants   reported  at   the 

I  UK    MKIHODIST    CHURCH    OF    S1'KIN(.\  Il.LH.  213 

next  meeting  of  Prt'sb\tcr\-  was  ^22.  March.  '45,  a  call  was 
jjiven  to  Hiram  Eddy,  who  became  the  third  pastor  of  the 
church  and  durin<^  his  stay  the  church  built  the  church  edifice 
in  which  it  nowworships.  The  pastoral  relation  wasdissolved  in 
June,  1850.  The  pulpit  has  since  been  supplied  by  ministers  and 
pastors  in  the  following  order:  Rev.  Benj.  F.  Millan,  i  year; 
Rev.  Isaac  E.  Curr}-,  3  years;  Rev.  Robert  L.  Conklin.  1  year; 
Rev.  Claudius  B.  Lord,  3  years :  Re\ .  Nathan  Allen,  5  \'ears  ; 
Rev.  J.  T.  Manning.  3  years:  Rev.  John  A.  Wells,  11  years. 
Under  his  pastorate  the  church  members  increased  fifty  per 
cent.,  and  the  house  of  worship  was  re-modeled  at  an  expense 
of  over  $6,000.      Rev.  \V.  A.  Robinson  is  the  present  pastor. 


From  the  best  information  that  can  be  obtained,  it  appears 
that  as  early  as  1814  and  1815.  Methodist  meetings  were  held 
by  a  Methodist  preacher  named  "  Jenkins,"  at  the  house  of 
Ezekiel  Smith,  in  the  town  of  Sardinia  (then  Concord),  on 
Lord's  hill,  eight  miles  east  of  Springville.  Subsequentlv 
Methodist  meetings  were  held  at  George  Richmond's,  thre^' 
miles  east  of  Springville.  About  the  year  1820.  a  Methodist 
church  was  organized  at  the  school  house  of  Liberty  pole  cor- 
ners, one  mile  east  of  Springville,  by  a  Methodist  preacher 
known  as  Father  Hall.  So  far  as  can  now  be  ascertained,  the 
members  of  the  church  thus  organized  were  James  Hinman 
and  Phebe  Hinman,  his  wife :  Charles  C.  Wells  and  Susan 
Wells,  his  wife ;  Samuel  Shaw  and  Phebe  Shaw,  his  wife.  No 
other  names  of  members  can  be  ascertained.  In  the  year  1823, 
this  conference  district  was  know  n  as  the  Erie  district,  Gleazen 
Fillmore,  Presiding  Elder,  and  the  circuit  was  known  as  Boston 
circuit.  Andrew  Peck  and  John  Copeland  were  the  cir- 
cuit preachers  connected  with  the  charge,  and  meetings  were 
held  by  them  alternately  once  in  two  weeks.  At  a  later  date, 
meetings  were  held  at  a  school  house  in  Springville,  that  stood 
just  west  of  where  the  Presbyterian  church  now  stands.  In  the 
year  1825,  this  was  known  as  the  BufTalo  district,  Loring  Grant. 
Presiding  Elder,  under  whose  leadership  a  church  edifice  was 
erected.  Orrin  Lewis  was  the  builder.  The  church  edifice 
thus  built  stood  on  the  north  side  of  the  public  square,  and  was 


used  as  a  place  of  worship  by  the  Methodists  until  1863,  when 
the  present  church  edifice  was  completed,  which  was  built  under 
the  supervision  of  the  Rev.  S.  Y.  Hammond,  the  preacher  then 
in  charge.  The  edifice  is  built  of  brick  and  of  modern  .style 
and  finish,  located  upon  a  lot  of  ample  size,  with  a  commodious 
parsonage  of  appropriate  style,  in  close  proximity.  A  fair 
estimate  of  the  value  of  the  property  could  not  fall  short  of 
$10,000.  The  present  membership,  at  this  date  of  1883,  is  110. 
Sunday  school  teachers  and  children,  seventy-five.  The  present 
Board  of  Trustees  are:  Stephen  E.  Tefft,  W.  H.  Pingey,  Byron 
Wells.  B.  A.  Lowe,  H.  G.  Leland,  L.  M.  Cumming.s,  Frank 
Thurber,  Newcomb  Churchill,  William  McMillen.  Rev.  Will- 
iams, present  pastor. 


In  January,  1827,  the  first  Baptist  church  in  Springville  was 
organized.  The  articles  of  faith  now  held  by  the  church  were 
adopted,  and  Rufus  C.  Eaton  was  chosen  Deacon.  At  the  time 
of  its  organization  the  church  was  composed  of  eighteen  mem-' 
bers,  eight  males  and  ten  females.  Their  names  were  as 
follows :  Zebulon  Stratton,  Levinus  Cornwell,  R.  C.  Eaton, 
Almon  Fuller,  Sylvester  Eaton,  W.  W.  Cornwell,  Chauncey 
Pond,  Elisha  Eaton,  Thankful  White,  Betsey  P\iller,  Sally 
Weeden,  Sally  Eddy,  Eunice  House,  Juda  Rhodes,  Waitee 
Richmond,  Eliza   H.  Eaton,  Susannah    Pond,  Louisa  Cornwell. 

About  this  time  Elder  Eliab  Going  was  solicited  to  visit 
Springville,  to  preach  and  baptise  a  few  persons.  In  January, 
1828,  the  church  numbered  thirty-five  members,  and  Whitman 
Metcalf  became  its  nominal  ]:)astor,  intending  to  preach  one- 
fourth  of  the  time. 

In    1832,    Elder  Loomis  preached  to  the  church. 

In  June,  1833,  Elder  David  Searle  became  pastor  of  the 

On  the  14th  of  December,  Daniel  Parsons  was  chosen  Deacon. 

In  1834,  a  new  meeting  house  was  built  and  dedicated  Janu- 
ary 27,  1835,  the  dedicatory  sermon  being  preached  b)'  IClder 
Elisha  Tucker,  of  Buffalo. 

On  the  27th  of  March,  1836,  Elder  Searle,  who  had  labored 
successfully   as    pastor   for  three   years,   was  dismissed   witli    a 

NAMES    OF    I'ASrORS.  21  5 

letter  of  commendation,  and  soon  after,  the  Rev.  W.  T.  Crane 
became  pastor  of  the  church  and  remained  one  year. 

In  the  Spring-  of  1S37,  Rev.  G.  W.  Warren  assumed  the  jias- 
toral  charge  of  the  church.  June  i/th,  Lansing  Waugh  was 
hcensed  to  preacli.  In  August,  140  communicants  were  pres- 
ent. In  November,  R.  D.  Campbell  was  inxited  to  improve  his 
gifts  of  preaching  (and  was  afterward  licensed),  and  Thomas 
Pierce  was  chosen  Deacon. 

In  December,  the  following  resolution  was  adopted  by  the 
church,  viz  : 

"' Rcsoh'cd,  That  we  will  not  admit  to  fellowship  any  indi- 
vidual who  will  not  abstain  from  the  use  of  ardent  spirits, 
except  as  a  medicine." 

In  August,  1838,  Elder  Searle  united  with  the  church  and 
became  its  pastor  the  second  time.  He  continued  to  labor  in 
that  capacity  till  1841.  In  1841,  Rev.  Newell  Smith  became 
the  pastor  of  the  church.  In  September,  1842,  he  asked  for  a 
dismission.  In  October,  Harry  A.  Sears  w  as  licensed  to  preach. 
Twenty-seven  had  been  baptised  and  twent\-five  received  by 

In  October,  1842,  Fllder  Anson  Tucker  became  pastor  of  the 
church.  On  the  iithof  August,  1844,  'i*-'  preached  his  fare- 
well sermon,  having  been  dismissed  at  his  request.  In  the  Fall, 
A.  H.  Danforth,  a  student  from  Hamilton,  preached  during 
vacation.  His  brother,  H.  M.  Danforth,  was  invited  to  preach, 
but  he  remained  but  a  short  time.  Elder  E.  G.  Hatch  supplied 
the  church  a  few  months.  Elder  Orsamus  Ta)'ntor,  from  the 
Free  Will  Baptist,  united  with  this  church  at  this  time  and  was 
licen.sed  to  preach.  Edwin  Saunders  and  Alvin  T.  Cole  were 
licensed  also. 

In  September,  1845,  1"^*-'^'-  ^^-  W.  Mills  accepted  an  invitation 
to  the  pa.storal  office  which  he  occupied  till  the  year  1849,  '^"^ 
then  supplied  the  desk  till  1850.  While  Elder  Mills  remained 
pastor,  twenty-seven  were  baptised  and  thirty-five  received  by 
letter.  The  church  which  had  graduall}-  increased  since  its 
organization  in  1827,  now  seems  to  have  arrived  at  the  height 
of  its  numerical  force,  reporting  to  the  association  held  at 
Arcade  in  1850  the  aggregate  number  of  266. 

On    the    24th    of    Februarv.    1850,    Rev.    Whitman    Metcalf 


became  Pastor.  On  the  1st  of  May,  1853,  twenty  were  bap- 
tized. After  four  years'  labor  Elder  Metcalf  offered  his  resig- 
nation which  was  reluctanth'  accepted. 

On  June  24,  1855,  Rev.  John  Smitzer  became  Pastor. 
While  he  remained  thirty-eight  were  baptized  and  added  to 
the  church. 

In  April,  1857,  Rev.  John  Pitman  became  Pastor  and  remained 
two  )'ears. 

In  January,  i860,  Rev.  Clinton  Colgrove  became  Pastor  of 
the  church  and  continued  to  preach  to  the  church  till  the  P'all 
of   1861. 

In  the  Spring  of  1862  the  Rev.  H.  H.  Phelps  became  Pastor. 
He  continued  two  years  and  was  succeeded  in  July  1864,  by 
Rev.  Ira  W.  Simpson,  who  had  entered  on  the  fourth  year  of 
his  pastorate  when  he  died. 

In  June,  1868,  an  agreement  was  made  with  Professor  Rogers, 
of  Griffith  Institute,  to  supph'  the  desk  for  three  monthes. 

In  April,  1868,  Rev.  Charles  Wilkinson  commenced  his  labors 
as  Pastor,  and  continued  a  year  and  a  half,  and  was  succeeded 
by  Rev.  E.  L.  Benedict  Nov.  i,  1869. 

In  1873,  Rev.  William  Look  became  Pastor.  He  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Rev.  B.  E.  Hillman  in  1876. 

Rev.  E.  T.  Fox  commenced  his  labors  in  1879. 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Owen,  the  present  Pastor,  commenced  his  labors 
in  1882. 

Since  1854,  the  church  has  declined  in  numbers,  more,  per- 
haps, from  emigration  than  any  other  cause,  the  youth  and 
the  older  members  of  many  families  seeking  homes  in  the 

In  the  year  1871  the  church  edifice  was  repaired  and  enlarged. 
L.  M.  Kellogg  &  Son  had  the  job,  and  Thomas  Lincoln  was 
the  master  builder,  as  he  also  was  of  the  old  church.  The  new 
edifice  was  dedicated  on  the  28th  of  November,  1871. 


About  fifty  years  ago  the  P'ree  Will  Baptist  denomination 
held  regular  meetings  at  Springville.  They  had  no  church 
edifice  and  met  in  the  Methodist  church  and  the  school-house. 
The  first  local  pastor  was  Rev.  H.  Whitcher,  a  young  man  who 

ROMAN-fAlIIOUr    CIIUKCH    ()1-    Sl'KI  \(  i\  I  I.LK.  21/ 

attciulctl  school  at  the  Acadeni)-  and  prcachctl  to  his  congrega- 
tion on  the  Sabbath.  He  remained  about  two  years  and  after- 
wards became  prominent!}'  connected  with  an  F.W.  H.  Seminar\- 
in  Oneida  County. 

After  several  )'ears  it  would  seem  meetings  were  discontin- 
ued, and  no  society  existed  in  Springville,  organizations  being 
maintained  at  East  and  West  Concord. 

On  the  26th  of  May.  1867,  the  present  church  society  was 
organized  in  Springville.  The  following  were  the  principal 
original  members  : — Mr.  and  Mrs.  Albro,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leigh- 
ton,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jos.  Gaylord,  Mrs.  Weeden,  Mrs.  Stanbro 
and  Miss  Alice  McClure. 

On  the  iith  of  June,  1868,  a  permanent  organization  was 
effected  by  the  election  of  the  following  board  of  trustees : — 
Emmons  Jones,  Emery  D.  Albro,  Stephen  R.  Smith,  Walter 
A.  Fox  and  Horatio  A.  Barker.  S.  R.  Smith  was  elected 
treasurer  and  H.  A.  Barker  clerk.  At  a  meeting  of  the  board 
June  15,  a  plan  for  building  a  church,  drawn  by  Mr.  Porter, 
architect,  of  Buffalo,  was  adopted,  and  July  29th  the  contract 
for  building  the  church  was  let  to  S.  R.  Smith  for  eight 
thousand  dollars.  Calvin  Smith,  Emery  D.  Albro,  Emmons 
Jones  and  S.  R.  Smith  each  subscribed  one  thousand  dollars 
toward  the  construction  of  the  church.  The  church  was  dedi- 
cated March  12th,  1870,  Rev.  G.  H.  Ball,  of  Buffalo,  preached 
the  dedicatory  sermon.  Rew  B.  C.  Van  Duzee  was  first  pastor, 
he  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Charles  Cook  who  remained  until 
1875,  then  Rev.  B.  F.  Herrick  ofificiated  one  year,  followed  by 
Mr.  Van  Duzee.  who  preached  one  year,  when  Rew  A.  J.  Hr}-- 
ant  who  remains  up  to  the  present  writing. 


The  church  property  was  purchased  of  George  Holland  Oct. 
22,  1856,  formerly  owned  and  occupied  by  the  F^irst  Pre.sby- 
terian  church  of  Springville.  The  Board  of  Trustees  consists 
of  five  persons,  the  Bishop  and  Vicar-General  being  ex-ojficio 
Trustees,  and  also  the  Pastor,  who  appoints  annually  two  lay- 
men as  Trustees ;  the  two  laymen  now  acting  as  Trustees  are 
Victor  Collard  and  Peter  Saelzler.  FVom  1853  to  May  15, 
1869,  this  was  onl\- a  missionar}-  station:   Ma\'    15    irf6Q   a  per- 

2l8  FREE    BAPTIST    CHURCH    OF    EAST -CONC*  )RI  >. 

manent  Pastor  was  appointed  and  a  residence  built.  April  14, 
1878  ground  was  broken  for  the  new  church  edifice,  which  was 
built  during  that  season  ;  Thomas  Lincoln  was  the  architect  and 
builder.  The  church  was  dedicated  Sept.  18,  1879.  The  church 
edifice  has  a  seating  capacity  of  four  hundred,  has  a  bell  weigh- 
ing 506  pounds,  the  main  building  being  \o6j4  feet  in  length, 
having  an  audience  n^om  of  70x40  feet;  in  the  rear,  unparti- 
tioned  is  a  sanctuary  30x22  feet  ;  the  cost  of  the  church  prop- 
erty was  about  $8,000;  number  of  church  members,  about  four 
hundred  ;  the  present  Pastor  is  Rey.  F.  X.  Fromholzer. 


The  P^irst  Universalist  Church  Society  of  Springville  was 
organized  in  1846.  Rev.  L  George,  Abram  Dyrgert,  I.  B.  Childs 
and  Jonathan  Mayo,  were  the  first  trustees. 

The  following  constituted  the  principal  original  male  mem- 
bers of  the  society  : 

Abram  Dyrgert,  Lewis  Childs,  L  B,  Childs,  Benj.  Wheeler, 
Chester  Spencer,  Sewell  Hakes,  Baltus  Goodemote,  Philip 
Goodemote,  Michael  C.  Huffstader,  Jonathan  Mayo,  Rev.  L 
George,  C.  C.  McClure,  Perrin  Sampson,  William  Ballou,  John 
Ballou,  Jonathan  Briggs,  Jacob  Badgley,  O.  D.  Curtis  and  Dr. 
L.  C.  Pool.  ^     . 

The  church  was  built  in  1 847.  Re\\  L  George  the  first  pastor, 
preached  the  dedicatory  sermon.  Rev.  L  George  was  suc- 
ceeded as  pastor  by  Rev.  C  H.  Dutton,  he  by  Rev.  T.  J.  Whit- 
comb,  and  he  by  the  Rev.  J.  B.  Saxe,  the  last  one  who  preached 
regularly  to  the  society. 

In  1879  the  church  edifice  was  sold  to  Messrs.  Horris  Hall 
and  L  B.  Childs,  who  re-modeled  it  into  the  present  Opera 
House.  The  avails  of  the  sale  were  given  into  the  keeping  of 
the  New  York  State  Convention  of  Universalists,  as  a  fund  to 
be  used  for  the  benefit  of  the  denomination. 


The  societ)'  was  organized  about  sixty  years  ago  by  Elder 
Richard  Car)-,  of  Boston.  For  a  number  of  years  meetings 
were  held  at  the  Block  school  house  ;  afterwards  at  the  Sharp 
street  school  house.  The  present  church  edifice  at  East  Con- 
cord was  built  in  1S52,  previous  to  which    Elder  Cary  preached 

KKKK    ISAl'TIST    CIll'KCIl    OK    WKSl     lONCORD.  2ig 

;it  intervals  for  many  years;  Elders  Folsom,  VVhitcher.  Bab- 
cock  and  Plumb  also  preached.  Of  the  original  members,  Mrs. 
Achsie  Townsend,  of  Townsentl  Hill,  is  the  oiiK- survivin<,^  one. 
Giles  Churchill,  Prentis  Stanbro,  Sen.,  Prentis  Stanbro,  Jr.,  E. 
Steele,  Woodruff  Van  Dusan.  George  L.  Stanbro  and  Sterling- 
Titus  have  been  the  deacons  of  the  church  from  its  organiza- 
tion to  the  present  time,  in  the  order  as  stated  above. 

The  following  are  the  names  of  the  ministers  who  ha\e 
preached  to  the  society  since  the  building  of  the  church  in 
1852:  B.  H.  Damon,  Elder  Plyn,  Ashly  Ensign,  B.  H.  Damon. 
Elder  Barker,  Elder  Van  Duzee,  Elder  Stuart,  Elder  Starr. 
Charles  Cook,  Elder  Van  Duzee,  B.  F.  Herrick  and  A.  F.  Bry- 
ant.      The  present  membership  is  about  one  hundred. 


About  1818  a  few  churchmen  organized  a  Free-VVill  Baptist 
Society  at  West  Concord.  Among  the  early  members  were 
Jeremiah  Richardson  and  wife.  Elijah  Richardson  and  wife. 
Stephen  Knight  and  wife,  Simeon  Holton  and  wife,  Elijah, 
Polly  and  Caroline  Richardson. 

The  first  meetings  were  held  in  the  school-house,  at  Nichols' 
corners.  Elder  Richard  Gary  was  the  first  minister  to  preach 
to  the  society  and  of^ciated  as  pastor  for  many  years.  Stephen 
Knight,  Elder  Rindalls,  Elder  Plumb,  Jonathan  Canfield  and 
Elder  Andrus  were  among  the  early  ministers. 

The  church  edifice  was  built  about  1 845.  The  dedicatory 
services  were  conducted  by  Elder  Andrus.  Jeremiah  Rich- 
ardson was  among  those  who  were  most  efficient  in  building 
the  church. 


In  1819  a  Methodist  Society  was  organized  in  West  Con- 
cord. Among  the  original  members  were  Lewis  Nichols  and 
wife,  Abijah  Nichols  and  wife,  Isaac  Nichols  and  wife,  David 
and  Betsey  Nichols,  Lewis  Nichols,  Jr.,  Mrs.  Hira  Lush  and  Mrs. 
Vernam  Cooper.  The  first  meetings  were  held  in  an  old  log 
school  house. 

Elder  Buell  was  the  first  to  preach  to  the  societ)'.  Other 
earh'  ministers  were  Elder  Parker,  John  Copeland,  Elder  Wiley, 
Elder  Bingham.  Inkier  Castleton  and  Re\-.  Joseph  Hines 


The  church  edifice  was  built  about  1868.  It  was  dedicated 
by  Rev.  B.  I.  Ives,  at  that  time  chaplain  of  Auburn  State  prison. 

While  Rev.  Thomas  Castleton  was  preaching  to  the  church, 
a  spirited  revival  took  place,  which  resulted  in  many  converts 
joining  the  church. 



The  original  subscription  for  raising  means  to  build  the 
Springville  Academy,  was  dated  Dec.  14th,  1825,  and  among 
other  provisions  contained  the  following: 

"  3d.  We  hereby  agree  to  pay  to  the  trustees  to  be  appointed 
by  us  as  above  stated,  the  several  sums  set  opposite  our  names, 
as  follows  :  One-third  in  grain  or  materials  for  building  on  the 
first  of  March  next,  one-third  in  salable  young  stock  on  the  first 
of  September  next,  and  the  other  third  in  cash,  half  of  which 
is  to  be  paid  the  first  of  June  ne.xt,  and  the  other  half  on  the 
first  of  Jan.,  1827,  all  to  be  estimated  at  cash  price." 

It  was  a  serious  matter  for  the  people  of  Springville  and 
vicinity  to  undertake  at  that  early  day  to  build  an  Academy. 
The  country  was  new  and  the  people  were  poor,  and  when  we 
look  back  and  consider  the  circumstances  in  which  they  were 
[)laccd,  we  must  admire  and  commend  the  wisdom  and  the 
energy  and  perseverance  with  which  they  conceived  and  carried 
out  the  difficult  undertaking.  In  1825  there  was  no  great  city 
and  no  good  markets  within  hundreds  of  miles  of  this  place,  and 
people  could  get  but  xcxy  little  money  for  their  products, 
because  there  was  ver}'  little  money  in  the  country  ;  but  it  is 
evident  that  if  these  old  pioneers  had  but  little  money,  they 
had  what  is  sometimes  better  than   money — they  had   "sand." 


Names  Shares  $15       v'ames  Shares  $15         Names  Shares  S15 

^^^^^-  each.  -^ame^.  ^^^.[^  iNames.  ^^^^_ 

Samuel  Lake 5  Luther  .\ustin i  Wm.  Vaughn i 

Henry  Sears 4  Geo.  Shultz 3  Archibald  (irififith 2 

Carlos  Emmons 2  Wm.  Shultz 2  Jeremiah    Wilcox,    half     in 

W.  F.  G.  Lake 2  John  Goodemotc 2        May   next    and     half    in 

Frederick  White 2  C.  C.  Wells i         Feb.,  1S27 4 

Rufus  C.  Eaton 4  Samuel  Cochran 4  Wm.  Rouse i 

Rufus  Eaton         3  Jacob  Rushmore 2  Isaac  Palmer i 

Liger  &  Herrick -:   3  Derius  Palmer,  by  consent.    1  Otis  Butterworth.  Jr i 

Lcvinus  Cornwell 2  Robert  .-Vngur i  lohn  Drake i 



Joseph  McMillan 4 

John  Russell 3 

Otis  D.  Tibits 2 

R.  G .  Murray i 

David  Furjiuson i 

Varney  In^^als 3 

Wales  EmniDns 2 

Christopher    Douf^las i 

Jeremiah  bcallin i 

David  Seymour   i 

Abel  Holman 2 

Jedediah  Starks 2 

Lewis  ('hilds i 

Isaac  Bennett         i 

John  Williams ..  i 

George  R.  Willard  t 

Johnson  Bensley i 

Eaton  Bensley i 

Sylvester   Eaton 3 

Truman    White,  on   consid  ■ 
cration  that  lumber  is  re 

ceived 2 

Jarvis  Bloomticld .  3 

Stephen  Albro,  Jr i 

John  Albro 4 

Giles  Churchill 2 

Elisha  Russell,  to  be  paid  in 

brick,  at  cash  price 2 

Seth  Allen 2 

Asa  Wells i 

Thomas  Johnson 2 

Alanson  Lovelace i 

Elikum  Rhodes i 

David  Shultz,  to  be  paid  in 

cattle 2 

Augustus  G.  Elliott i 

Silas  Rushmore         2 

Harvev  Stephenson i 

Lothrop  Beebe i 

Jairus  Reynolds,  to  be  paid 

in  stone  and  labor i 

Phineas  Scott 1 

Samuel  Lake i 

Selah  Squires i 

Alden  S.  Sprajjue 2 

Tousley  &  Tuttle 4 

Wm.  Wedon i 

Eaton  Bensley i 

Justus  Scott  I 

Charles  Chaffee 1 

Jacob  Drake i 

Samuel  Cochran i 

S .  S .  Ellsworth 2 

Elisha  Mack i 

B.  B.  Mason i 

Chauncy  Lee i 

M.  L.  Arnold i 

Samuel  Stewart, 3 

Abial  Gardner,  to  be  paid 

in  brick,  at  cash  price. ...  2 

Nathan  King i 

Charles  Wells 2 

Joseph  Jackson i 

David  Bensley i 

Stukely  Starks i 

Geo.  C.  Grayham i 

Isaac  Knox 2 

John  Holdridge i 

Truman  Bensley  i 

The  following  were  subscri- 
bed in  1830,  or  subsequently  : 

Carlos  Emmons   2 

Samuel  Lake 2 

Brooks  &  Wendover 

Elbert  W.  Cook 

Samuel  J.  Church 

Sylvester  B.  PecK 

Eaton  &  Butterworth 

Manly  Colton   

Elbert  W.  Cook 

Kingsbury  &  Hoveland.. . 

Carlos  Emmons 

Jarvis  Bloomfield 

Pliny  Smith,  Jr 

Joseph  Harkness 

Morgan  L.  Badgley 

Geo.  Shultus 

Ebenezer  Dibble 

Amaziah  Ashman 

Samuel  Cochran 


was  incorporated  by  an  act  of  the  Ley;islature,  March  19,  1827, 
being  the  second  academy  incorporated  on  the  HoHand  Pur- 
chase, Fredonia  Academ)-  having  been  incorporated  in  1824. 

The  walls  of  the  Acadeni}'  were  put   up  in  1827. 

The  first  term  of  school  held  in  the  Springville  Academy 
commenced  in  the  fall  of.  1830.  Hiram  H.  Barne}' was  the 
Principal  and  Miss   Mary  Elliot  the  Preceptress. 

No  record  of  the  names  of  students  could  be  found,  but 
according  to  the  best  recollection  of  several  who  attended  at 
that  time,  the  following  named  persons  were  students,  the  whole 
or  a  part  of  the  first  year : 

Cephus  R    Leiand, 
Marshall  Leiand, 
Sarah  Leiand, 
Marion  Leiand, 
Hannah  Henman, 
Patience  Starks, 
Julia  Rhodes, 
Emily  Rhodes, 
Lewis  Hewitt. 

Jacob  White. 
Dolphin  Stevenson, 
Chester  Calkins, 
^hlrvin  .Swain, 
Sarah  Clark. 
Amy  Huntly. 
Hiram  Bloomtield, 
John  Jackson, 
Eliza  Sampson. 

Charles  Sherman, 
Sarah  Ann  Wells. 
Rebecca  Brooks. 
William  .McMillan, 
Deljs  E.  Sillman, 
Henry  Radcliff, 
Andrew  Stevens, 
Louisa  Richm->nd, 
Roderick  White, 

Smith  and  McKay,  of 

Miranda  Bowen, 
Timothy  Lockwood, 
Wells  Brooks, 
Sard  is  Wilco.x, 
H.  Lockwood, 
Asa  Piiillips, 
Samuel  Bradley, 



Harriet  Swift, 
Theodore  Potter, 
John  Churchill, 
Adaline  Murray, 
Caroline  Cochran, 
Orson  Cochran, 
Joseph  Cochran, 
Byron  Cochran, 
Sarah  Ann  Bensley, 
Harriet  White, 
Frederick  Alerrell, 
Miss  Merrell, 
Martha  Johnson, 
Morris  Fosdick , 
Harriet  Barney, 

Caroline  Gregory, 
Alonzo     Gregory,    of 

Wales  Butterworth, 
Mary  Eaton, 
Nelson  Hopkins, 
William  Dibble. 
Sarah  Dibble, 
Helen  McMillan, 
Selem  Sears, 
Otis  Morton, 
Mary  Morton, 
Anna  Moulton, 
Betsy  Brooks, 

Washington  Shultu? 
Lucy  Shultus, 
Julia  Ann  Shultus, 
Elias  Steele, 
Roderick  Simonds, 
Harriet  Evans, 
Asaph  Potter, 
Oliver  Canfield, 
Orville  Canfield, 
Samuel  Abbott, 
Chauncy  Abbott, 
Stephen  Chafee, 
Utley  and  sister. 
Hunt  of  Eden, 
Roach  of  Buffalo, 

Eliza  Bradley, 
Calex  Calkins, 
Almina  Whitcomb, 
John  Lockwood, 
A.  A.  Arm  stead, 
A.  Pool, 
Paul  Nobles, 
Franklin  Spencer, 
Calvin  R.  Davy, 
Cyrenius  Simmons, 
Mr.  Wright, 
IVIr.  Tiffany, 
Mr.  Conklin, 
Mr.  Ailen. 

Mr.  Barney  was  succeeded  by  Lorenzo  Parsons,  as  Perceptor^ 
in  1833  ;  he  was  follow^ed  in  1839,  by  Edwin  E.  Williams,  he 
by  A.  C.  Huestis.  1841  to  1843  ^  E.  C.  Hall  in  1844.  October, 
1845,  \Vm.  Mosheir.  January,  1847,  J.  W.  Earle  came.  He  was 
followed  by  Moses  Lane  in  1850.  Ezekiel  Cutler  and  Eden 
Sprout  taught  next,  each  for  a  }'ear,  in  1853  and  1854.  In  1855, 
Wm.  S.  Aumuck  took  charge.  In  the  latter  part  of  1858,  Rev- 
David  Copeland  became  Principal  and  continued  to  occupy  the 
position  till  1865  ;  he  was  followed  b)'  Charles  R.  Pomeroy, 
and  he  by  W.  W.  Mclntyre,  and  he  by  W.  H.  Rogers,  in  1867. 
A.  R.  Weightman  was  employed  in  1870  and  W.  H.  Rogers 
again  in  1872.  J.  W.  O'Brien  was  the  next  principal,  and  he 
was  followed  by  Samuel  W.  Eddy  in  1875. 

The  teachers  of  the  female  department  of  the  Academy 
have  been : 

Miss  Starkweather,        Miss  Warner, 
.Miss  Versalla  Barber,  Miss  Case, 

Miss  Marten, 
Miss  Emma  Clark, 
Mrs.  Pomroy, 
Mrs.  E.  B.  Rogers, 

Miss  Mary  Elliot.  Miss  Decker, 

Miss  Sayles.  Sarah  Houstis, 

Miss  Chamberlin,  Lucretia  Murray,  Mrs.  Aumock, 

Miss  North,  Silena  N.  Johnson,  Miss  Field, 

Miss  Whitlock,  Miss  Hannah  McClure, Miss  Emmons. 

Harriet  N.  Murry,  Mrs.  Carpenter,  .Miss  Copeland, 

Miss  O'Brien,  Miss  Libbie  Mayo. 

In  1867  the  name  of  the  Academy  was  changed  to  the 
"  Griffith  Institute,"  in  consideration  of  the  liberal  donation 
given  to  the  institution  by  Archibald  Griffith,  of  the  town  of 

Mr.  Griffith  afterwards  bequeathed  o\'er  ten  thousand  dol- 
lars to  the  institution  as  a  permanent  fund,  to  be  used  mainly 
for  the  free  education  of  orphans  and  indigent  children  ot  the 
town  of  Concord. 


In  tlic  fall  of  1875,  school  districts  Nos.  6  and  8  were  united 
and  formed  union  school  district  No.  I,  of  the  town  of  Concord. 

In  (876,  the  l^oard  of  Education  of  Union  School  district 
No.  I,  adoi)ted  the  "(iriffith  Institute"  as  the  academic  de- 
partment thereof,  with  the  consent  of  the  trustees  of  said 
institute  ;  and  the  ofifices  of  the  said  Hoard  of  Trustees  were 
then  declared  \acant,  as  provided  by  statute. 

The  schools  were  united  and  ha\'e  since  been  conducted  as 
one  school  with  four  departments,  academic,  senior,  interme- 
diate and  primary.  There  are  four  teachers  in  the  academic 
department,  and  fwc  teachers  in  the  other  departments. 

Samuel  W.  Edd)' wasthe  first  principal,  and  Miss  F.  M.  Sher- 
man, the  first  preceptress;  G.  W.  Ellis  was  the  next  principal, 
and  Miss  Sherman  the  preceptress;  Prof.  E.  \V.  Griffith  is  now 
principal,  and  Mrs.  E.  W.  Griffith  preceptress. 

Many  students  of  this  institution  have  attained  honorable 
positions  in  societ}'.  Some  have  been  promoted  to  high  official 
positions  in  this  and  other  states.  Asher  P.  Nichols,  Comp- 
troller, State  of  New  York  ;  Addison  Gibbs,  Governor  of  Ore- 
gon ;  Ualeson  Smith,  United  States  Senator,  Oregon  :  Renj. 
V.  Rice,  United  States  Senator,  Arkansas;  Romanzo  Bunn, 
Judge  of  the  United  States  District  Court,  southern  district, 
Wisconsin;  A.  E.Carr,  Brigadier  General,  United  States  army; 
Henry  V\ane  Armen,  M.  C,  Cattaraugus  and  Chatauqua  counties ; 
Albert  Haight,  Judge  Supreme  Court,  N.  Y.  ;  Timothy  T. 
Lockwood,  E.x-mayor  of  Buffalo ;  Stephen  Lockwood,  Ex- 
judge  of  Erie  County;  Allen  D.  Scott,  Ex-senator  and  Judge 
Cattaraugus  county  ;  C.  P.  Vedder,  Ex-state  Senator  and  State 
Assessor;  Charles  H.  Reed,  District  Attorney,  Cook  county, 
Illinois,  besides  a  large  number  not  mentioned  here. 


The  Semi-Centennial  Celebration  of  the  opening  of  the 
Spring\'ille  Academ}' — (iriffith  Institute — was  held  at  Spring- 
ville,  on  Wednesday  and  Thursday,  Sept.  i  and  2,  1880. 

Mr.  E.  Briggs  first  .suggested  the  idea  of  the  celebration,  and 
circulated  a  paper  for  signatures,  calling  a  public  meeting  to 
consider  the  matter  and  take  the  necessary  steps,  and  make  the 
proper  arrangements,  which  meeting,  when  assembled,  promptly 

224  EXERCISES    OF    THE    FIRST    DAY. 

voted  that  such  a  celebration  should  be  held  and  appointed  a 
President,  Vice-President,  Secretary  and  Treasurer,  and  an 
executive  committee.  The  executive  committee  was  empow- 
ered by  said  meeting  to  appoint  all  other  committees  and 
to  make  all  necessary  arrangements  for  the  celebration.  The 
officers  were  : 

President  of  the  Day,       -         -        Hon.  C.  C.  SEVERANCE. 
Vice-President,     ...         -  W.  G.   RANSOM, 
Secretary,         -         -         -         -       A.  R.  Taber, 
Treasurer,  -         -         -         -   H.   G.   Leland, 

executive  committee. 

Erasmus  Briggs,  -        .     Chainnan, 
William  McMillan,  Henrv  M.  Blackmar. 

George  W.  Weldon,  Russel  J.  Vaughn. 

Charles  C.  Stanbro,  Byron  Cochran. 

George,  G.  Stanbro,  Chain/iau  of  Coimnittee  of  Iweitatiou. 
C.  J.  Shuttle  worth,  '*  "     Reception  Committee. 

M.  L.   Hall,  "  "     Supper  Conimittee. 

Frank  Prior,  "  "     Finance  Committee. 

The  executive  committee  authorized  and  empowered  its  chair- 
man to  proceed  and  make  all  such  arrangements  as  he  should 
deem  necessary  and  proper  for  the  occasion  which  with  the  sanc- 
tion of  said  committee  given  from  time  to  time,  he  proceeded  to 
do,  which  duties  occupied  his  time  and  attention  constantl}',  for 
many  weeks. 

Mr.  Taber  also  spent  several  weeks  and  faithfully  performed 
the  laborious  duties  of  the  ofifice  of  Secretary.  General  invi- 
tation was  given  and  special  invitations  were  sent  to  nearl}'  all 
the  States  and  Territories  and  Canada,  wherever  it  could  be 
ascertained  a  former  student  resided.  The  good  people  of 
Springvillc  and  of  th(p  Town  of  Concord  contributed  all  the 
means  necessary  to  make  the  celebration  a  success.  When  the 
appointed  time  arrived,  a  large  number  of  students  and  citizens 
of  this  town  and  of  other  towns  in  this  and  adjoining  counties 
assembled — many  old  students  coming  hundreds  of  miles  to 
witness  and  take  part  in  the  proceedings.  A  rostrum  was 
erected  in  front  of  the  academy  and  adjoining  Franklin  street, 
and  seats  were  provided  and   arranged   for  the  accommodation 

KXKRCISKS    OF     rHK    SIXOND    DAN'.  225 

of  those  present  under  the  shade  of  the  trees  on  the  academy 
Ljrounds.  At  two  o'clock  on  the  afternocMi  of  the  first  day,  the 
large  concourse  assembled,  led  by  Lay's  silver  cornet  band  from 
the  Cattaraugus  reservation,  proceeded  to  the  place  prepared 
for  the  exercises. 

After  a  prayer  by  the  Rev.  I.  George,  of  l^'redonia,  the  Presi- 
of  the  Day,  Hon.  C.  C  Severance,  congratulated  the  citizens 
and  the  institution  on  the  great  number  which  had  responded 
to  the  call.  In  behalf  of  the  citizens  he  then  welcomed  these 
students  home  again  to  the  institution  "  in  wliose  classic  halls 
they  had  received  instruction."  Several  letters  had  been 
received  from  those  who,  though,  imited,  were  unable  to  be 
present,  which  were  now  read  by  \V.  H.  Ticknor,  Esq. 

Two  beautiful  poems  were  received  from  Mrs.  James  Sweet, 
of  Nebraska  City,  and  Mrs.  Clark  M.  Carr,  of  Galesburg,  111., 
and  were  read  by  Miss  Sule  M.  Holland. 

The  Speakers  for  the  afternoon  were  Samuel  Lake,  Esq., 
Erasmus  Briggs,  who  gave  a  brief  outline  history  of  the  Acad- 
emy, and  David  H.  Cochran,  President  of  the  Collegiate  and 
Polytechnic  Listitute,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.  At  the  conclusion  of 
Dr.  Cochran's  address,  the  great  throng,  headed  by  the  band, 
proceeded  to  the  park.  Here  they  partook  of  a  bountiful  sup- 
per prepared  and  served  up  by  the  ladies  of  the  Town  of  Concord. 

Wednesday  evening  the  speakers  were  \V.  G.  Ransom,  of 
Springville,  Ex-Judge  Stephen  Lockwood,  of  Buffalo;  Judge 
Haight,  of  Buffalo,  Professor  (i.  W .  Flllis.  of  Spring\ille,  and 
Dr.  Van  Pelt,  of  Williamsville.      ■ 

On  Thursday  afternoon  at  I  o'clock  a  procession  of  students 
was  formed  in  the  park  and  divided  into  sections  of  fi\-e  }'ears, 
each  section  bearing  a  banner  on  which  was  inscribed  the  date 
of  their  student  life  in  the  Academy.  Headed  b\-  the  band, 
they  marched  down  Franklin  street  to  Main,  and  up  Main  to 
Academy  street,  and  bringing  up  at  last  in  front  of  their  hon- 
ored Alma  Mater. 

Thursday  afternoon  the  speakers  were:  Judge  A.  D.  .Scott, 
of  Flllicottville  ;  Rev.  L  George,  of  Fredonia;  Charles  H.  Reed, 
Esq.,  of  Chicago;  Samuel  Lake,  Esq.,  Alonzo  Tanner,  Esq.,  of 
Buffalo;  Col.  Clark  E.  Carr,  of  Galesburg,  111.;  Colonel  Cook, 
of  Havana,  N.  Y.,  and  Cyrus  Rice.  Esq.,  of  Sardinia. 



The  speakers  Thursday  evening  \\'ere  Rev.  A.  F.  Colburn, 
Hon.  Dolphin,  Stephenson,  of  Phelps,  Ontario  Co.,  N.  Y.;  T. 
S.  Bunting,  Esq.,  of  Hamburg;  select  reading  by  Miss  KateW. 
Bensley,  of  Chicago  ;  (ieorge  W.  Spaulding,  Esq.,  of  Concord, 
and  Hosea  Heath,  Esq.,  of  Hamburg,  who  was  the  last  speaker. 

A  vote  of  thanks  was  then  tendered  to  Mr.  Briggs,  who  ear- 
nestly labored  to  make  the  celebration  a  success,  and  also  to 
Mr.  Tabor,  who  faithfully  performed  the  duties  of  the  office  of 
Secretary.  All  these  united  in  singing  '^Old  Hundred  "  and 
"  Auld  Lang  Syne,"  after  which  Rev.  A.  F.  Colburn  pronounced 
the  benediction. 

Thus  concluded,  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  students,  citi- 
zens and  visitors,  the  greatest  and  b}'  far  the  best  celebration 
Springville  has  ever  witnessed. 

The  weather  being  warm  and  pleasant,  the  academ\'  grounds 
were  lit  up  by  a  large  number  of  Chinese  lanterns,  and  the 
exercises  in  the  e\'ening,  as  well  as  in  the  da}'  time,  were  held 

During  the  exercises  the  audience  was  entertained  from  time 
to  time  with  excellent  vocal  music  furnished  by  a  select  choir 
composed  of  the  following  persons:  R.  E.  Hufstader  and 
daughter,  W.  W.  Blakely,  S.  Fl.  Spaulding 
Miss  Lucy  Sherman,  Mrs.  Bordon,  Mrs.  H. 
D.  Jones. 

A  list  of  the  names  of  those  who  attended  the  l^lftieth  Anni- 
versary of  the  Springville  Academy  placed  under  their  Princi- 
pals, and  their  present  residences  given.  When  the  State  is 
not  e"iven  New  York  is  to  be  understood  : 

Mrs.  A.  H.  Pierce, 
G.  Leland,  Mrs.  A. 


Jacob  White,  Yorkshire  Center. 

Richard  C.  Johnson,  Sardinia. 

Charles  Sherman,  Springville. 

Amos  Dow,  East  Randolph. 

John  C.  Jackson,  Ashford. 

Charles  Arnold.  Arcade. 

Theodore  H.  Porter,  Springville. 

George  Marsh,  Sardinia. 

Mary  A.  Sampson  Bingham,  Elkador,  Iowa. 

Anna  Moulton  Chafee,  Springville. 

Julia  Rhodes  Lincoln,  Springville. 

Emily  Rhodes  Britton,  East  Concord. 

Mary  Whitney  Sherman,  Springville. 

Elmina  Whitcomb  Draper,  Toledo,  O. 


Dr.  William  Van  Pelt,  Williamsville. 

Caleb  Calkins,  Peterboro. 

Hon.  Dolphin  Stephenson,  Phelps. 

Samuel  M    Abbott,  M.  D.,  East  Hamburg. 

Col.  Chauncey  H.  Abbott,  East  Hamburg. 

John  Churchill,  Springville. 

George  Williams,  Yorkshire. 

Laban  A.  Needham,  Concord. 

Orson  Cochran,  Otto. 

Peregrine  G.  Eaton,  Springville. 

Wil  iam  Ives,  Buffalo. 

Mrs.  Altczeria  Arnold  Clark,  Ashford. 


Cyrus  Rice,  Sardinia. 

James  Otis,  Sardinia. 

Calvin  D.  Melven,  Cadiz. 

Henry  T.  Wadsvvorth,  Springville. 

Samuel  W.  Pratt,  North  Collins. 

FIKTlKril    AXMVKRSARN     Sl'Rl  N(  A  I  I.l.K    ACADKMV.        22/ 

Eugene  (Graves,  Franklinville. 
S.  K.  S.  II.  Nott,  M.  IX,  Hambur^r. 
Henry  Simons,  Sardinia. 
Oliver  P.  Buffum,  ("olden. 
David  C .  Kingslcy,  Sprinsjvillc. 
Charles  M .  Wilder,  Chicago,  III. 
Eunice  Salisbury  Notl,  Hamburff. 
Eliza  Chafee  Cole,  East  Hamburg. 
Lydia  Sherman  McMillan,  Springville. 
Sarah    L.  Wilder,  Van  X'alkenburg,   Hough- 
ton Creek. 

I'.AKSO.NS    ANIl    \VILLI.i\MS. 

Salmon  L.  Johnson,  Cattaraugus. 
Charles  Beebe,  Sandusky. 
Delia  A.  Sprague  Prindle,  Fredonia. 
Minerva  A.  Miner  Mayo,  Springville. 


David  C.  Bloom  field,  Sherman,  Chautauqua 


Mary  Bailey  Weast,  Waukegan,  III. 


Hubbard  T.  White,  Jamestown. 

I'Vancis  AVhite,  Springville. 

Isaac  Wilcox,  Xorth  Collins. 

S.  H.  Nott,  Holland. 

Jeremiah  F.  Jackman,  Marilla. 

Rev.  Isaac  (reorge,  Fredonia. 

A.  Judson  W'iltse,  Yorkshire  Center. 

Alon/.o  Tanner,  Buffalo. 

V.  R.  Carey,   Uoston. 

Erasmus  Briggs,  Springville. 

Aurelia  Cary  Davis,  Boston. 

Louise  Jones  Wadsworth,  Springville 

Maria  Rice  Finder,  Lima,  Livingston  Co. 

Sarah  G.  Bond  George,  Portersville,  Cal. 

Emily  S.  Clark  Frost,  North  Evans. 

Aurora  A.  Nelson  Kingman,  Springville. 


Almon  Nichols,  Morton's  Corners. 


David  H.  Cochran,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D.,  Brooklyn. 
Martin  Wiltse,  Yorkshire. 


David  S.  Ingalls,  Buffalo. 


Josiah  Emery,  .\urora. 

F.  Kidder  Davis,  Y^orkshire. 

Hon.  Arunah  Ward,  Ellicottvillc. 


Heman  Andrews,  Springville. 


W.  G.  Ransom,  Springville. 


J.  Andrew  Studley,  East  Ashford. 


Julia  A.  French  Andrews,  Springville. 

E.  (..   HALL. 

Sarah  K.  Brockway  Earle,  South  Wales. 


Ivlizabcth  J.  Melvin    Rogers,   Holland    City, 


Emily  J.  Lewis  Whittemore,  Marshtield. 


Phebe  W.  Starkweather  Eaton,  Springville. 


Sylvia  P.  Joslin,  Springville. 

J.  \\  .  K.\KLE. 

William  H.  Churchill,  Maywood,  111. 
Edward  W.  Stanclift,  North  Collins. 
Clark  C.  Sibley,  East  Concord. 
Philander  II.  Parker,  Arcade. 
Henry  M.  Blackmar,  Springville. 
Miss  Mary  Davidson,  Buffalo. 
Esther  Cornwell  House,  Spi-ingville. 
Harriet  A.   Pierce  Low,  Springville. 
Gertrude     E.    Van     Volkenburg     Summer. 

Louise  S.  Marsh  George,  Yorkshire. 

E.^KLE  .\ND  LANE. 

Hon.  Allen  D.  Scott,  Ellicottville. 

Heman  W.  Rugg,  Olean. 

Col.  Clark  E.  Carr,  Galesburg,  111. 

Hon.  Charles  Harvey  Reed,  Chicago. 

Seth  A.  Abbott,  Abbott's  Corners. 

Frederick  Eaton,  Olean. 

Rev.  Alanson  M.  Richardson,  Cowlesville. 

Augusta  I.  Chafee  Clark,  Utica. 

App.  P.  Scott,  Allison,  Otto. 

Rosina  S.  Blake  Rowley,  Springville. 

Helen  A.  Pierce  Kellogg,  East  Pike. 


Maria  Davidson  Frye,  Collins  Center. 


Ann  H.  Peirce,  Springville. 
Laurette  N.  Lake  Taber,  Springville. 


George  P.  Kellogg,  East  Pike. 


AbraT<  Bartholomew,  Buffalo. 
Erastus  L.  Harris,  Collins  Center. 
Daniel  Spaulding,  Concord. 
Richard  Frank  Powers,  Hamburg. 
Heniy  H.  Wibirt,  New  York  City. 
Samuel  E.  Mritton,  Lewiston. 
Hosea  S.  Heath,  Esq.,  Hamburg. 
William  S.  Newton,  Hamburg. 
.Mary  J.  Beach  Chase,  Boston. 
Mary  Ann  McLin  Barnett,  Buffalo. 
Caroline  A.  Rice  Schutt,  Sardinia. 
Phoebe  J.  Deuel  Newton,  Hamburg. 
Mary  Miner  Brooks,  Olean. 
Marion  Dutton  Chilcott,  Hamburg. 
.Amelia  Huntley  Lewis,  Glenwood. 
Susan  O.  Fowler  Chandler.  Springville. 


Maryette  Adams  Mason,  Marilla. 

Ann  Lincoln,  Springville. 

Edna  J.  Beebe,  Arcade. 

Melinda  L.  Newton,  Holman,  Hamburg. 

Sophia  S.  Newton  Eaton,  Springville. 

l..\NE,  Cl'TLER  AND  SF'ROUT. 

Asa  R.  Taber,  Springville. 


Rev.  John  Corydon  Steele,  Attica. 
Russel  J.  Vaughan,  Springville. 


"Byron  A.  Churchill,  West  Falls. 

Susan  A.  Smith  Backus,  North  East,  Pa. 


Lydia  A.  Post  Powers,  Abbot's  Corners. 


Alexander  Hale,  North  Collins. 


Loren  D.  Smith,  Sardinia. 
Benjamin  S.  Godard,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
Charles  E.  Boisford,  Springville. 
Laban  W.  Smith,  Springville. 
Sara  Vail  Kerr,  CoUius  Center. 


Theodoie  B.  Norris,  Springville. 
Adeline  L.  Scobey  Warner, Springville. 

W.  S.  .\UMOCK. 

Frank  M.  Stryker,  Castile,  Wyoming  county . 
Seward  Sears,  Sardinia. 
Bryant  J    Davis,  East  Concord. 
Lucinda  Reynolds  Hopkins,  Sardinia, 
Mary  L.  Johnson  Crosby,  Sardinia 

David  D.  Smith,  Yorkshire. 
Garrett  W.  Stryker,  Castile 
John  C.  Bump,  Buffalo. 

Charles  M.  Newton,  Hamburg'. 

Harrison  L.  Newton,  Hamburg. 

Clark  C.  Dart,  Hamburg. 

Bishop  Cantield,  Vandalia,  Cattaraugus  coun- 
Albert  Fuller,  Ashford,  Springville  P.  O. 

Marion  Lincoln,  Springville. 

Morris  C.  Freeman,  Springville. 

Se.xtus  E.  Smith,  Union  Mills,  Indiana. 

Joseph  B.  Stryker,  Strykersville. 

Frank  A.  Howell,  Yorkshire  Center. 

Hon.  Albert  Haight,  Buffalo. 

Martin  E.  Williams,  Bradford,  Pa. 

Cornelius  Ostrander,  Springville. 

Ray  H.  Canfield,  Concord. 

S.  N.  Blakely,  Glen  wood. 

Marshall  D.  Scobey,  Sandusky. 

Walter  W.  Blakeley,  Springville. 

Ellen  Jewett  Godard,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Louise    Graves    Bersee,    Millington,   Tuscola 
county,  Mich. 

Alice  M.  Post  Payne,  Titusville,  Pa. 

Elizabeth  L.  Mayo  Foster,  Collins  Center. 

Alice  Wells  Vanatta,  Springville. 

Betsey  Squires  Vedder,  Ellicottville. 

Mary  Jane  Reed  Stryker,  Strykersville. 

Emma  P.  Hall  Crane,  New  Canaan,  Conn. 

Louise  Williams  Kenyon,  West  Falls. 

Alice  D.  Marsh  Emerson,  Springville. 

Ella  Goodemote  Greene,  Springville. 

Mary  Bensley  Price,  Chicago,  Illinois. 

Eliza  Hammond  Hall,  Bennington. 

M.   Louise   Dayton   CHUman,  West  Vorkshire.^^^.^  ^^   ^^.^^  ^j^,^.^^^^  Springville 

Altheria  Squires  Treat,  East  Concord 
Mary  Curtis  Churchill,  Springville. 
Eliza  McLin,  Springville. 
Addie  Greene  Park,  Fredonia. 
Mary  A.  Pingrey  Smith,  Springville. 
Mercy  L.  Newton,  Hamburg. 


Henry  F.  Norris,  Pike,  Wyoming  county 
William  H.  Warner,  Springville. 
Chester  E.  Norris,  Rushford. 
Chester  C.  Pingrey,  Yorkshire  Center. 

Fanny  M.  Sherman,  Springville. 

Diana  King,  Springville 

Mercy  Canueld.  Colden. 

Eupheme  E.  Ayars  Freeman,  Springville. 

Ann  Johnson  Ellis,  Sardinia. 

Ermina  Colwell  YanSlyke,  Dunlap,  Iowa. 

Adella  Thomas  Scobey,  Sandusky. 


Asa  L.  Twichell,  Springville. 


Lucy  Twichell  Bensley,  Springville. 


Harlan  P.  Spaulding,  Springville. 

DelosD.  Crocker,  North  Branch  Station,  Minn.  ^^^^^^  ^^    Hoiman.VnngviVle. 

Maria  L.  Bowen,  Yorkshire. 

Carrie  Squires  Smith,  Union  Mills,  Ind. 

Addie  McMillan  McMaster,  Springville. 

Elvira  Beebe  Whitney,  East  Ashford. 


Millard  S.  Avery,  North  Collins. 
Jonathan  H.  Smith,  Clarksburg. 
Chester  C.  McClure.  Jr.,  Buffalo. 
Daniel  R.  Newton,  Bradford,  Pa. 
Addison  M.  Smith,  Arcade. 
Frank  A.  Smith, .Arcade. 


Rev.  A.  F.  Colburn,  Springville. 

COPE1..AN1)    AND     KOCiERS. 

Emmons  D.  Tefft,  East  Otto. 
Daniel  R.  Newton,  Hamburg. 


Wm.  H.  Sherman,  East  Ashford. 
Ellen  A.  Tefft  Dunbar,  East  Otto. 
pomerov,  mcintvre,  rogeks,  and 
Charles  Willis  House,  Holland 

KII'    AX\IVKKS.\I<\     STRINGVILLE    ACADKMV.        229 


Libbic  Hammond,  East  Otto. 


Klmer  O.  Leland,  Springville. 
J.  Waldo  Norton,  Springvillc, 
Addison  G.  Mattlievvson,  Springvillc. 
Philura  L.  Clark  Bartholomew,  Springvillo. 
Sarah  A.  Sibley  Baker,  East  Concord. 


Alfred  A.  Churchill,  Springville. 


Charles  H.  Albro,  Springville. 

'  \V.  H.  KDCEKS. 

Seymour  Rider,  Sardinia. 
H.  A.  Wightman,  Eden  Center. 
.  Herman  VV'ightman,  Clarksburg. 
S.  Clark  Munger,  Gowanda. 
Charles  C.  Jewett,  Spr.ngville. 
Warren  Worden,  Yorkshire  Center. 
Charles  E.  Allen,  Gowanda. 
Elgin  B.  Cary  Boston,  Erie  Co. 
Owen  L.  Moss,  Collins. 

Clara  Nichols  Millington,  Winfield,  Kansas. 
Helen  Nichols  Hatch,  Morton's  Corners. 
Ella  Chandler  Shaffner,  East  Ashford. 
Ida  M.  Rice  Olmsted,  Yorkshire 
Ida  Wilson  Severance,  Springville. 
Horlense  Lafferty  Greene,  Springville. 
Libbie  Churchill  Clark,  Morton's  Corners. 
Ella  Brown,  Manwaring,  Elton. 
Alice  Stebbins  Spaulding,  Otto. 
Fanny  Norris  Norton,  Springville. 
Hattie  Sherman  Nichols,  Morton's  Corners. 
Mary  J.  Velzy,  Machias. 
Lucy  Ide'.ia  Burroughs,  Collins, 
Ilia  M.  Wright,  Springville. 
Mattie  O.   Wilco.x,  Portersville,  Tulare   Co., 

Elsie  M.  Cornwall,  South  Wales. 
Ina  Woodbury,  Hambuig. 


Perry  B.  Co.\,  EUicottville. 

Oliver  Hammond,  East  Otto. 

Javan  Clark,  Morton's  Corners. 

Jay  Drake,  Springville. 

Augusta  Potter  Leland,  Springville. 

Laura  E.  .Morton,  Morton's  Corners. 

Clara  F    Lord,  Sardinia. 

Alice  Vedder  Tefft,  Ashford,  Springville  P,  O. 

Jennie  A.  Wilcox  Whcelock,  Springville. 

Walter  J.  Allen,  Springville. 


Emma  Bond  House,  Ashford,  Springville  P.O. 
Kate  W.  Bensley,  Chicago,  111. 
Ell  A.  Churchi.l,  Springville. 

ROGERS  AND  o'liRIE.N  . 

■  Cora  C.  Stanbro,  Springville. 
Mary  A.  Van  Valkenburg,  Springville. 

Byron  S.  Tefft,  East  Otto, 
John  V.  Cole,  Springville, 

R(k;EKS,  WIGHIMAN,  o'liKIEN    AND    KDDV. 

James  F.  X'aughan,  Ashford,  Springville  P.  O. 
Leonard  H.  Utley,  East  Otto. 
Willis  L.  Wecden,  Springvilie. 
Charles  D.  Bigelow,  Gowanda. 
Frank  E.  Lowe.  Springville. 

ROGERS,  o'ilKlEN    AND    KDD\  , 

Edwin  A.  Scott,  Hamburg. 


Man'  L.  Murray,  Glenwood. 
Lucy  C.  Sherman,  Springville. 


.Abbey  C.  Norris,  Springville. 


Clarence  O.  Clark,  Springville. 

A.    K.   WIGHT.MAN. 

Clark  E.  Churchill,  Arcade. 

Charles  A.  Twichell,  Springville. 

Delavan  B    Reed,  Sardinia. 

Franklin  Hovvland,  Machias. 

Ida  A.  Cutting  Hakes,  Springville. 

Luella  Bond  Smith,  Ashford,  Springville  1',  O  . 

Sella  Wightman, 

\vk;  and  o'ukikn. 
Karlc  R.  Vaughan,  Lancaster. 


Rhinda  M.  Churchill,  West  Falls. 

J.    \Y.  o'liKIEN. 

Herbert  M.  Horton,  .•\rcade. 

Frank  E.  Oyer,  Springville. 

Ida  I.  Pike,  Boston. 

Clara  Goodemote,  Springville. 

Emily  Holland  Cole,  East  Ashford. 

Jennie  Rosier  House,  Holland. 

Emma  Reynolds  Lincoln.  East  Otto. 

o'hkie.n  .\nd  edd\  . 
Ward  B.  Wiitsie,  Yorkshire. 
Ernest  F.  Kruse,  Springville. 
George  E.  Reynolds,  Collins  Center. 
Edward  M.  Shaffner,  East  Ashford. 
W.  C.  Kruse,  Ashford. 
George  A.  Pierce,  Springville. 
Herbert  D.  Cole,  East  Ashford. 
Mary  E.  Holt,  Glenwood._ 
Jennie  V.  Pool  Bigelow,  Gowanda, 
Chloe  R.  Bates  Pepperdine,  Cattaraugus. 
Sarah  L.  Eaton  Allen,  Springville. 


A.  Ulenna  Hess,  Elk  City,  Pa. 
Myrtie  G.  Wells,  Springville. 
Anna  F.  Tanner,  Springville. 
Mary  H.  Bradley,  Springville. 
Elizabeth  H.  Shuttleworth,  Springville, 
Ralph  W.  Lowe,  Springville. 
Mary  H.  Lowe,  Springville. 
Florence  A.  Harrison,  East  Otto. 



>;.   W.    EDUY. 

Fred,  A  .  Parmenter,  Buffalo. 

Elmer  C.  Sherman,  Springville. 

Paul  Canfield,  Boston. 

Milton  M.  Trivett,  Woodward's  Hollow. 

Miriam  I.  Craig,  Colden. 

Eva  E.  Multer,  Ashford. 

Mary  Ticknor,  Gowanda. 

Lillie  V.  Cole  Demmon,  Ashford. 


S.  G.  Wightman,  Clarksburg. 

Sewell  A.  Brooks,  Colden 

Mark  N.  Brooks,  Colden. 

Carroll  G.  Morton,  Morton's  Corners. 

Wendell  J.  Morton,  Morton's  Corners. 

John  J.  k\'hittemore,  Buffalo. 

Elbert  R.  Sherman,  Dansville,  Liv.  County. 

Walter  A.  Clark,  Springville. 

Ella  E.  Bufifam,  Colden. 

Sarah  M.  Titus,  Sardinia. 

Mary  L.  Kellogg,  Springville. 

William  A.  Staffin,  Collins  Center. 

Thomas  A.  Fay,  Springville. 

Albert  L.  Harrison,  East  Otto. 


Lucius  I.  Clark,  Springville. 

George  A.  Persons,  East  Aurora. 
Luther  D.  Cary,  Boston. 
Edward  D.  Wightman,  Clarksburg. 
James  Ellis,  East  .Aurora. 
Henry  T.  Frank,  .\shford. 
William  J.  Bigelow,  Ashford. 
John  W.  Pratt,  Collins  Center. 
Frank  S.  Larabee,  Springville. 
Lottie  L.  White,  Springville. 
Ida  A.  Beverly,  Collins  Center. 
Estelle  Earle,  South  Wales. 
Lillie  O.  Smith,  Springville. 
Cora  B.  Backus,  North  East,  Pa. 
Lizzie  Murphy,  West  Valley. 
Mary  Wells,  Springville. 
L.  Lulu  Hadley,  Ypsilanti,  Mich. 
Matie  B.  Churchill,  Springville, 
Nancy  M.  Cary,  Boston. 
Mabel  A.  McDuffee,  Springville. 
Alice  M.  Eaton,  Springville. 
Louise  E.  Wadsvvorth,  Springville. 
Clara  J.  Pingrey,  Springville. 
Carrie  H.  McEuen,  Springville. 
Metiie  H.  Harrison,  East  Otto. 

Some  of  the  person.-,  that  were  known  to  have  attended  the 
Re-union,  and  failed  to  reg^ister  their  names: 

Hosmer  L.  Agard,  Willink. 

Thomas  L   Bunting,  Hamburg. 

Charles  B.  Cochran,  Rochester. 

Arnold  J.  Emerson,  Sardinia. 

Norman  A.  Freeman,  Glenwood. 

Sidney  D.  Kingsley,  Sardinia. 

George  L.  Dayton,  Buffalo. 

Judge  Stephen  Lockwood,  Buffalo. 

David  S.  Reynolds,  Buffalo. 

Anson  A.  Stone,  Sinclairville. 

Almon  W.  Stanbro,  Buffalo. 

Frank  Smith,  Eden  Center. 

J.  B.  Vanduzee,  Buffalo. 

L.  G.  Ray  Whiting,  Boston. 

Girvease  A.  Matteson,  East  Otto. 

Carrie  W.  Andrews  Bailey,  Collins  Center. 

Olivia  Ballou  Reynolds,  Buffalo. 

Estella  Batty  Freeman.  Glenwood, 

Ella  M.  Crandall  DePuy,  Sea  Cliff,  L.  I. 

Mary  E.  Davis  Briggs,  Yorkshire. 

Philena  L.  Ferrin  Weber,  Salamanca. 

Maria  L.  Howell  Bowen,  Yorkshire. 
Persis  Harrison  Potter,  Buffalo, 
Frank  M.  Mills  Greene,  Fredonia. 
Betsy  M.  Newton  Bunting,  Hamburg. 
Eunice  J.  Pratt  Rogers,  North  Collins. 
Emma  S.  Wiltse  Brand,  Yorkshire. 
Mary  Horton  Sweet,  Humphrey. 
Charlotte  McMillan,  Gowanda. 
Ella  Holman  Long,  Hamburg. 
Lora  C.  Albro  McClure,  Buffalo. 
Luana  L.  Norris  Kingsley,  Sardinia. 
Ella  M.  Vedder  Crowell,  Hamlet. 
Rhoda  A.  Wheeler  Norris,  Pike. 
Jennie  C.  Baldwin  Collins,  Colden. 
Jennie  Dygert  Drake,  Pike. 
Mary  Stowell  Scott,  Hamburg. 
Sophia  A.  Bigelow,  Chicago,  111. 
Adella  Brooks,  Colden. 
Grace  Brooks,  Colden. 
Clara  L.  Wheeler,  Pike. 
Anna  Nichols,  Colden. 


The  first  Erie  County  Teachers'  Institute  was  held  in  W'ill- 
iamsville  in  1844,  second  at  Aurora  in  1845.  third  at  Springville 
in  1846.  fourth  at  Lancaster  in  1847,  fifth  at  Aurora  in  1848, 
sixth  at  Springxillc  in   1  S49.     These    Institutes  were  largel}'  at- 



tended  b\'  teachers  from  all  parts  of  the  count}-.  The)-  con- 
tinued two  weeks  each,  and  were  held  for  a  number  of  years. 
The  foUowint^  is  a  list  of  the  officers,  instructors,  lecturers  and 
members  of  the  Institute  lield  at  Sprinj^ville  in  1849  •  Flrasmus 
Hrii;gs,  of  C(^ncord,  President  ;  Samuel  C.  Adams,  of  Collins. 
\'ice-President  ;    Louis  \V.  (iraves.  of  Aurora,  Secretary. 

IxsTRUCTORS — J.H.  Karle,  Principal  of  Springville  Acade- 
ni\-;  J.  H.  Earle.  Teacher  of  Mathematics;  Miss  Mary  J. 
Hartoo,  Daniel  Jones,  of  Aurora;  Miss  Cordelia  Warner,  of 
S[)rint^\-ille,  M.  A.  \\'liitne\-,  of  Aurora,  and  S.  \\\  Craves  of 

Lecturers — Rev.  L  George,  S.  W.  Graves,  Rev.  Milo 
Scott,  of  Aurora,  S.  Sedwick,  of  Arcade,  Samuel  G.  Love,  of 
Gowanda,  Rev.  H.  I{,dd}\  of  Springville,  E.  S.  Eddy,  of 



G.  W.  Andrews,  Otto. 
Jonathan  Briggs,  Concord. 
Erasmus  Briggs,  Concord. 
A.  C.  Buffmum,  Colden. 
E.  M.  Baily,  Ash  ford. 
L.  H.  Bugbee,  Persia. 
Andrew  J.  Brooks,  Boston. 
Wm.  C.  Baily,  Holland. 
John  R.  Bensley,  Concord. 
.\lfred  R.  Bowen,  Sardinia. 

A.  L.  l^radley,  Otto. 
Romanzo  Bunn,  Mansfield. 
P.  S.  Baker,  Hamburg. 

J.  F.  Brown,  Aurora. 
I  iiram  Clark,  Collins. 
.\lban  Clark,  Collins. 
Lyman  Clark,  Collins. 
Pones  Cole,  Aurora. 
H.M.Carr,  Concord. 
C.  E.  Carr,  Concord. 

B.  O.  Carr,  Concord. 
Miles  Chafee,  Concord. 


J.  B.  Colegrove,  Sardinia. 
Wm.  W.  Chilcott,  Hamburg. 
A.  T.  Cole,  Ashford. 
E.  M.Clark,  Eden. 
Charles  Clark,  Aurora. 
Elias  Borland,  Hamburg. 
T.  C.  Estee,  Hamburg. 
J.  H.  Earle,  Concord, 
E.  N.  Ely,  Cheektouaga. 
Jesse  Frye,  Concord. 
Wm.  M.  Field,  Concord, 
(leorge  Kellogg,  Concord. 
S.  B.  Littlefield,  Hamburg. 
Nathaniel  Lockwood,  Boston. 
Charles  McCoy,  Ellicottville. 
J.  McAvoy,  Collins. 
Sidney  McBride,  Persia. 
James  Moore,  Aurora. 
Lucius  McBride,  Persia. 
Owen  P.  Marsh,  Yorkshire. 
L.  H.  Morris,  Aurora. 
John  H.  McAvoy,  Collins. 



Joseph  S.  O'Brien,  Collins. 
George  Oswold,  Otto. 
A.  E.  Packard,  Concord. 
George  Perkins,  Concord. 
Franklin  Pike,  Concord. 
Asa  Potter,  Sheldon. 
J.  W.  Porter,  Sardinia. 
Byron  Pratt,  Aurora. 
Charles  M.  Plumb,  Collins. 
Abijah  Perkins,  Aurora. 
L.  W.  Race,  Evans. 
H.  A.  Race,  Evans. 
Alan  A.  Richardson,  Concord. 
W.  G.  Ranson,  Concord. 
Joseph  A.  Rathbun,  Persia. 
Geo.  W.  Woodward,  Concord. 

D.  M.  Richardson,  Concord. 
H.  W.  Rugg,  Concord. 

J.  T.  Sykes,  Sheldon. 
C.  C.  Stanbro,  Concord. 

E.  D.  Stevens,  Hamburg. 
A.  D.  Scott,  Springville. 
Joseph  Griffin,  Collins. 
L.  W.  Graves,  Aurora. 
Franklin  Hodge,  Buffalo. 
Charles  Howe,  Persia. 

Luke  G.  Harmon,  PLllicottville. 
I).  H.  Hopkins,  Concord. 

S.  C.  Horton,  Boston. 
David  Hershey,  Amherst. 
Moses  Ham,  Amherst. 
Daniel  Harris,  Aurora. 
J.  S.  Hawley,  Brant. 
M.  N.  Jones,  Boston. 

D.  G.  Jones,  Aurora. 
A.  H.  Jones,  Aurora. 

L.  A.  Kennicut,  New  Albion. 

E.  R.  Kingsley,  Sardinia. 
S.  D.  Kingsley,  Sardinia. 
Charles  Scisler,  Aurora. 
J.  H.  Shearer,  Aurora. 
Geo.  W.  Sweet,  Colden. 
Ambrose  Southworth,  Boston. 
E.  A.  Stebbins,  Otto. 

C.  C.  Sibley,  Concord. 
E.  C.  Sanders,  Ashford. 
Ferdinand  Taylor,  Collins. 
Loomis  J.  Williams,  Hamburg. 
Darwin  Wilcox,  Sardinia. 
P.  F.  Warner,  Java. 
Horatio  Whittemore,  Collins. 
L.  D.  Weeden,  Springville. 
M.  A.  Whitney,  Aurora. 
Wm.  W.  Wilson,  Concord. 
James  Wilkes,  Sardinia. 
O.  Wilcox,  Sardinia. 



Laura  A.  Algur,  Concord. 
Demis  Allen,  Collins. 
Malinda  Arnold,  Collins. 
Sarah  A.  Baker,  Hamburg. 
Ann  E.  Bloomfield,  Concord. 
Almira  Britton,  Boston. 
Jane  A.  Briggs,  Concord. 
Rosina  S.  Blake,  Concord. 


E.  P.  Bartoo,  Hamburg. 
Eveline  C.  Bois,  Aurora. 
Ann  Eliza  Bois,  Aurora. 
Mary  J.  Bartoo,  Hamburg. 
Mary  J.  Baker,  Hamburg. 
Selphina  Bowen,  Sardinia. 
Lucinda  J.  Bement,  Concord. 
Roxaiia  R.  Bement,  Concord. 

CATAL()(;uE  OF  i-i;mai.k  MKMI'.KRS. 


Vcstina  BlmisIc)',  Concord. 
Amelia  A.  Hlakc,  Concord. 
Maryettc  Curran.  Concord. 
Julia  Ann  Carey,  Concord. 
Mar\'  Crawford,  Concord. 
Clara  Clark,  Ashford. 
Esther  Cornwell,  Sardinia. 
Amanda  Canfield,  Concord. 
Annetta  Clark,  Aurora. 
Adaline  E.  Button,  Concord. 
Hanna  E.  Dustin,  Holland. 
Mary  E.  Davidson,  Holland, 
-Sarah  A.  Button,  Holland. 
Phebe  H.  Borland,  Hamburi;-. 
Mary  C.  Estee,  Eden. 
Margaret  Flemins^.  Concord. 
W.  A.  Fairbanks,  Ashford. 
Sophia  A.  Gardner,  Concord. 
Eudora  Griffith,  Concord. 
Laura  G.  Grannis,  Wales. 
Amelia  C.  Grannis,  Wales. 
Martha  Georj^e,  Concord. 
Carolina  M.  Griffith,  Concord. 
Adaline  B.  Gibbs.  Otto. 
Pamelia  Guild,  Ashford. 
Calista  Godard,  Concord. 
Lucinda  Griswold,  Concord. 
Ellen  J.  Hyde,  Concord. 
Maria  A.  Ho\\e,  Rice. 
Maria  Howe,  Rice. 
Mary  E.  Hicko.x,  Hamburi^. 
Elizabeth  Holland,  Concord. 
Amelia  Huntly,  Concord. 
Ann  Ingalls,  Concord. 
S\'lvia  Joslyn,  Concortl. 
Electa  M.  Jennings,  Collins. 
Mary  E.  Jenmngs,  Collins. 
Martha  P.  Johnson,  Collins. 
Mar\-  E.  jolmson,  Collins. 

H.  A.  Johnson,  Otto. 
Louisa  A.  Kennedy,  Concord. 
Prudence  Kellogg,  Concord. 
Louisa  Kellogg,  Concord. 
Eniil)'  J.  Lewis,  Collins. 
Sarah  B.  Mclvin,  Concord. 
P(^lly  Merwin,  Concord. 
Helen  Minor,  Concord. 
Luc)'  A.  Newton,  \'orkshire. 
Sarah  Ann  Newton,  Sardinia. 
Harriett  A.  Newell,  Sardinia. 
Lucy  M.  Nichols,  Concord, 
Harriet  A.  Peirce,  Ashford. 
Betsey  Peirce,  Concord. 
Helen  A.  Peirce,  Concord, 
Ann  H.  Pierce,  Ashford. 
Julia  M.  Post,  Concord. 
Marian  T.  Perry,  Aurora. 
Jerusha  Pratt,  Collins. 
Esther  Pratt,  Collins. 
Gratia  I'armenter,  Yorkshire. 
Lucinda  W.  Rundell,  Alden. 
Elizabeth  W.  Rundel,  Alden. 
Clara  Richmond,  Collins. 
Mehala  Rider,  Sardinia. 
Alice  Sanderson,  Portville. 
Lurinda  Southworth.  Boston. 
Martha  Stewart. 
Phebe  Starkweather,  Concord. 
Olive  Sleeper,  Holland. 
Harriet  M.  Taylor,  Alden. 
Ann  R.  Tuthill,  Otto. 
Cornelia  Ta)-lor,  Alden, 
Sarah  J.  Vaughan,  Concord. 
Harriet  N.  Wellman,  Napoli. 
Cordelia  Warner,  Strykersville. 
Jane  A.  Wolcott,  Concord. 
M.  M.  S.  Watkins,  Concord. 
Helen  M.  White.  Hamburo. 

234  I^IST    OF    TEACHERS    IN    CONCORD. 

Mary  Wood,  Concord.  C.  M.  Willett,  Hamburg. 

Almira  Woodruff,  Aurora.  Phebe  Wood,  Concord. 

Male  teachers 191 

Female  teachers 93 

Total 284 

v.,  DURINC;  THE  YEARS  1 844,  '45,  '46  AND  '47 — 112  IN 

Jonathan  Brings,  Orville  S.  Canfield,  S.  L.  Cary,  Laura  D. 
Abbott,  Milton  House,  Daniel  Noteman,  A.  G.  S.  McMillain, 
J.  B.  Sweet,  John  F.  Morse,  J.  A.  O.  South,  Nancy  H.  Salis- 
bury, David  Cochran,  Philip  Thurbur,  Lysander  Needham,  E. 
E.  Williams,  A.  F.  Hubbard,  W.  H.  Freeman,  B.  F.  Blake, 
Mary  Potter,  Rosina  Blake,  Minerva  Slosson,  Maria  Graves, 
Lucy  Hall,  Margaret  M.  Watkins,  Caroline  Miner,  Juliette 
Sibley,  Sarah  E.  Fisher,  Desire  Little,  Mary  Needham,  Lua  E. 
Smith,  Lucy  Blake,  Amanda  Canfield,  Lucretia  Murry,  Julia 
M.  Post,  Miles  Chafee,  Apalonia  Douglass,  Calista  Godard, 
Roxana  Bement,  E.  P.  Kennady,  D.  M.  Richardson,  W.  W. 
P>ench,  W.  G.  Ransom,  Mr.  Dunham,  Daniel  Wilson,  Martin 
Wiltse,  Benjamin  F".  Rice,  Mary  Wood,  Eudora  Griffith,  Charles 
Treat,  Mercy  Canfield,  Melissa  Duttdn,  J.  G.  Blake,  Lyman 
Packard,  Russell  P"rench,  Margery  J.  Churchill,  William  A. 
Sibley,  Jacob  Widrig,  Suel  Briggs,  Orrin  Baker,  William  R. 
Philips,  Mary  E.  Shaw,  Enos  Olden.  Gilbert  C.  Sweet,  William 
Hudson,  Cyrus  Griswold,  B.  F.  Cary,  E.  Briggs,  A.  C.  Adams, 
Sally  Sampson,  A.  T.  Cole,  G.  W.  Richardson,  Elizabeth  Bloom- 
field,  Julia  A.  P'rench,  Alpha  C.  King,  Cornelia  Holt,  Bets)- 
Pierce,  Miner\'a  L.  Griswold,  Hannah  Agard,  Hannah  G.  Parks, 
Nancy  Nichols,  Luc}'  E.  Maklem,  Hannah  Parsell.  Hester  Ann 
Martin,  Julia  E.  Martin,  Louisa  White,  Esther  Pratt,  Almond 
Nichols,  Lucinda  J.  Bement,  Jerome  E.  Stac)',  E.  H.  Drake, 
Charles  Needham,  WMlliam  H.  Watkins,  A.  Parsell,  P.  H.  War- 
ner, Elizabeth  Melvin,  Mary  L.  Field,  Maryette  Curron,  Helen 
Minor,  .Aurora  Nelson,  Irene  Weber,  Herma  A.  Johnson,  Miss 
Southworth,    Mr.  Spring,  Ahira    Loxelace.    Miss   Stiles,  Helen 

rilK     roWNSENI)    HILL    SCIIOOI..  235 

Hlods2jct,  Jemima  Treat,  Miss  Knaj),  Atlaliiie  Chafee,  Miss 
Richardson,  Miss  Rice,  Miss  Stewart,  Miss  Hail}',  Kuiiicc 

AliOU'l'     rilK     lOWNSKM)    nil. I,    SCIIOOI.. 

A  school-house  was  l)uilt  on  Townsent!  Hill  in  the  earl\-  part 
of  1S15  and  a  school  taught  therein  that  summer.  It  was  a 
framed  house  and  locateci  on  land  now  owned  b)'  B.  I*".  Williams, 
on  the  south  side  of  the  (ienesee  Road,  about  ten  rods  west 
of  the  transit  road.  The  names  of  the  teachers  who  taus^ht  in 
this  school  in  early  times  were  : 

1815 — Summer,  Waiter  Eaton  ;   Winter,  Sally  Spaulding-. 
1816 — Summer,  Mar}-  Torrey  ;   Winter,  Benjamin  Vi\y. 
1817 — Summer,  Abbie  Cunningham;  W^inter,   Benjamin   F"ay. 
1818 — Summer,   Rebecca  Sawyer;  Winter,  Amaziah  Ashman. 
1819 — Summer,  Lucy  Chapin  ;   Winter,  Enoch  Sinclair. 
1820 — Summer,  Mar\'  Chapin  ;   Winter,  William  Owen. 
1821 — Summer,  Patience  Bowen  ;   Winter,  Enoch  Sinclair. 
1822 — Summer,  Olive  Fuller;   Winter,  William  Owen. 
1823— Summer,  Caroline  Owen  ;   Winter,  John  Brooks. 
1824 — Summer,  Eliza  Ayers  ;   Winter,  Elam  Booth. 
1825 — Summer,  Delia  Torrey  ;   Winter,  Elam  Booth. 
1826 — Summer,  Lucinda  Fry:   Winter,  Ezra  Chaffee,  Amaziah 

1827 — Summer,  Minerva  Cochrane  ;   Winter,  Clark  M.  Carr. 
1828 — Summer,  PolK'  .Spaulding;   Winter,  Lucinda  Fa}-. 
1829 — Winter,  Oliver  Canfield. 
1830 — Winter,  Oliver  Canfield. 
1 83  I — Winter,  Asa  Philips. 
1832 — Winter,  Asa  Philips. 
1833— Winter,  Asa  IMiilips. 
1834 — Winter,  Philips. 
1835 — Winter,  Nelson  Hopkins. 
1836 — Winter,  Nelson  Hopkins. 


i)Ko\v.\i.\(;  OR  oiHKRWisr:  ix    the  rowx  of  concord. 

A  man  b}-  the  name  of  Re}-nolds  was  drowned  in  the  "  Big- 
Bend,"  in  the  Cattaraugus  creek — just  below  the  P'r}-e  crossing, 
in  1839. 

236  ACCIDENTAL    DKATHS    IN    TOWN    OF    C<.)NCORD. 

An  KiiL^lishman  b\'  the  name  of  Dunkerh'  was  drowned  in 
the  Cattaraugus,  near  the  Shultus  bridge,  about  1852. 

A  young  man  was  drowned  in  the  Bloomfield  mill-pond,  in 
Springville,  in  June,  1870;  he  was  a  Prussian,  name  unknown. 

About  1848,  two  small  children,  one  a  boy  named  Rinhart, 
and  the  other  a  little  daughter  of  Stowel  Collins,  were  drowned 
while  playing  together  by  the  race  in  Springville,  near  Frank 
lin  street.  The  same  year,  a  boy  named  Edmonds  was  drowneci 
in  Auger's  pond  in  Springville. 

A  boy  named  Melancton  W'oodham  was  dro\\ned  in  Cook's 

In  Jul}',  1864,  George  Severance,  a  son  of  Hon.  C.  C.  Sever- 
ance, fourteen  years  of  age,  was  drowned  in  the  Cattaraugus, 
midway  between  the  Cook  and  Shultus  bridges. 

William  Mimmick  was  also  drowned   near  the  Cook   bridge. 

Levant  Stanbro  was  drowned  in  the  Griffith  pond,  near  East 
Concord,  in  1879. 

About  1880,  Theodore  Pilger,  a  young  man  \\  as  drowned  in 
the  Cattaraugus  near  the  Cook  bridge. 

Jonathan  Mayo,  Jr.,  was  killed  in  1825,  \\hile  chopi)ing  with 
his  father.  A  falling  tree  slewed  around  as  it  struck,  and 
knocking  him  lifeless  to  the  ground. 

In  1832,  Jacob  McLen,  a  \-oung  man,  was  killed  b}-  a  falling 
tree  on  Lot  20,  Range  7,  Township  7. 

About  1873,  '^  >'oung  man  named  Cyrenus  F"uller  wa^-  killed 
\\'hile  felling  trees  on  the  farm  of  John  F.  Morse. 

In  February,  1869,  Arnold  Cranston,  father  of  James  Crans- 
ton, was  killed  felling  trees. 

June  22,  1877,  Charles  Krantz  was  killed  while  chopping  on 
his  farm,  by  a  limb  falling  do\A'n  and  breaking  his  skull. 

'In    1883,  Byron  Swain,  a  resident   of   S[)ring\ille,   was   killed 
while  felling  trees  in  Boston. 

In  1852,  Henry  C.  Horton  was  killed  b\- saw  logs  rolling  upon 
him  at  the  Janes  saw  mill,  in  the  north  part  of  the  town.  He 
was  27  years  old. 

Amasa  Loveridge  was  killed  in  the  same  manner,  August  7. 
1855,  at  Captain  Tyrer's  mill  in  what  is  now  Wheeler  Hollow. 
He  was  67  years  of  age. 

NAMKS    OK    Slki:AMS    I\    COXC-Okl).  21'/ 

Albert  Ostrandcr  fell  from  a  scaffold  to  the  barn  tloor  in  his 
barn  near  I^ast  Concord,  Jan.  8,  1871.  and  died  April   21,   1871. 

Samuel  Bradley,  an  early  settler  and  business  man  of  Sprin<^- 
ville,  fell  from  the  stairs  in  the  Gardner  mill  in  the  niijht  time, 
and  received  injuries  that  caused  his  death  soon  after. 

Cyrus  C.  Rhodes  and  Daniel  P.  Brown,  residents  of  Spring- 
ville,  were  killed  by  the  cars  at  the  Elk  street  crossing  of  the 
L.  S.  &  M.  S.  R.  R.  at  Buffalo.  June  28,  1856. 

Peter  Sampson  was  killed  in  1836  by  his  sleigh  slewing" 
around  on  the  ice,  and  sleigh,  the  load  and  team  going  down 
the  bank  from  the  top  of  the  hill  this  side  of  the  Shultus 

Dexter  Rlu)tles  was  killed  b}-  the  bursting  of  a  re\ol\-ing 
drum  attached  to  the  machiner)-  in  the  Scoby  mills  about  1878. 

Sanford  Mayo  w;is  killed  b\'  the  cars  at  the  Mills  crossing 
(one  mile  north  of  Springville),  on  the  Buffalo  E.xtension  of  the 
Rochester  &  Pittsburgh  Railroad,  Oct.  2,  1883. 

namp:s  of  streams  in  concord. 

The  Cattaraugus  creek  runs  along  the  south  bounds  of  the 
town  in  a  southwesterh-  direction. 

Spring  brook  rises  on  Townsend  liill  and  runs  southeasterly 
and  southerly  through   Springville   into  the  Cattaraugus  creek. 

The  Cazenox'ia  creek  rises  in  Sardinia  and  runs  through  the 
northeast  corner  of  this  town. 

The  east  branch  of  the  Righteen-mile  creek  rises  on  Town- 
send  hill  and  runs  northwesterh- through  this  town,  Boston  and 
Hamburg  to  the  lake. 

The  west  branch  of  the  Eighteen-mile  creek  rises  in  the  west 
part  ot  the  town  and  runs  northwesterh-  through  Concord, 
North  Collins  and  Eden  to  the  lake. 

Smith  brook  rises  north  of  the  Genesee  road  near  Mr.  Coop- 
er's and  runs  southerly  through  Wheeler  Hollow  and  Spooner 
Hollow  to  the  Cattaraugus  creek.  This  brook  was  named  after 
"  (iovernor  "  Smith  who  settled  at  its  mouth  in  1810. 

The  Darby  brook  rises  near  Nichols'  Corners  and  runs  south- 
erly near  Morton's  Corners  and  down  to  the  Cattaraugus  creek, 
((^ritrin  of  the  name  unknown.) 

238  THE    ERECTION    OF    A    LIBERTY    POLE. 

The  Wells  brook  rises  near  the  residence  of  B}'ron  Wells  and 
runs  south  into  the  Cattaraugus  creek. 

There  is  also  a  pond  of  water  near  East  Concord  which  has 
been  commonly  called  Griffith's  Pond. 


There  is  a  tradition  that  the  first  liberty  pole  reared  in  the 
town  was  at  the  Four  Corners,  a  mile  east  of  Springville,  and 
the  place  has  ever  since  been  known  as  Liberty  Pole  Corners. 
The  time  was  18 19,  or  thereabouts,  and  on  the  4th  day  of  July, 
that  the  pioneers  assembled  on  these  corners  to  celebrate  the 
day  as  become  the  descendents  of  patriotic  sires.  Officers 
were  chosen,  a  procession  formed,  an  oration  delivered,  and  the 
immortal  declaration  rehearsed  ;  and  in  due  time  a  tall  and 
graceful  pole  was  raised,  unfurling  to  the  breeze  the  flag  of  our 

This  interesting  ceremony  was  accompanied  with  the  firing 
of  guns,  the  cheers  of  the  crowd,  and  the  sound  of  the  spirit- 
stirring  fife  and  drum.  Upon  this  occasion  the  pioneers  were 
jovial,  and  ready  to  engage  in  anything  laudable  for  the  sake 
of  having  a  good  time.  They  saw  at  a  glance  how  barren  the 
gathering  was  of  tilted  dignit}',  anci  possessing  a  faculty  that 
invented  as  necessity  demanded,  they  bestowed  upon  many  a 
title  that  did  great  honor  to  the  occasion.  All  men  are  not 
trained  in  the  same  school,  nor  are  their  shining  qualities  of  the 
same  order,  but  he  who  excelled  in  an}-  special  province,  was 
worthy  of  a  title  that  accorded  with  it  ;  and  upon  this  particu- 
lar occasion,  the  gathering  included  names  that  were  exalted  in 
the  ci\il  and  military  ser\-ice  of  the  land,  and  had  the  reporter 
been  invented,  this  might  have  appeared:  "  General  Knox  and 
President  Adams  drank  from  the  same  Gourd,  to  health  of  his 
excellency,  Governor  Smith,"  etc  ,  etc. 

^  To  many  of  the  pioneers  these  titles  ever  afterwards  clung 
and  the\*  became  kno\\n  to  the  rising  generations  by  these 
a[)pcllations  antl  no  other,  such  as  "  General  Knox  "  and  "  Gov- 
ernor Smith."  A  stor}'  is  told  of  Governor  Smith  in  connec- 
tion with  his  title  that  is  worthy  of  being  repeated.  The 
Governor  was  a  man  of  commanding  appearance,  and  once 
upon   a  time   he   happened    to    meet   an   old    friend,   a   congen- 

iiii-;  si'Ri.\(;vii,i.K  .Mii.i..  239 

ial  spirit,  at  the  old  Stone  Tavern  on  the  hill.  The  two  friends 
became  very  convivial  over  their  j^lasses,  and  an  Indian  who 
hajjpened  to  be  jjresent  was  asked  to  join  them  ;  this  was  \ery 
willinj^ly  acquiesced  in.  After  drainin^r  their  "lasses  the  Indian, 
looking;-  his  excellenc)'  square  in  the  face,  said  :  "  Bc's  you  the 
(lovernor  of  New  York  ?"  The  Gox'ernor  replied  in  his  usual 
heavy  gutteral  voice  :  Not  exactly  the  (iovernor  of  the  State  ot 
New  York,  but  I  am  Governor  of  Dutch  Hollow." 


One  of  the  most  interesting,'  chapters  in  the  manufacturing 
and  business  history  of  Springville,  relates  to  the  "  Old  Spring- 
ville  Mill,"  or  "  Colton  Mill,"  as  it  is  sometimes  called.  For 
nearly  fifty  years  it  has  faithfully  performed  a  considerable  part 
of  the  milling  business  for  a  large  section  of  the  surrounding 
country.  It  commenced  b)'  grinding  the  pioneer's  wheat  that 
grew  among  the  stumps,  reaped  with  a  sickle  and  threshed 
out  some  keen  Winter  morning  on  the  barn  floor  with  a  flail, 
and  has  continued  until  the  grists  received  at  its  doors  grew  in 
the  broad  open  field,  and  are  harvested  and  threshed  by  the 
approx'ed  machinery  of  modern. times. 

Manly  Colton,  of  Buffalo,  induced  by  the  excellent  water- 
power  afforded  and  rhe  promises  held  forth  by  the  productixx^- 
ness  of  the  surrounding  country,  decided  to  invest  a  poition  of 
his  cajjital  in  a  larg:;  mill  at  Springville.  Work  was  commenced 
on  Januar)-  i,  1835,  and  the  mill  was  completed  and  running 
before  the  close  of  the  year.  Thomas  Lincoln,  of  S[:)ring\ille, 
was  the  architect,  and  Stephen  W.  Howell,  of  Buffalo,  the  mill- 
wright. The  framework  of  the  mill  was  of  massive  proportions 
and  the  "  raising  "  was  a  memorable  e\ent  in  the  earlier  histor\- 
of  the  town.  The  workmanship  and  materials  were  of  the  best 
quality,  and  w  hen  completed  it  was  pronounced  one  of  the  fin- 
est and  best  mills  in  Western  New  York.  Its  cost  was  $22,000. 
The  gigantic  old  water  wheel  was  an  object  of  interest  to  many 
who  have  stood  in  the  damp  wheel-room  and  looked  with  some- 
thing of  a  feeling  of  awe  on  its  slow  but  certain  movement. 
This,  as  well  as  other  jiortions  of  the  machiner\-  of  the  mill, 
ha\'e  from  time  to  time  been  replaced  b\-  that  more  impnned. 
The  first  miller  was  John  T.  Noye,  late  of  the  well-known 
firm  of  I.  T.  N()\'e  &  Sons,  of  Buffalo. 

240  LOCAL    NAMES    IN    CONCORD. 

Soon  after  being  built,  through  the  financial  failure  of  Mr. 
Colton,  the  mill  fell  into  the  hands  of  Dart  Bros.,  of  New  York. 
About  1846  they  sold  to  Rufus  Eaton,  of  Springville,  who  con- 
ducted it  for  about  two  years,  when  it  again  became  the  prop- 
erty of  the  Dart  Bros.,  who  resold  it  about  1848  to  M.  L. 
Badgley  and  Benjamin  Joslyn.  After  a  time  Mr.  Joslyn  became 
sole  proprietor,  and  about  1854  he  sold  to  C.  J.  Shuttleworth 
and  William  Barclay,  who  continued  together  for  about  two 
years,  when  Shuttleworth  bought  the  interest  of  his  partner, 
which  he  soon  sold  to  Stephen  Churchill  and  rebought  again  in 
i860.  The  subsequent  year  Mr.  Shuttleworth  sold  his  interest 
to  Madison  Scoby,  and  in  1862  sold  the  other  half  to  Abram 
Dygert.  Dygert  &  Scoby  continued  in  partnership  two  or 
three  years,  when  they  sold  to  Shuttleworth  &  Chafee,  who 
conducted  the  mill  together  until  1874,  when  Mr.  Shuttleworth 
sold  his  interest  to  Bertrand  Chafee,  the  present  proprietor. 


"  Townsend  Hill"  was  so  named  from  Johnathan  Townsend 
and  family,  who  settled  there  at  an  early  day. 

"  Morton's  Corners"  was  named  after  Wendell  Morton  and 
his  sons,  who  bought  a  farm  and  built  a  hotel  there,  which  still 

"  Nichols"  Corners"  was  so  called  from  Lewis  Nichols,  who 
settled  there  at  an  early  day,  and  some  of  his  descendants  still 
live  there. 

"  Woodward's  Hollow"  was  named  after  the  Woodward 
family,  some  of  ^\'hom  still  reside  there. 

"  The  Branch."  This  localit}-,  along  the  creek,  from  \W^od- 
ward's  Hollow  to  the  town  of  North  Collins,  is  frequently  called 
"  The  Branch,"  from  the  fact  that  the  west  branch  of  the  Eigh- 
teen-mile creek  flows  through  it. 

"  Wheeler's  Hollow"  was  named  from  the  Wheeler  brothers, 
who  now  reside  there. 

"Wheeler  Hill"  was  so  named  from  Benjamin  Wheeler  and 
family,  who  were  the  first  settlers  there. 

"  Spooner  Hollow,"  so  called  from  the  Spooner  family,  who 
li\"ed  there  at  an  earl\-  da\'. 


"  Siblc}-  Settlement,"  so  named  tiom  the  Sible)-  brothers, 
mIio  were  the  first  settlers  in  that  neighborhood. 

"  Chafee  District,"  named  from  the  Chafee  family,  who  w  ere 
early  settlers  there. 

"  East  Concord,"  so  called  because  it  is  situated  in  the  east- 
ern part  of  the  town. 

"  Waterville,"  so  called  because  two  branches  of  the  Buffalo 
Creek  meet  there,  and  in  former  times  there  were  several  mills, 
all  within  a  mile  of  that  place. 

"  Horton  Hill,"  named  from  John  and  Truman  Horton,  who 
settled  there  at  an  early  day. 

"  Colden  Mill,"  the  south  part  of  what  is  called  "  Colden 
Hill,"  is  in  the  town  of  Concord  and  is  so  named  from  the  town 
of  Colden,  into  which  it  extends. 

"  Vaughan  Street,"  named  from  several  families  of  Vaughans 
who  were  early  settlers  on  tliat  street,  and  their  descendants 
live  there  still. 

"  Liberty-Pole  Corners,"  so  called  from  the  fact  that  the  first 
liberty-pole  ever  raised  in  the  town  was  raised  there  at  a  \-ery 
early  day. 

"  Sharp  Street."  Tradition  says  that  Sharp  street  was  so 
called  from  a  house  built  by  John  Gould,  which  had  a  very 
sharp  or  steep  roof  and  at  that  time  stood  at  the  end  of  the 
street,  on  the  farm  where  Yates  Gardinier  now  lives. 

"  Frye  Hill,"  named  from  Enoch  Frye  and  his  father,  the 
first  settlers  there,  and  Enoch  and  descendants   still  live  there. 

"  Shultes'  Bridge,"  named  from  David  Shultes,  who  owned 
the  land  on  which  it  was  built,  and  lived  there: 

"  Cook  Bridge,"  so  named  from  E.  W.  Cook,  who  owned  the 
land  where  the  bridge  stands. 

"  Scobey  Bridge,"  named  from  Alexander  Scobey,  ^\■ho  li\  ed 
there  and  owned  mills  there  at  the  time  it  was  built. 

"  Frye  Bridge,"  so  named  from  the  Frye's,  who  own  the  land 
where  the  bridge  crosses  the  Cattaraugus. 

'*  Block  School-House,"  so  called  from  the  fact  that  the  first 
school-house  ever  built  there  was  built  of  hewed  logs. 

This  was  one  of  the  finest  companies  raised  on  the  Holland 
Purchase.     The   rank  and   file  was  made  up  of  the  best   of  the 



young  men.  But  few  of  the  members  are  living  to-day,  and 
they  rank  with  our  most  honored  and  respected  citizens. 

The  uniform  of  this  company  was  green  frock  coats  with 
brass  buttons,  white  pants  with  black  velvet  leggings  that 
reached  half  way  to  the  knee,  black  hats  ornamented  in  front 
with  a  brass  shield  from  the  top  of  which  rose  a  white  feather 
with  a  red  tip,  leather  belt  around  the  waist,  with  shields 
affixed  for  knife  and  light  tomahawk,  Axhich  every  member  in 
the  ranks  carried.     They  were  also  armed  with  rifles. 

This  company  was  organized  in  1820  or  1821,  with  Chris- 
topher Douglass  as  captain,  and  Sanford  P.  Sampson  as  first 
lieutenant.  After  serving  a  few  years,  Douglass  resigned,  and 
by  the  death  of  Lieutenant  Sampson,  the  command  of  the 
company  fell  to  Isaac  Palmer.  He,  after  serving  several  years, 
was  succeeded  by  Abram  Starks,  and  Starks  by  Stephen  Albro, 
Albro  by  William  McMillen,  McMillen  by  Charles  C.  Bigelow, 
and  Bigelow  by  Ephraim  T.  Briggs,  who  had  command  of  the 
company  when  they  were  disbanded  by  law,  and  military  train- 
ing done  away  with. 

A  perfect  list  of  the  officers  of  the  town  of  Concord  can  not 
be  given  as  the  records  of  the  town  were  burned  up  in  the  great 
fire  in  Springville  in  1868.  The  list  of  Supervisors  and  the 
time  each  served  is  complete.  The  list  of  Justices  is  complete, 
but  their  term  of  service  could  not  in  all  cases  be  ascertained. 
But  a  complete  list  of  other  town  officers,  or  their  terms  of 
service  can  not  be  made.  But  the  names  of  such  of  the  prin- 
cipal officers  as  have  been  ascertained  are  gi\'en. 


1821,  '22,  '23,  '24,  '25,  '26  and  '27,  Thomas  M.  Barrett  ;  1828 
and  '29,  Joshua  Agard  ;  [830,  Oliver  Needham  ;  1831,  Thomas 
M.Barrett;  1832  and  '33,  Carlos  Emmons;  1834,  '35,  '36  and 
'37,  Oliver  Needham;  1838,  '39,  '40,  '41,  '42,  '43,  '44  and  '45, 
E.  N.  P^rye  ;  1846,  '47,  '48,  '49  and  '50,  C.  C.  Severance  ;  1851, 
'52,  '53  and  '54,  S.  W.  Godard  ;  1855,  Lucian  B.  Towsley ; 
1856,  J.N.Richmond;  1857,  Morris  P^osdick  ;  1858,  '59,  '60, 
'61,  '62  and    '63,  S.  W.  Godard;    1864  and  '65,  Philetus  Allen; 

OFFKKUS    OK     Till-;     TOWN    OF   CONCORD.  243 

1866,  C.  C.  Severance  ;  1S67,  A.  \V.  Stanbio  ;  1868,  C.  C.  Sev- 
erance ;  1869,  A.  W.  Stanbro  ;  1870  and  '71,  Bertrand  Chafee  ; 
1874,  Clark  S.  McMillan  and  Frank  Chase;  1873,  C.  C.  Sever- 
ance; 1874  and  '75,  Erasmus  Bri^ijs  ;  1876  and  '"jj,  Henry  M. 
Hlackmar ;  1878,  '79  and  '80,  William  II.  Warner;  1881,  '82 
and  "^}t,  Erasmus  Briggs. 



Ciirist()})her  Douglass,  Joseph  Ilanchett,  Rufus  Eaton,  Fred- 
erick Richmond,  William  V .  (}.  Lake,  Amaziah  Ashman,  Ben- 
jamin Fay,  John  Brooks,  Archibald  Griffith,  Elisha  Mack, 
Stephen  Albro,  Emory  Sampson,  John  Griffith,  Robert  G. 
Flint,  Isaac  Nichols,  Wells  Brooks,  Seth  W.  Godard,  C.  C.  Sev- 
erance, Hiram  G.  Smith,  Pliny  Smith,  Byron  Cochran,  O.  S. 
Canfield,  Morris  Fosdick,  Fred  Crary,  Joseph  Gaylord,  William 
Woodbury,  Isaac  Woodward,  Almon  Nichols,  A.  W\  Stanbro, 
W.  H.  Freeman,  Frank  Chase,  E.  S.  Cady,  A.  D.  Holman, 
Harry  Foote,  C.  C.  Stanbro,  Willis  G.  Clark. 

Town  Clerks. — Amaziah  Ashman,  Noah  Townsend,  George 
Arnold,  Johnson  Bensley,  C.  C.  Severance,  C.  C.  McClure, 
McCall  Long,  A.  W.  Stanbro,  A.  G.  Moon,  A.  R.  Tabor,  C.  C. 
Smith,  T.  B.  Norris. 

Collectors. — Soloman  Field,  Harry  Stears,  Roswell  Olcott, 
Isaac  Palmer,  James  F.  Crandall,  N.  A.  Godard,  Clinton  Ham- 
mond, Joseph  Potter,  George  Thompson,  Perrin  Sampson,  Orvill 
Smith,  C.  J.  Shuttleworth,  L.  P.  Cox,  A.  J.  Moon. 

Assessors. — Joshua  Agard,  E.  N.  Frye,  Emory  Sampson, 
Luther  Austen,  Truman  White,  Lsaac  Palmer,  Ebenezer  Dibble, 
Benjamin  Trevitt,  Oliver  Needham,  Charles  Needham,  Isaac 
Nichols,  J.  L.  Douglass,  L.  A.  Needham.  R.  T.  Foote,  Isaac 
Woodward,  Perrin  Sampson. 

Commissioners. — Dea  Russell,  Isaac  Knox,  Emery  Samp- 
son, Amos  Stanbro,  Benjamin  Fay,  Jeremiah  Richardson, 
Harvy  Andrews,  Paris  A.  Sprague,  Robert  G.  Mint,  Abel  Hol- 
man, Rufus  Thurber,  Horace,  Gaylord,  Isaac  Nichols,  l\.  K. 
Ostrander,  Elbert  W.  Cook.  William  W.  Blackmar,  Ira  W'ood- 



The   following  are  copied   from   the  new  town   book  which 
commences  in  1869  : 



Town  Clerks. 



A.  E.  Hadley, 

John  Nichols, 


W.  W.  Blakeley, 

Laban  A.  Needham, 


W.  W.  Blakeley, 

Edward  Godard, 


W.  W.  Blakeley, 

John  Ballon, 


W.  W.  Blakeley, 

Alfred  Newcomb, 


W.  W.  Blakeley, 

Edward  Godard, 


W.  W.  Blakeley, 

William  L.  Mayo, 


Edwin  L.  N orris, 

Isaiah  Gardenier, 


W.  H.  Ticknor. 

W.  H.  Stanbro, 


W.  H.  Ticknor, 

Alfred  R.  Trevett, 


W.  H.  Ticknor, 

George  Weeden, 


W.  H.  Ticknor, 

Isaiah  Gardenier, 


Frederick  G.  Myers, 

Alfred  R.  Trevett, 


Frederick  G.  Myers, 

William  H.  Pingrey, 


Frederick  G.  Myers. 

George  Weeden. 



Com's  of  Highways. 


George  Mayo, 

Henry  Blackmar, 


George  Mayo, 

George  D.  Conger, 


George  Mayo, 

Benjamin  A.  Fay, 


Henry  F.  Norris, 

William  H.  Warner, 


Benjamin  A.  Fay, 

Nelson  Scott, 


Frank  Prior, 

William  Wiley, 


Frank  P.  Spaidding, 

Samuel  D.  Vance, 


Frank  0.  Smith, 

Nelson  Scott, 


Frank  P.  Spaulding, 


John  H.  Melvin, 


John  H.  Melvin, 

Marcus  B.  Churchill, 


Edward  D.  Bement, 

Marcus  B.  Churchill, 


Morris  C.  PVeeman, 

A.  C.  Adams, 


Morris  C.  Freeman, 

William  H.  Warner, 


Morris  C.  Freeman. 

A.  C.  Adams. 

ACCOUNTS    OK    lOWN    OF    CONCORD    FOR    183O. 


TOWN    OF   CONCORD  FOR  THE   YEAR    1830. 


John  Brooks 

Joshua  A^ard 

Amaziah  Ashman  .  .  . 
Stephen  Needham  .  .  . 

A.  G.  EIHott 

David  Rensley 

Abel   Holman 

Benjamin  Sibley 

Thomas  M.  Barrett.  . 

Homer  Barnes 

Emery  Sampson 

Luther  Austen 

Benjamin  Fay 

Noah  Townsend 

Jeremiah  Richardson. 
Archibald  Griffith..  .  . 

Robert  G.  Flint 

Samuel  Cochran 

William  Smith 

Widow  Woodcock  .  .  . 

Robert  Curran 

L.  B.  Tousley 

William  Vaughan. .  .  . 

Oliver  Needham 

Silas  Rushmore 

David  Shultus 

Roads  and  Bridi^es. 
Common  Schools.  . 
Contini^ent  I'und .  . 

Rejected  Tax 

Collectors  Fees.  .  .  . 
County  Tax 

Total  Tax 


$  5  00 

10  00 

6  00 

9  75 

9  13 

2  50 

9  50 

I  50 

8  13 

6  00 

10  50 

14  75 

13  24 

15  00 

11  -'R 

1  1  -,(-> 

4  00 

3  50 

8  00 

7  00 

10  00 

15  00 

2  00 

5  00 

7  00 

5  00 

5  00 

250  00 

180  66 

26  69 

13  31 

61  83 

559  10 


$206  88 

1,091    59 
11,298  47 

246  NAMES    OF    KARLV    SE'I  TLKRS. 


Mrs.  Ezekiel  Adams,  ai^cd  96;  Mrs.  William  Ballou,  ai:^cd  91  ; 
Huldah  Townsend  Sinclair,  aged  86;  Lathrop  Bebee,  aged  87  : 
Mrs.  Lathrop  Bebec,  aged  82  ;  Orrin  Sibley,  aged  85  ;  Mrs. 
Orrin  Sible)-,  aged  i^],  ;  Silas  Wheeler,  aged  92  ;  Pliny  Wheeler, 
aged  82  ;  Mrs  David  Wiley,  aged  83  ;  Alvira  Townsend  Owen, 
aged  80;  Mrs.  Boyles,  aged  90;  Mahala  Eaton  Butterworth, 
aged  80;  Enoch  N.  Frye,  aged  83  ;  M.  M.  Frye,  aged  80;  John- 
son Chase,  aged  82;  Susannah  Phillips  Chase,  aged  80 ;  Mrs. 
Truman  Horton,  aged  83  ;  Sally  Foster  Needham,  aged  82  : 
Acsah  Wheeler  Townsend,  aged  80  ;  Eliza  Shultus  Reynolds, 
aged  80 ;  William  Southworth,  aged  over  90 ;  Col.  Sylvenus 
Cook,  aged  88  ;  Luke  Simons,  aged  85  ;  P'anny  Wheeler  Gould, 
aged  90;  Windsor  and  Stary  King,  Mrs.  Stary  King,  Windsor 
Chase,  Calvin  Killom,  Vincent  M.  Cole,  Almira  Chafee  Black- 
mar,  Eliza  Chafee  Cole,  Vernam  C.  Cooper,  Betsey  Cooper 
Simons,  Mrs.  Calvin  Smith,  Erastus  Mayo,  Martha  King- 
Wheeler,  Samuel  Wheeler,  P\anny  P^ay  Pleld.  James  P"ay,  John 
T.  Wells.  Mrs.  John  T.  Wells,  Mrs.  Isaac  Palmer,  Samuel, 
Joseph  and  Abram  Hammond,  Hosea  W.  Townsend,  Asa  R. 
Trevett,  Sally  Trevett  Clark.  Hannah  Philips  l\vichell,  Asa 
and  Marcus  Philips,  Henry  Ackley,  Cornelia  Drake  Wood, 
Thomas  M.  and  Jonathan  Briggs,  George  Barrett,  Jane  Plem- 
ing  P'ield,  Mary  P'errin  Barrett.  William  Sampson,  Mrs.  Isaac 
Nichols,  Saban  A.  Needham,  Mrs.  Marion  Twichell  Needham, 
Mary  King  Vance,  Mary  Ann  Sampson  Bingham,  Samuel 
Shaw,  Salmon  Shaw,  Mrs.  Esther  Pike  85  ;  E.  H.  Drake,  I.  E. 
Drake,  Julia  Rhodes  Lincoln,  P^mily  Rhodes  Britton,  George 
E.  Crandall,  William  McMillan,  T.  H.  Potter,  Lucy  Twicheh. 
William  Kellogg,  T.  H.  Gary,  Mrs.  Martha  Olcott  Trevitt,  Mrs. 
Mary  Wheeler  Drake,  John  S.  P\>sdick,  Jesse  Fosdick,  Mar\- 
P^osdick  Getty,  Alice  P^osdick  Andrews,  Mrs.  Harvy  Andrews, 
aged  82  ;  Mrs.  William  Dye,  about  90;  Constant  Trevitt,  aged 
96;    Reuben  Wright,  82,  Stanbury  Wright. 

THK    V()Si;UR<;    MURDKR    CASK.  247 

RKSIDENTS  OF   CONCORD    WHO    SliRNKD    IN     Illl':  WAR  OF    l8l2. 

Isaac  Knox,  Samuel  Cochran,  Benjamin  Fay,  Amaziah  Ash- 
man, Solomon  Field,  Isaiah  Pike,  Smith  Russell,  Nicholas 
Armstead,  Joseph  Hanchett,  Isaac  I>ush,  Chaniiing  Trevitt 
Thomas  McGee,  George  Killom,  Lewis  Trexitt,  Joseph  Yaw> 
Uavid  Shultes,  Charles  C.  Wells,  FJijah  Parmenter,  William 
Weeden,  Samuel  Burgess,  William  Shultes,  John  Drake,  John- 
athan  Townsend,  jr.,  Christopher  Douglass,  Gideon  Parsons, 
Hale  Mathewson,  T.  M.  Barrett,  Comfort  Knapp. 

THK  vosiJiJRc;  murdkr  cask. 

FLarly  in  the  Fall  of  1S35.  one  Joseph  Carter  was  conducting 
an  asher)-  on  what  is  now  Fast  Franklin  street,  near  Main  street, 
Springville,  for  the  manufacture  of  potash.  At  this  time  the 
"  Big  Mill  "  was  being  built  by  Manly  Colton.  of  Buffalo.  Mr. 
Colton  had  in  his  employ  one  —  Vosburg,  of  Buffalo,  as  fore- 
man of  the  mason  work  on  the  mill.  Vosburg  made  the 
acquaintance  of  Carter,  and  was  accustomed  after  his  day's 
work  was  done  to  repair  to  the  ashery,  where  Carter  kept  up  a 
fire  during  the  night  in  the  arch  under  the  huge  caldron  in 
which  he  prepared  the  potash.  Heie  the  two  men  would 
i.ndulge  in  card-playing  by  the  light  of  the  fire.  On  the  night 
of  the  supposed  murder.  Carter  and  Vosburg  were  joined  in 
their  pastime  at  the  ashery  by  a  vagabond  character  named 
Goodell,  who  had  no  fixed  home  or  occupation.  On  the  night 
in  question  it  api)ears  the  trio  indulged  freely  in  the  ardent. 
The  next  morning  the  lifeless  bod}'  of  Vosburg  was  found  out- 
side of  the  asher\-  building,  his  clothing  saturated  with  the  black- 
salts  from  the  boiling  caldron,  and  signs  that  he  had  been 
dragged  from  the  inside  of  the  building  to  the  outside.  At 
once  a  very  general  impression  [)re\'ailed  that  the  man  had 
been  murdered  b}-  his  two  companions  either  by  striking  on  the 
head  with  some  murderous  weapon  and  then  throwing  the 
body  into  the.  caldron  to  cover  suspicion  or  b)-  the  more  hor- 
rible method  of  throwing  him  by  force  into  the  boiling  salts. 

Carter  and  Goodell  claimed  that  Vosburg  fell  accidently  into 
the  caldron  and  so  met  his  death.  They  were  arrested  for  the 
murder,    tried    in    Buffalo   in    the   proper  Court    and   acquitted. 

248  THE    OTIS    MUKDKR. 

The  evidence  submitted   b\-  the  prosecution   being  neeessarily 

The  defence  proved  that  it  was  possible  for  a  man  to  fall  into 
such  a  place  and  get  out  before  death  would  occur — such  .m 
instance  ha\'ing  occurred  some  time  previous  in  Sardinia. 


Ransford  Otis  came  from  Vermont  to  Sardinia,  and  in  1826 
came  from  Sardinia  to  Concord;  he  lived  on  Lot  18,  on  the 
Cattaraugus  creek,  south  of  Springville.  April  21,  1840,  he 
was  murdered  by  Major  McEllery,  an  Irishman,  who  was  living 
at  his  house.  He  had  lived  there  but  a  few  weeks,  but  had 
lived  about  the  forks  of  the  creek  for  some  time.  At  that  time 
there  was  a  grist  mill  up  at  Richmonds,  and  they  had  been  up 
to  mill  and  returned  and  were  at  the  barn  putting  out  the  team 
in  the  forepart  of  the  evening,  when  McEllery,  who  was  a 
larger  and  much  stronger  man  than  Otis,  stepped  up  behind 
him  and  grabbed  him  around  the  neck  and  choked  till  he 
thought  he  had  killed  him,  when  he  laid  him  on  some  boards 
on  the  barn  floor  next  the  hay  ;  but  Otis  came  to  and  said, 
"  Major,  you  don't  mean  to  kill  me  ?  "  Then  McEllery  pounded 
him  till  he  was  dead.  He  then  set  the  barn  on  fire.  Presently 
the  people  on  the  creek  and  some  from  Springville  saw  the  fire 
and  came  running  down,  and  McEllery  was  there,  and  they 
enquired  of  him  where  Mr.  Otis  was,  and  McEllery  said  he  had 
gone  over  to  Mr.  May's,  who  was  his  brother-in-law.  and  lived 
over  across  the  creek  where  Warren  Ransom  lives  now.  And 
some  of  those  present  went  over  to  Mr.  May's  and  found  that 
Otis  had  not  been  there,  and  when  the  barn  had  fallen  in  and 
was  burning  fiercely,  McEllery  was  seen  to  put  his  hands  up  to 
shade  his  eyes  and  look  sharply  through  the  smoke  and  flames 
at  some  object  burning  in  the  fire  and  on  the  hay.  The  people 
mistrusted  him  and  had  him  arrested  then  and  there,  and  he 
was  committed  to  jail,  and  in  due  time  tried  and  convicted  and 
made  a  confession  before  he  died.  He  was  hung  on  the  19th 
da)-  of  January,  1841. 

THE    OEl)    SPRIN(^.VILI,E    HOTEL. 
The  old  hotel  was  built  in  i<S24  b\'    Rufus  C.  Eaton,  assisted 
by  his  brother,  Elisha.     At  that  time,  Main  street  had  not  been 

riii';  oi.i)  si'kiN(;vii,i.i-.  iiori;!,. 


opened  but  two  or  three  years,  and  there  was  not  a  building  on 
the   south    side    of   the    street,    from    the    Liberty  Pole  west  to 
Waverly    street,    and    forest    trees   were    standing   on   the   lots 
opposite  the  hotel.      Rufus  C,  kept  the  hotel  several  years  and 
then  sold  it  to  Johnson    Bensley,    who  also   run   it  a  few  years. 
In    the   Sprino   of   1833,   Richard   Wadsworth.   father  of   H.  t! 
VVadsworth,    bought   it  and  kept  it   until  the    Spring   of  1836, 
when  he  sold  it  to  Edwin  Marsh,  of  Buffalo,  who  turned  it  into 
a  boarding  house  for  a  short   time.      Within  a  year,  Marsh  sold 
it  to  Varney  Ingalls,  and  the  title  remained   with  him  and  his 
heirs  about  twenty-two  years.     During  that  time  it  was  rented 
and  run  by  Mr.  Wing  and  son,  by  Phelps  and  Tisdel  Hatch,  by 
(iaston  U.  Smith,  by  James  V.   Crandall,  William  Olin,  George 
Shultus,  jr.  Constant  and  Abner  Graves,  Brand  and  Harrington, 
Ballon   and    Stanbro,    Miles    Hayes,  Mortimer    L.   Arnold,  and 
James    Razee.      In    1859,    I'erigrine    Eaton    bought    it  of    Mr. 
Severance   and    SyKester   Eaton's    family   kept    boarders  then, 
afterwards  Mrs.  Rumsey  kept   boarders.      In  1866,  E.  S.  Pierce 
bought  it   and  kept  hotel  there,    "  Hat  "'    Holmes  and  George 
Goodspeed  each  rented   it  and  run   it,  and  E.  S.   Pierce  kept  it 
again.      In  i8;i,  Rust  and  Dygert  bought  it,  soon  after  Dygert 
sold  out  to  Rust,  who    kept    it   till   the  Spring  of  1876,  when  it 
went    into  the  hands  of   E.    Briggs,   assignee,  who    sold    it    in 
the    Spring    of      1877     to     Alvo    Axtell,     and     he    sold   it    to 
Joseph   Capron,  and   he  to   H.   G.   Leland,  in  the  P'all  of  1877. 
In  1879,  ^Ir-  Leland  took  down  the  old  house  and  erected  in  its 
stead    the    present    new,    enlarged    and    tasty    hotel    building. 
When   the   old    hotel    was    first    built,   there    were    no  meetino- 
nouses  m  Sprmgville,   and   religious   meetings   were  sometimes 
held  in  the  hall.     The  lodge  of  F.  &  A.  M.,  in  this  town,  some- 
times held    their    meetings    there.      There   the   )^oung   people 
occasionally  had  their  social  gatherings.    The  hall  was  occupied 
in  1844,  by  the  Whigs  as  a  club  room,  there  they  held  their 
meetings,    made    their  sjieeches,   and   sang  their  songs.      The 
post-office  was  kept  there    for  a  while  when  Major  Blasdell  was 
postmaster.     Town    meetings  were  held  there  once   or   twice. 
At  various  periods  during   its   existence  of  over  half  a  century, 
many  of  the  lawyers  and  doctors,  and  business  men  of  the  vil- 
lage, made  it  their  boarding  place  and  their  home  for  vears. 


In  early  times,  before  the  railroad  days,  there  was  considera- 
ble emigration  passing  through  Springville  to  the  West,  and 
quite  an  amount  of  travel  from  Cattaraugus  county  through  to 
Buffalo.  Frequently  the  hotel  barn  would  be  full,  and  the 
,beds  all  full,  and  sometimes  the  bar-room  floor  would  be  full, 
(and  occasionally  a  customer  would  be  in  the  same  condition). 

Many  and  great  changes  have  taken  place  since  the  old  hotel 
was  built,  not  only  in  this  town  and  county,  but  throughout  the 
world.  Then  no  railroads  for  carrying  passengers  had  ever 
been  built ;  then  no  steamships  were  carrying  passengers  across 
the  ocean.  The  telegraph  had  not  been  invented.  Then 
there  were  no  sewing-machines,  mowing-machines  or  threshing- 
machines  in  being.  The  Erie  canal  had  not  been  completed  ; 
then  the  assessed  value  of  the  real  estate  of  the  town  of  Buffalo 
was  less  than  half  what  the  assessed  v^alue  of  the  real  estate  of 
the  town  of  Concord  is  now.  Then  there  was  not  a  cook-stove 
or  a  bugg}^  in  this  town.  The  old  hotel  has  passed  away  and 
will  be  seen  no  more,  although  it  \\as  small  in  size  and  inferior 
in  style  and  dingy  in  appearance,  yet  it  abounded  in  good 
cheer,  and  many  a  good  time  had  been  enjoyed  there.  And  just 
as  good  eatables  and  drinkables  ha\'e  been  served  up  there  as 
in  the  great  hotels  of  New  York  or  Saratoga. 


A  short  time  before  David  Shultus  came  and  located  on  his 
place  on  the  C.attaraugus  creek,  an  Indian  family  camped 
down  there  on  the  flats,  they  had  a  child  just  old  enough  to 
run  around  outside  the  wigwam.  One  day  just  at  dusk,  a 
panther  caught  the  child  and  killed  it,  about  that  time  the 
Indian,  who  had  been  out  hunting,  came  home  and  shot  the 
panther.  The  Indian  buried  the  child  there  on  the  flats  and 
put  in  its  gra\e  such  articles  as  was  their  custom.  The  Indian 
came  there  after  ]\Ir.  Shultus  located  there  and  related  the  cir- 
cumstances of  the  case  to  him,  and  showed  him  the  child's 
grave,  and  the  bones  and  claws  of  the  panther.  He  had  the 
skin  of  one  foot  and  part  of  the  leg  for  a  tobacco  pouch,  and 
said  he  should  have  it  buried  with  him  when  he  died. 

Soon  after  Truman  White  settled  on  what  is  now  the  John 
Wells  farm,  within  the  corporation  of  Spring\'ille,  and  when  there 

A     Illkll.l.IXi;    IJKAR    Sl'ORV.  2$  I 

was  nothiiiL^  but  a  path  throui^h  the  woods  where  the  road  is 
now.  His  son.  Tompkins  White,  then  a  boy,  started  from  the 
house  to  come  north  in  the  patli,  and  a  panther  came  down 
from  the  hill  on  the  east  side  and  confronted  him,  they  faced 
each  other  awhile  and  when  the  boy  stepped  forward  the  pan- 
ther did  the  same.  The  boy  concluded  it  was  best  to  retreat 
towards  the  house,  which  was  close  by,  which  he  did  without 
beins^  molested  by  the  panther. 

In  1816,  Da\-id  Wiley,  David  Shultus  and  (jeorge  Shultus 
went  over  to  the  Heaver  Meadows  in  Cattaraugus  county, 
twelve  miles  from  Springville,  after  cattle  on  a  pleasant  day 
about  the  20th  of  Noxember,  they  had  to  stay  ail  night  and  as 
there  were  no  settlers  there,  the)'  built  up  a  rousing  fire  in  the 
woods  and  sta)'ed  by  it.  In  the  night  a  furious  snow  storm 
arose  and  the  panthers  screamed  around  them  and  one  came 
so  near  that  the\-  ccnild  see  his  eyes  glimmer  in  the  darkness. 
David  Shultus  went  over  bear-footed  and  in  the  morning  the 
snow  was  about  a  foot  deep,  and  he  had  to  dance  around  quite 
lively  to  keep  from  freezing.  At  that  time  there  were 
several  beaver  dams  and  beaver  houses  along  the  creek  on  the 
Beaxer  Meadows. 

A    BEAR    STORY. 

The  following  bear  story  is  related  b}-  the  late  David  Oyer, 
father  of  Jacob  Oyer,  of  Springville  :  "  It  was  some  60  or  more 
years  ago  since  I  went  to  the  town  of  Ashford.  Only  a  few^ 
settlers  were  there  at  that  time,  and  the  few  cows  they  po.s- 
sessed  were  suffered  to  roam,  through  the  woods.  The  few  set- 
tlers would  take  turns  in  looking  them  up  at  milking  time. 
The  ex'ening  in  question  it  fell  to  my  lot  to  bring  the  cows 
home,  and  it  being  Sunday  I  did  not  take  my  gun  along,  as  was 
customar)-  with  me,  but  I  coaxed  all  the  dogs  in  the  settlement 
to  accompany  me,  and  I  started  out  in  an  easterly  direction, 
and  it  was  not  long  before  I  could  hear  the  tinkling  of  the  bells. 
All  at  once  the  dogs  set  up  a  terrible  outcry  in  the  direction 
that  I  was  going,  and  I  quickened  my  footsteps  and  soon  came 
up  with  the  dogs,  who  had  a  bear  at  bay.  He  sat  upright  upon 
his  haunches  with  his  back  to  a  large  tree,  and  whenever  a  dog 
<jot  within  his  reach    it   receixed   a   terrible   bloxv    from    Bruin's 



paw,  and  whenever  he  turned  and  attempted  to  climb  the  tree 
the  dogs  would  seize  him  and  haul  him  back.  What  was  to  be 
done  ?  My  only  arms  was  a  pocket-knife,  but  this  stood  me 
well  in  hand  ;  with  it  I  cut  a  heavy  cudgel,  and  by  keeping  the 
tree  between  myself  and  the  bear,  I  was  able  to  approach  near 
enough,  and  by  stepping  to  one  side  I  dealt  him  a  stunning 
blow  across  the  nose,  and  a  few  more  over  the  head  finished 
him.  That  bear  was  dressed  and  divided  up  among  the  set- 
tlers, who  enjoyed  a  feast. 


The  names  of  persons  who  took  deeds  of  land  from  the  Hol- 
land Compan}',  the  number  of  the  lots  and  parts  of  lots,  the 
number  of  acres,  and  the  date  of-  purchase  : 



Acres  ;  Subdivision.  '  Date  of  Deed. 

I  22 














e  pt .  . 
w  pt .  . 

s  pt . . . 
m  pt. . 
n  pt .  . 
spt.  . 
n  pt .  . 
s-e  pt . 
n-e  .  .  . 
m  pt. . 
s-w  pt. 
n-w  pt. 
s-w  pt. 
n-e  pt . 
m  pt. . 
n-w  pt 

m  pt. . 
n  pt .  . 
s-e  pt . 
s-w  pt. 
A\'  m  pt 
e  m  pt 
n-e  pt . 

Nov.  II,  1841 
Nov.  I.  1840.  . 
Dec.  7,  1815  .  , 
Jan.  21,  1818.  . 
Jan.  21,1818, 
Sept.  24,  1823, 
Dec.  3,  1823  .  . 
Sept.  25,  1833, 
Dec.  29,  1837  , 
Jan.  13,  1834.. 
Dec.  10,  1834  . 
Mar.  8,  1833  .  . 
July  17,1827.. 
Dec.  31,  1836  . 
Sept.  29,  1831 . 
Jan.  22,  1846.  . 
July  I,  1839... 
July  22,  1834.. 
June  14,  1832. 
Jan.  16,  1834.  . 
Sept.  20,  1838. 
May  26,  1836. 
Aug.  23,  1832. 
Jan.  16,  1836.  . 
April  10,  1832. 


Eaton  Bentley. 
Joseph  Harkness. 
Samuel  Cochran. 
Joseph  Yaw. 
Christopher  Douglass. 
Rufus  Eaton. 
John  Albro. 
Charles  C.  Wells. 
Silas  Rushmore. 
James  Hinman,  Jr. 
John  Van  Pelt. 
Varne)'  Ingalls. 
Noah  Cuher. 
Jedediah  Stark. 
Benjamin  Nelson. 
Elijah  Matthewson. 
Marsena  Ballard. 
Joel  Chaffee. 
William  Weeden. 
John  Russell. 
Francis  White. 
Aimer  White. 
William  Weeden. 
Rob.  Auger. 
Jar\-is  Bloomfield. 

TOWNSHIP  SIX,   RANGE  ?,\X—Conti,uied. 






Date  of  Deed. 




n-w  pt .  .  . 

Jan.  14,  1834.  . 

Samuel  Cochran. 



n-w  pt .  .  . 

Jan.  14.  1834.. 

Samuel  Cochran. 



w  1 

Dec.  2,  1817  .  . 

Abraham  Mid  da  ugh. 



w  1 

Mar.  18,  1823  . 

Benjamin  Rhodes. 

1 1 


s  pt 

Aug-.  31,  1830. 

Elizabeth  Austin. 

1 1 


s  m  pt . . . 

Mar.  2,  1829..  . 

Harvev'  Andrew. 



m  j)t 

Aug.  30,  1 83 1. 

Julius  Bement. 



n  pt 

Oct.  4,  1826..  . 

Phineas  Scott. 



^^-  1 

Oct.  31,  1832.. 

Jarvis  Bloomfield. 



e  pt 

July  15,1834.. 

Thomas  Johnson. 



w  pt 

Nov.  30,  1837. 

Giles  Churchill. 



n  pt 

Aug.  31,  1830. 

Luther  Austin. 



\\-  1 

Dec.  30,  1836  . 

Elbert  W.  Cook. 



•^  pt 

Dec.  30,  1836  . 

Elbert  W.  Cook. 



n  pt 

Jan.  3,  1857... 

Jarvis  Bloomfield. 



•-  pt 

Jan.  29,  1842.  . 

David  Wiley. 



m  pt 

Jan.  3,    1837... 

Jarvis  Bloomfield. 



^  pt 

Oct.  25,  1838.  . 

Ebenezer  Dibble. 



m  pt 

Mar.  25,  1837. 

Jarvis  Bloomfield. 



11  m  pt .  .  . 

June  17,   1828. 

J.  White. 



n  pt 

Jan.  23,  1837.. 

Truman  W'hite. 



s  pt 

Oct.  9,  1837... 

Ransford  Otis. 



n  pt 

Jan.  23,  1836.  . 

Truman  White. 



w  1 

Sept.  10,  1822 . 

George  Shultus. 



w  I 

May  25,  1829  . 

Orrin   Ballard. 



w  1 

Oct.  21,  1819.  . 

William  Shultus. 



^^•  1 

Feb.  18,  18 14.  . 

David  Shultus. 



s  c  pt . .  .  . 

Oct.  14,   1836.. 

Abel  Holman. 



s-w  pt. .  .  . 

Sept.  6,  183 1 .  . 

David  Shultus. 



n  pt 

May  22,  1835  . 

Jabez  Weeden. 




Mar.  2,  1832.  . 

Abel  Holman. 



11  pt 

Jan.  8.   1835... 

Abel  Holman. 




Dec.  30,  1837.. 

N.  A.  Bowen. 



m  pt 

Aug.  13,   1838. 

George  Richmond.  Jr. 



11  pt ] 

Jan.  7,  1835..  . 

Nathan  Hull. 




s-e  pt . 
n-e  pt . 

Sept.  21,  1809. 
Dec.  29,  1836.  . 
Dec.  29,  1836.  . 

James  Vaughan. 
Asa  Wells. 
Jonathan  Mayo. 





Subdivision.       Dai e  of  Deed. 



s  m  pt . 

.    Dec.  29,  1836.  . 

Willard  W.  Cornwell. 



n  m  pt .  . 

.    Dec.  29,  1836.  . 

Hiram  Mayo. 



s-\v  pt. . 

.    June  5,  1834.  . 

Mary  Rouse. 



n-\v  pt  . 

.    Oct.  9,   I  •'-32..  . 

William  Smith. 



s-e  pt .  . 

.    July  18,  1839.  • 

P.  C.  Sherman. 



n-e  pt . . 

.    Dec.  29,  1836.. 

Archibald  Griffiths. 



s  m  pt . 

.    April  18,  1840. 

James  Bloodgood. 



n  m  pt . 

.    May  17,  1836.. 

Archibald  Griffiths. 



.s-w  pt . . 

.    June   19,  1837. 

William   B.  Wemple. 



n-w  pt . 

.    Nov.  22,  1830. 

Archibald   Griffiths. 



s  pt. .  .  . 

.    Oct.  14,  1 83 1  .  . 

John   M.  Bull. 



n  pt . .  . 

.    Nov.  22,   1838. 

Amos  Stanbro. 



s-e  pt .  . 

.    Mar.  I,    1838.  . 

Amos  Stanbro. 



e  m  pt . 

.    Dec.  29,  iN36  . 

William  Olin. 



n-c  pt. . 

.    Auo-.  13,  1836. 

Abraham  Gardiner. 



s-w  ])t.  . 

.    May  14,  1832.. 

H.  J.  Vo.sburo-h. 



vv  m  pt. 

.    April  I,  1839.  • 

\W  P.  Powers. 



n-w  pt. . 

.    Sept.  13,  1836. 

Abraham  Gardiner. 



e  pt  .  .  . 

..  Oct.    12.  1842.. 

John  Cotrell. 



m  pt. .  . 

.|  Oct.  12,  1842.  . 

Joseph  Cotrell. 



w  pt .  .  . 

.,  July  18,  1839.  . 

P.  C.  Sherman. 



m  pt. .  . 

.    Dec.  29,  1837.. 

Arnold  Wilson. 



w  pt . .  . 

.    April  I,  1839.  • 

William  P.  Powers. 



e  pt  .  .  . 

.    Oct.  26,  1836.  . 

Alexander  Butterfield, 



m  pt. .  . 

.    Julv  18,  1839.  • 

P.  C.  Sherman. 



w  pt .  .  . 

■    July  8,  1833- •■ 

William  L.  J  add. 



s-e  pt .  . 

.    Sept.  25,  1837. 

Charles  Wells. 

\  Seth  W.  Godard  and 



-S-w  pt .  . 

.    April  20,  1843  • 

(       Eber  Brooks. 



m  p  .  .  . 

.    Oct.  17,  1837.  . 

Benjamin  Freeman. 



n-e  pt . . 

.    June  7,  1836.  . 

Asa  Wells. 



n-w  pt  . 

.    Sept.  20,  1837. 

Jo.seph  McMillan. 



s-e  pt  .  . 

.    May   5,   1832.  . 

James  Bloodgood. 



n-e  pt .  . 

.    Dec.  30,  US36. . 

William  Smith. 



s  m  pt . 

.;  Mar.    11,  1S35. 

James  Bloodgood. 



s-w  m  pt 

.    Dec.  27,  1836  . 

Josiah  Graves. 



n  m  pt . 

.    Dec.  21,  1838.. 

Moses  W.  Griswold. 



w  pt .  .  . 

. .    Jan.  IT,  1837.. 

Seeley  Squires. 



.s-e  pt .  . 

.  .    June   19.  1837. 

William  B.  Wemple. 



e  m  i)t . 

.    Nov.  17,   1838. 

William  B.  Wemple. 



n-e  pt .  . 

.  .    Jan.  17,  1828.  . 

A.  Griffith. 



n-w  pt  . 

.:  Feb.  15,  1834.. 

Jonathan   Mayo. 






Date  of  Deed. 




w  m  pt. . 

April  I,  1839.  • 

William  P.  Powers. 



n-w   pt .  . 

Jan.  3,1838... 

James  Wilson. 



e  pt 

Dec.  28,  1837  • 

Mor.  L.  Badgley. 



em  pt .  . 

Nov.  13,  1837. 

P^dward  Cram. 



w  m  pt. .  . 

Aug.  u,  1836. 

David  Meeker. 




July  18,  1839.. 

P.  C.  Sherman. 



n  m  pt .  . 

June   19,  1837. 

Rebecca  Putman. 



n  pt . .  .  . 

April  I,  1839.  • 

W.  P.  Powers. 


1 10 

5f  npt... 

Jan.  18,  1851.  . 

Phineas  Scott. 



s-c  pt .  .  . 

Dec.  26,  1837. 

John  Griffith. 



s  m  pt .  .  . 

April  I,  1839.  • 

D.  H.  Chandler. 



n-e  pt .  .  .  . 

Nov.  27,  1837. 

Hez.  Griffiths. 



n-w  pt  .  . 

April  I,  1839.  . 

W.  P.  Powers. 



^^  pt 

June  16,  1843.. 

George  N.  Williams.. 



m  pt . . .  . 

April  I,  1839.  • 

D.  H.  Chandler. 



n  pt 

\  June  14,1837 
(       or  1836..  .  . 

Homer  Barnes. 



^  pt 

Jan.  21,  1833.. 

Abner  Wilson. 



s  m  pt . .  . 

April  I,  1839.  • 

W.  P.  Powers. 



n  pt 

Auo.  23,  1838. 

Chauncey  Dunbar. 



■'^  pt 

Jan.  31.   1837.. 

Josiah  D.  Graves. 



m  pt 

Jan.  3,   1837... 

Ashley  Holland. 



n  pt 

Dec.  I,  1823..  . 

Samuel  Bradley. 



s  pt 

Aug.  31,  1 810. 

Luther  Curtiss. 



s  m  pt .  .  . 

Dec.  30,  1836.. 

Amos  Stanbro. 



n-e  m .  .  .  . 

Feb.  I,  1839..  ■ 

David  L.  Sweet. 



n   w  ni .  .  . 

Nov.  6,   1838.  . 

John  Gould. 



n  i)t 

Mar.  7,    1857.  . 

Hiram   Mayo. 



Feb.  I,  1839..  • 
F^eb.  1 ,  1856. .  . 

Erastus  Mayo. 
Weston  Waite. 


s-e  pt .  .  .  . 

Feb.  15,  1834.. 

Jonathan  Mayo. 



w  m  pt.. 

Dec.  31,  1836.. 

James  Curtiss. 



n-e  pt . . . . 

Dec.  31,  1836.. 

Calvin  Smith. 



n-w  pt .  . 

Dec.  20,  1837.. 

Prentis  Stanbro,  Jr. 



s-e  pt .  .  .  . 

Dec.  6,  1836... 

Dax'id  Campbell. 



n-e  pt .  .  . 

Dec.  6.  1839..  ■ 

Samuel  Jocoy. 



s  m  pt .  . 

Feb.  5,  1838..  . 

Arnold  Cranston. 



n  m  pt .  . 

Oct.  31,  1838.  . 

Amos  Stanbro. 



w  m  pt.. 

April  7,  1838.. 

Prentis  Stanbro,  Jr. 



w  pt .  .  .  . 

April  7,  1838.  . 

Prentis  Stanbro. 



s-e  pt .  .  . 

Oct.  21,  1837.  . 

Samuel  A,  Jocoy. 



s-w  pt. .  . 

1  June  9,   1838.  . 

William  Smith,  Jr. 



Lot.   Acres.   Subdivision.       Date  of  Deed 






































50  , 




50  i 


50  I 


50  ! 


50  1 


51  ! 


51  i 


51  j 


51  1 








52  1 


















55  ! 


s  m  pt .  .  .  i  Dec.  26,  1 833. . 
n  m  pt.  .  .  I  Dec.  25,  1838.. 

n  pt I  Nov.  21,   1837. 

s  pt I  July  i<S,  1839.. 

s  m  pt .  .  .  :  A\n-'\\  1,  1839.  . 
e  m  pt.  .  .  I  June  16,  1845  . 
w  m  pt. .  .  I  April  9,  1 828  .  . 

n  pt I  April  i,  1839.  • 

c  pt j  July  18  1839.  • 

m  pt 1  Aug.  23,  1838  . 

w  pt [  June  5,  1837.  . 

e  pt ,  July  18,  1839.. 

m  pt j  Sept.  22,  1855  . 

w  pt April  I,  1839.  • 

s  pt Dec.  28,  1836.. 

.s  m  pt .  .  .    Feb.  6,  1833. .  . 

m  pt !  Oct.  10,  1829.  . 

n  pt :  Aug.  27,  1824. 

s  pt j  Aug.  10,  1830. 

s  m  pt.  .  . !  Feb.  i,  1834..  . 

m  pt April  2,  1838.  . 

n  pt Jan.  6,  1836.  .  . 

n-e  pt. .  .  .  Dec.  27,  1838.. 
n-w  pt.  .  .  Dec.  27,  1838.. 
s-e  pt .  .  .  . '  April  2,  1838.  . 
n-n-e  pt..  June  17,  1835. 
.s-w  pt.  ..^  Oct.  17,  1833.. 
\v  m  pt.  .    Feb.  28,  1831.. 

e  pt July  18,  1839.. 

em  pt.  .  .  June  12.  1838. 
n-e  &  m  pt  Mar.  26.  1853.. 
n-w   pt.  .  .  t  April  2.  1838.  . 

n-\v  pt .  .  .  Dec.  18.  1840.. 

s  pt Mar.  26.  1853.. 

.s  m  pt .  .  .  Mar.  10,  1841. . 

n  m  pt.  .  .  July  24,  1853.. 

n-e  pt..  .  . '  Sept.  29,  1855  . 

n-w  pt.  .  .  Oct.  23,  1841  . 

Dec.  25,  1817.. 

w  m  &  -s-e .  J  une  8,  1 849 .  . 

n-e  pt .  .  .  .  Jan.   4.    1839.  . 

David  Smith. 
Patrick  Hogan. 
I  Ephraim  Needham. 

P.  C.  Sherman. 
'  W.  P.  Powens. 
J  George  N.  Williams. 
;  Aaron  Cole. 

D.  C.  Chandler. 

P.  C.  Sherman. 

Chauncey  B.  Dunbar, 
i  Wheeler  Drake. 
i  P.  C.  Sherman. 

Julia  Anne  Abbott. 

W.  P.  Powers. 

David  Shultes. 

Varney  Ingalls. 

Varney  Ingalls. 

Varney  Ingalls. 

Abraham  Fisher. 

Daniel  Tice. 

Amos  Stanbro. 

Zimri  Ingalls. 

Zimri  Ingalls. 

Caleb  Ingalls. 

Amos  Stanbro. 

Amos  Stanbro. 

James  Flemmings. 

Amos  Stanbro. 

P.  C.  Sherman. 

Amos  Stanbro. 

Philip  Ferrin. 

Amos  Stanbro. 

i  R.  C.  Eaton  and 

(  Otis  Butterworth. 

\\'illiam  Smith,  Jr. 

Ephraim  A.  Briggs. 

Stary  King. 

Stephen  Churchill. 

Edward  Goddard. 

Jonathan  Sibley,  Jr. 

Orrin  Sibley. 

S}l\'ester  Abbott. 

FROM      rilK     IIOI.I.AM)    COMI'ANV. 
TOWNSHIP  SEVEN.   RANGE  S\X- Continued. 









61  ; 

61  i 

61  I 

62 ! 
62  I 

62  j 

63  I 
<33  : 


64  I 

64  ! 

Aches.   Smnivi^iox.  I     Daye  ok  Deed. 












1 10 

50  1 


100  ! 

50  ^ 








j    .s-w   i)t. .  .  , 
.s-w     pt .  .  . 


c  m  [)t .  .  . 
I  s  m  pt .  .  . 

.s-w  })t  .  .  . 
!   n-w  pt .  .  . 

.s-e  pt .  .  .  . 
!  .s-w    pt .  .  . 

n-c  pt. .  .  . 

n  m  pt . .  . 

n-w  i)t .  .  . 

s-e  pt .  .  .  . 

n-e  ])t .  .  .  . 

m  pt 

w  pt . .  .  . 

s-e  pt .  .  . . 

n-e  pt . . .  . 

m  pt 

M'  pt 

e  pt 

s  m  pt .  .  . 

n  m  pt . .  . 

s-w    pt .  .  . 

n-\v  pt .  .  . 

s    pt 

m  pt 

n-e  pt . .  . .  j 

s-e  pt .  .  .  . ' 

s-w  pt .  .  .  . ! 

m  pt 

n   pt 

s    pt 

n-e  pt .... ; 
n  m  pt. . . i 

n-w  pt . . . I 
s-c  i^t .  .  .  . 
c  m  pt.  .  .  i 
n-c  pt. .  .  . 
n  m  pt .  .  .  I 
w  pt  .  .  .  .  j 
m  6v:  s-c  pt 

Jan.  13,  1829. 

Oct.  20,  1 84V 

Mays,  1835^.. 

June  4.  1834.  , 

Dec.  26,  1837.. 

Dec.  26,  1837.. 

Nov.  15.   1836. 

Nov.  5,  1841  .  . 
'  Feb.  22,  1836.. 
f  Oct.  25.  1838.  . 
I  Oct.  18,  1851  .  . 
I  Sept.  14,  1836. 
I  Dec.  26,  1838.. 

Dec.  2j,  1838.. 

April  I,  1839.  . 

April  19,  1837. 

June  27,  1838. 

Dec.  10,  1834.. 

Jan.  9,  1829.  .  . 

Feb.  6,  1837..  . 

Mar.  26,  1853.. 

June  6,  1836.  . 

April  I.  1839.  . 

Oct.  3.  1836... 

Nov.  s,  1836.  . 

Feb.  7,  1838... 
July  18,  1839.  • 

Feb.  24,  r83i.. 
Sept.  13,  1845  ■ 
June  22,  1835  . 
April  2,  1838.  . 
Dec.  27,  1831..! 
Mar.  6,  1828..  .j 
Dec.  1 3  or  30/36: 
Dec.    13,  1836.1 
Dec.  30.  1836. .  I 
July  20.  1836.  .1 
Dec.  30.  1 836. .  I 
Dec.  30.  1836. .j 
April  I,  1839.  . 
Mar.  22,    1854. 

,    Orrin  Siblc}-. 
j  Trumbull  Carey. 

Sylvester  Abbott. 

Caleb  Abbott. 

William  A.  Calkins. 

Henr)'  Smith. 

D.  Lewis. 
!  Carlos  Emmons. 

Carlos  Emmons. 

Alanson  Wheeler. 
!  Benjamin  Wheeler,  Jr 

Varney  Ingalls. 

Benjamin  \Mieeler. 

Caleb  In<Talls. 

W.  P.  Powers. 

John  House. 

Ebenezer  Blake. 

Benjamin  Fay. 

Benjamin  Fay. 
;  Nehemiah  Fay. 

Philip  Ferrin. 

Noah  Townsend. 

W.  P.  Powers. 

Constant  Trevitt. 

Thomas  Stephenson. 

Amos  Stanbro. 

Pardon  C.  Sherman. 

J.  Southwick. 
Jacob  LeRoy. 

William  Field. 
Joshua  Afjard. 
H.  E.  Potter. 
Joshua  Agard. 
Abijah  Sibley. 
Joshua  Agard. 
Benjamin  Sibley. 
Michael  Curran. 
Moses  Leonard. 
Oliver  Dutton. 
Orange  Wells. 
W.  P.  Powers. 
Elnoch   N.   Frve. 

2  5« 




n-e  pt .  .  .  . 

Date  of  Deeo. 



Mar.  4,  1854  .  . 

Jesse  Frye. 



m  pt 

Oct.  27,  1836.  . 

Enoch  N.  Frye. 



w  m  pt.  .  . 

June  12,   1834. 

Jesse  Frye. 



s-w  pt . .  .  . 

Nov.  8,   1852.. 

Jesse  F'rye. 



n-w  pt. .  .  . 

July  10,  1834.. 

James  S.  Erye. 



w  1 

Dec.  4,  1833..  . 

Isham  &  D.  G.  Williams 



e  pt 

Dec.  4,  1833... 

Isham  &  D.  G.  Williams 



w  pt 

Oct.  15.  1852.  . 

William  Weber. 



w  1 

April  18,  1838. 

Michael  Smith. 



e  pt 

April  12,  1838. 

Michael  Smith. 



w  pt 

July  23,   1839.. 

Tristam  Dodge. 



w  I 

Dec.  I,  1855  •  • 

Michael  Smith. 



e  pt 

Mar.  4.  1854.  . 

Jesse  Frye. 



\\'  pt 

July  I,   [838... 

Abraham  Van  Tuyl.' 



s-e  pt  .... 

March  4,    1854 

Jesse  Frye. 



n-e  pt .  .  .  . 

Jan.  28,  1854.  . 

Morgan  L.  Badgley. 



w  pt 

March  22,  1854 

Enoch  N.  Frye. 



'  s-e  pt .  .  .  . 

Dec.   27,  1838. 

\  B.  G.  Kingsbury  and 
(      John    Haveland. 



e  m  pt . . . 

Sept.  28,  1837. 

Luther  Austin. 



s-w  pt. .  .  . 

Dec.  28,  1837.. 

Jacob  Hufstater,  Jr. 



n  pt     .... 

Oct.  27,  1836.  . 

Jacob  Hufstater,  Jr. 



n  pt 

Jan.  12,  1839.  . 

T.  B.  Marvin. 


Dec.  4,  1833... 

\  Daniel     G.    Williams 


w  pt 

(    and  Isham  Williams. 




Jan.  10,  1834.  . 

John  Williams. 



n  pt 

March  28,  1836 

Aimer  White. 



s  pt 

Sept.   21,    1837 

John  Williams. 



n  pt 

July   18,  1839.. 

r.  C.  Sherman. 



^\'  1 

July  18,  1839.. 

P.  C.  Sherman. 



s  pt  ......  . 

Oct.  14,  1841 .  . 

Daniel  Green. 



"  P 

Feb.  16,    1854. 

Morgan  L.  Badgeley. 



■^  pt 

March  4.    1854 

Jesse  Frye. 



•^  pt 

Jul}-  18,  1839  . 

P.  C.  Sherman. 



n-\v  pt  ... 

Nov.  1,  1840.  . 

Charles  Watson. 



n  pt 

Oct.  23.  1840.. 

Evert  Van  Buren. 




July  18,   1839.. 

P.  C.  Sherman. 



m  pt 

Sept.  2,  1854.  . 

James  S.  P"rye. 



e  pt 

Jan.   2,  1856..  . 

Alexander  M.  Bruce. 



e  m  pt . . . 

Oct.  6.  1838... 

Amos  Stanbro. 



m   pt 

July  18,   1839.. 

P.  C.  Sherman. 



w  pt 

Sept.  28,  1 841  . 

Charles  l^ringle. 

Vinni    till'.    IIOLI,AND    COMPANY. 





Datk  of  Deed. 




.    Nov.  17,   1838. 

David  Jerman. 



s  m  i)t  .  . 

.    July  1.  1838  .  . 

Abraham  Van  'l\n-l. 



m  i^t .  .  .  . 

.     lunc  25,  1842. 

Mile  M.  Baker. 



n  111  pt .  . 

.    Jan.  15.  1842.  . 

Hosea  P.  Ostrander. 



n  i)t  .  .  .  . 

.    Feb.   7.  1838.  . 

Alanson  P.  Morton. 



s  pt 

.    Jul)-  18,   1839.. 

P.  C.  Sherman 



s  m  pt  .  . 

.    March  28.  1843 

Moses  T.  Thompson. 



m  pt. .  .  . 

Dec.  29,  1838.. 

Milo  M.  Baker. 



n-e  pt .  .  . 

March  10,  1838 

Alanson  P.  Morton. 



n-w  pt  .  . 

Oct.  I  I,  1837.. 

David  Witherel. 



c  pt  .  .  .  . 

Dec.  30,  1836.. 

Samuel  Churchill. 



m  pt. .  .  . 

Oct.  20,  1843.  • 

Jacob  Le  Roy. 



vv  pt .  .  .  . 

July  18,  1839.. 

P.  C.  Sherman. 



■'^  pt 

.    Oct.  23,  1840.. 

Everet  Van  Buren. 



m  pt. .  . . 

Aui^.  4,   1856.  . 

Charles  C.  Empson. 



n  pt 

.    July  18,    1839.. 

P.  C.  Sherman. 




.    March  15.  1851 

Frederick  Whittlesey. 



e  pt 

.    June  2,    1838.  . 

John  Van  Pelt. 



m  pt. .  .  . 

Oct.  6.    1838..  . 

Amos  Stranbro. 



s-w  m  pt 

Ma)'  26,  1855.. 

John  Shear. 



n-w  m  pt 

.    Oct.  15.  1853.. 

L.  V.  Nicholas 



w  pt .  .  .  . 

.    Nov.  18,   1839. 

Charles  Prini^le. 



s-e  pt .  .  . 

.    June  29,    1832. 

Eleanor  Curtis. 



s-w  })t.  .  . 

.    Jul)-  1,   1838... 

Abraham  Van  Tu\-1. 



m  pt. .  .  . 

.    Dec.  I  r,  1840  . 

James  Wheeler. 



n  m  pt.  . 

.    Sept.  27,  1854. 

Levi  Wheeler. 



n  pt  .  .  .  . 

.    Dec.  20,  1838. 

Isaac  Nichols 



s-e  pt .  .  . 

.    Jan.  24    1843.. 

Jeremiah  Richard  so  n . 



s-e  m  pt . 

.    Jan.   31.  1838.. 

Jeremiah  Richardson. 



n-e  m  pt. 

.    Dec.  I  I,  1840  . 

James  Wheeler. 



n-e  pt .  .  . 

.    June  15,    1848. 

Jeremiah  Richardson. 



n-w  m  pt 

.    Dec.  29,  1836.. 

Jeremiah  Ricliardson. 



w  pt .  .  .  . 

.1  May  25,  1839.. 

Jeremiah  Richardson. 





spt  .. 
s-w  pt 
m  pt. 
n  pt  . 
s  pt .. 

Jan.  8.  1839.. 
Feb.  22,  1836 
April  [,  1839. 
Nov.  8,  1839  . 
Jan.  28,  1837. 

Carlos  Emmons. 
Carlos  Emmons. 
D.  H.  Chandler. 
Varney  In  gal  Is. 
Varnev  Ingalls. 








50  1 





































































114  1 


114  ' 

I  I 


e  m  pt .  .  . 

w  m  pt. .  . 

n  pt 

\\-   1 


m  &n-w  pt 
s-w  pt . .  .  . 
s-e  pt .  .  .  . 
.s-e  m  pt  .  . 
e  ni  pt .  .  . 
s-w  pt .  ... 
s-w  m  pt. 
n  m  pt . .  . 

n  pt 

•'^  pt 

e  m  pt .  .  . 
n-e  pt .  .  .  . 
n-w  pt  .  .  . 
s-e  pt .  .  .  . 
S-A\'  pt . . .  . 
w  m  pt . .  . 
e  m  pt . .  . 

m  pt 

n  m  pt .  .  . 
n  m  pt .  .  . 

n  pt 

■^  pt 

c  m  pt 

w  m  pt. .  . 
n-e  m  pt. . 
n  pt 

^  pt 

n  pt 

s-e  pt .  .  .  . 
s  m   pt . .  . 

m  pt 

n  pt 

s-w  pt .  .  . 
^■-e  pt .  .  .  . 


March  10,  1824 

March   10,  1824 

March  16,  1836 
June  17,  1835. 
Feb.  24,  181 5.. 
Dec.  20,  18^7.. 
Dec.  21,  1848.. 
Dec.  29,  1849  • 
Nov.  22,  1838. 
March  25,  1854 
Dec.  30,  1854.. 
July  18,  1839.. 
March  25,  1854 
Ma)^  24,  1842. . 
July  18,  1839.. 
Dec.  29,  1835  . 
Feb.  12,  1836  . 
April  I,  1839.. 
Aug.  26,  1830. 
Oct.  14,  1835  .. 
Feb.  8,  1832..  . 
Dec.  29,  1838.. 
Nov.  7,  1836.  . 
March  27,  1846 
Jan.  7,  1837..  ■ 
Jan.  7,  1837... 
Dec.  31,  1836. . 
Dec.  31,  1838.. 
June  14,  1839  ■ 
June  20,  1849. 
Jan.  5,  1837... 
July  18,  1839.. 
June  2},,  1855. 
Feb.  23,  1853  . 
Feb.  23,  1854  . 
Feb.  23,  1853.. 
Jan.  3,  1837... 
March  14,  1842 
Jan.  20,  1848.  . 

I  Trustees  of   1st  Con- 

-     gregational  Church, 

(     Concord. 

\  1st    Baptist     Society 

(    of  Concord 
Jedediah  H.  Lathrop. 
Jedediah  H.  Lathrop. 
Jonathan  Townsend, 
Amaziah  Achniune. 
Phineas  Scott. 
J.  O.  Canfield. 
Reuben  C.  Drake. 
Reuben  C.  Drake. 
Phineas  Scott. 
Pardon  C.  Sherman. 
Elam  Booth. 
Parley  Martin. 
Pardon  C.  Sherman. 
Oliver  Needham. 
Sellick  Canfield. 
Daniel  H.  Chandler. 
Hosea  E.  Potter. 
Hosea  PL.  Potter. 
John  Brooks. 
Lemuel  H.  Twitchell. 
P.  B.  Brush. 
George  Winship. 
Peter  Bradley. 
George  Winship. 
William  Dye. 
Worcester  Holt. 
Palmer  Skinner. 
Ira  Woodward. 
Ebenezer  Drake. 
Pardon  C.  Sherman. 
Abraham  Van  Tu\-L 
Samuel  Wheeler, 
(i   W.  Hawkins. 
Ely  Page,  Jr. 
Varncy  Ingalls. 
Peter  Cook. 
Phineas  Scott. 



Lot.  Acres    Subdivision        Date  of  Deed 























1 12 

1 12 


n-e  pt . . 
w  pt . .  . 
s-e  pt .  . 
.s-w  pt . . 
n-\\'  pt  . 
n-c  pt . . 
s  pt... 
m  pt. .  . 

II  pt . 
.s-\v  pt . 
.s-e  pt .  . 
m  pt . .  . 
n  pt.  .  . 
.s-e  pt .  . 
.s-\v  pt .  . 
s  pt .  .  . 
s  m  pt . 
s  m  pt . 
ni  pt .  .  . 
m  pt . . . 
n  m  pt . 
n  ni  pt . 
n  pt .  .  . 
.s-e  pt .  . 
s-\v  pt . 
s  m  pt . 
m  pt . .  . 
n  m  pt . 
n  pt . .  . 
s  pt... 
s    pt .  .  . 

III  pt .  .  . 
n  pt . .  . 
s-e  pt .  . 
-s-w  pt . 
Ill  &;  n-e  pt 
n  m  pt . 
n-\v  pt . 
e  pt . .  . 
Ill  pt .  .  . 
w  pt . . . 
e   pt .  .  . 


March  17,  1855 
Oct.  30,  1837. 
Jan.  7,  1839.. 
Jan.  7,  1850.  . 
Sept.  28,  1850 
Dec.  24,  1836 
July  I,  1838.. 
Nov.  26,  1842 
Aug.  26,  1853 
Mar.  18,  1852 
Feb.  I,  1849. 

14,  1835. 

14, 1835. 

17-  1853 
10,  1853 
7.  1835. 
21,  1838 
20,  1829. 























1 84 1 

29,  1836 

3,  1839-  • 
28,  1836 
4,  1854. 
I,  1836. 
8,  1856. 
8,  1856. 
I,  1853.. 
June  28,  1855 
Jan.  3,  1837.  . 



„i,  1836 
Dec.  9,  1835. 
April  26.  185  I 
Nov  4,  1836. 
Sept.  2,  1828. 
Jan.  12,  1839. 
May   10,   1839 

Amasa  Loveridge. 
Lewis  M.  Trevitt 
Phineas  Scott. 
Phineas  Scott. 
Phineas  Scott. 
01i\'er  Arnold. 
Thadeus  Heacocks. 
Abial  D.  Blodgett. 
Thadeus  Heacocks. 
William  L.  Adams. 
Uriah  D.  Pike. 
Theodore   H.  Potter. 
Hosea  E.  Potter. 
Hosea  E.  Potter. 
T.  H.  Potter. 
William  Twichell. 
Solomon   P.  P'ield. 
H.  E.  Potter. 
Lemuel  Twichell. 
Jacob  LeRoy. 
Joseph  Potter. 
George  W.  Thurber. 
Hezekiah  Drake. 
Christiana  Bridgeman. 
Lewis  Janes. 
William  Potter. 
William  Potter. 
George  W.  Drake. 
Wheeler  Drake. 
M.  D.  Scott, 
Marvin  Hartman. 
Amasa   Loveridge. 
Samuel  W.  Algar. 
Clark  Carr. 
Josiah  Alger. 
James  Tyrer. 
Benjamin  Trevitt. 
Sally  Martin. 
Joseph  M.  Spaulding. 
Jonathan  Spaulding. 
F.  B.  Marvin. 
J.   r.  (j.  .Spaulding. 






84  i 






































50  ; 


100  i 


























1 1  [ 















m  pt. 
w  pt . 
s-e  pt 
n-e  pt 
s-\v  pt 
n-\v  pt 
s  pt . 
m  pt . 
n  pt . 
s-e  pt 
e  m  pt 
s-w  pt . 
w  in  pt 
n-w  pt 
s  m  pt 
s-w  pt 
e  m  pt 
^\^  m  pt 
n-c  pt . 
n-w  pt 
s  pt.. 
n-c  pt . 
n-w  pt 
n  m  pt 
w  m  pt 
s  pt. .  . 
n-e  pt . 
m  pt  . 
n-w  pt 
e  pt  .  . 
c  m  pt 
m  pt. . 
w  pt. . 
s-e  pt . 
n-e  pt . 
m  pt. . 
s-w  pt . 
n-w  pt 

n  ])t .  . 

s  pt. .  . 











































3I;    1836 

1  I,  1839., 

2,  1839. 

12,    1835 

8,  1823. 

1  I,  1839., 

I,    1838., 

26,  1839 

24,  1823 

4.    1838., 

18,   1839 

.  21,  1836, 

I,    1838.. 

I,    1838., 

I,    1838., 

I,   1838.. 

3.  1837... 

31,    1838, 

15,  1 84 1 . 

7,  1836.  .  , 

12,  1839.. 

1 ,  1 84 1 . . 
20.  1855. . 

24.   1855. 

9.  1844  •• 
7,  1839... 
12,  1851 . 

2.  1855.. 

17-  1855- 
1,  1838... 
26,  1856.. 
7,   1839... 

I  I,  1812. 
28,  1857.. 
31,  1836  . 
6,  1836  .. 
I  I,  1839.  . 

14,  1820  . 

15,  1842.  . 
23.  1851. 

Hira  C.  Lusk. 
Daniel  H.  Chandler. 
Benjamin  Trevitt. 
Healey  Freeman. 
Benjamin  Trevitt. 
Daniel  Chandler. 
A.  Van  Tuyl. 
Isaiah  Pike. 
Isaiah  Pike. 
Isaiah  Pike. 
P.  C.  Sherman. 
Lewis  Trevitt. 
A.  Van  Tuyl 
A.  Van  Tuyl. 
A.  Van  Tuyl. 
A.  Van  Tuyl. 
Samuel  Fosdick. 
Wm.  Curran. 
John  S    Fosdick. 
Ebenezer  Ellis 
¥    B.  Marvin. 
Pliny  Wheeler. 
James  Tyrer. 
James  Ouinn. 
Joseph  Dennison. 
Horace  U.  Soper. 
T.  M.  Briggs. 
James  Tyrer,  Jr. 
Benjamin  Trevitt,  Jr. 
A.  Van  Tuyl. 
Carlos  Emmons. 
H.  U.  Soper. 
Samuel  Eaton. 
Carlos  Emmons. 
Asa  R.  Trevitt. 
Everett  P'isher. 
Emery  Sampson. 
T.  A.  Canfield. 
John  Andrews. 
\  A.  R.  Trevitt  &  Levi 
(       Ballon,  Jr. 
Andrew  Adams. 

FROM     Till-;    HOLLAND    COM  I'AW. 






Date  of  Deed. 



ni  pt 

lulv   I,  1838..  . 



n-c  ])t  . .  .  . 

Dec.  18,  1835  . 



n-w   pi .  . 

April  I,  1839.  • 



s-c  pt .  .  .  . 

;  Sept.  21,  1836. 



s-c  m  pt. . 

1  AiifT.   I  I.  1845  ■ 



c  m  pt .  .  . 

Mar.  27,  1834.. 



n-c  pt. .  .  . 

Jan.  23,  1839.. 



s-w  m  pt . 

Sept.    13.  1845 



.<-\v  pt .  .  .  . 

Nov.  19,  1853. 



n-w   pt . . . 

Auo-.  ,.   ,838.. 




'  April  I,  1839.  • 



.^  ni  pt .  .  . 

Jan.  10.  1857.. 



n  ni  pt . .  . 

(Jet.  14,  1842.. 




Sept.  16,  1822. 



e  m  pt  .  .  . 

Dec.  29,  1836.  . 



w  m  pt .  .  . 

Dec.  29,  1836  . 



n  pt 

Aui;-.  18.  1825 .; 




June  25,   1838. 

34  ! 


e  m  pt . .  . 

'  July  22,  1833..! 



\\'  \w  i)t. .  . 

July  22,  1833..  1 



m  pt 

July  I,  1838...; 



n  m  pt .  .  . 

Sept.  10,  1840. 

35   , 


c  &  n-c  pt 

Nov.  29.  1836.' 



.s  m  pt .  .  . 

Julys,  1839...; 



w  pt 

July  18,  1839.. 

36  ' 


.s-c  pt .  .  .  . 

Mar.  20,  1833  .' 



n-c  pt . .  .  . 

Oct.  20,  1843.  • 



c  m  pt  .  .  . 

July  18,  1839  ■ 



cm  pt . . . 

July  1.   1842. .  . 

36  1 


w  m  pt..  . 

May  24,  1843.  . 



w  pt 

Dec.  17,  1839  • 

37 ; 


n  pt 

Feb.  2,  1855  .  . 

37    : 


•'^  pt 

Dec.  15.  1855.. 



s  m  pt  .  .  . 

Dec.  15.  1855  . 

37  ^ 


n  pt 

Sept.  8,    1855.. 

38  i 


.s-w  pt  .  .  . 

Feb.  2.    1855.  .' 

38  1 


n-e  pt..  .  . 

Mar,  31,  1854. 

^l  \ 


n-w  pt . . . 

April  1 1,  1845. 



s-e  pt .  .  . . 

Nov.    I,  1840.  . 


A.  Van  Tu\l. 
Ezek.  Adams. 
D.  H.  Chandler. 
Lewis  Trevitt. 
Joseph  Hawkins. 
Lewis  Trevitt. 
Alphonso  Cross. 
Jacob  Le  Roy. 
Truman  Vanderlip. 
\  D.     Burr    and   T.    T. 
(       Sherwood. 
Daniel  H.  Chandler. 
Truman  Vanderlip. 
\  Francis  H.  Tattu  and 
)       M.  M.  Tattu. 
Lewis  Nichols. 
Calvin   Johnson. 
Joshua  Steel. 
Ezekiel  Goodell 
Israel  Sly. 
Zeb.  Simmonds. 
Luke  Simonds. 
A.  V^an  Tuye. 
Phineas  Peabody. 
Emery  Sampson . 
William  Sampson. 
P.  C.  Sherman. 
Emery  Sampson. 
Jacob  Le  Roy. 
P.  C.  Sherman. 
Thomas  Pound. 
Lat^rand   W.  Douglass 
Emery  W.  Sampson. 
Ciilbert  C.  Sweet. 
C  hristopher  Brick. 
Thomas  Thiel. 
Jonathan  Stearns. 
Gilbert  C.  Sweet. 
Truman  Vanderlip. 
Urial  Torrey. 
Ezekiel  .Adams. 

.•264  NAMES    OF    PARTIES    TAKIXCi    DEEDS 


Lot,  Acres  Subdivision.   Date  of  Deed 





















































































e  s  &  w  pt 
n-e  pt . .  . 
s-e  pt  .  .  . 
s-w  pt .  .  . 
\v  m  pt .  . 
n-e  j)t .  .  . 
n-w  pt .  . 
e  pt  .  .  .  . 
e  m  pt  .  . 
\v  m  pt .  . 
w  pt . . . . 
s-c  pt  ... 
.s  m  pt .  .  . 
n-e  pt .  .  . 
w  m  pt .  . 
w  pt  .  .  .  . 
e  pt  .  .  .  . 
e  m  pt .  . 
m  pt  .  .  .  . 
w  m  pt .  . 
w  m  pt .  . 
w  m  pt .  . 
e  pt  .... 
e  m  JO  t .  . 

m  pt 

s  pt 

s  w  pt  .  . 
ni  pt  ... 
m  pt . .  .  . 
n  m  ])t .  . 
n  j)t  .... 
.s-e  pt .  .  . 
c  m  pt  .  . 
n-e  pt .  .  . 
.s-\v  pt .  .  . 
w  ni  i)t .  . 
n-w  pt  .  . 
s  &  w  pt . 
.s  &  m  pt 
n-e  pt .  .  . 
n-e  pt .  .  . 
.s-e  pt  .  .  . 

Feb.  3,  1834  .. 
April  I,  1839.  . 
March  5,  18 10. 
Sept.  I,  1855.. 
Oct.  24,  1851  .  . 
Jan.  5,  1856.  .  . 
Jan.  26,  1853  .  . 
July  I,  1838  .  . 
Feb.  1 1,  1856.  . 
July  18,  1839.  . 
Nov.  5'  1855  .. 
Dec.  21,  1836.  . 
Dec.  21,  1836  . 
April  8,  1856.  . 
Oct.  5,  1853... 
Dec.  21,  1841 . 
Nov.  I,  1841 .  . 
Nov.  I,  1 84 1  .  . 
Nov.  I,  1 84 1  .  . 
Feb.  19,  1853.. 
Oct.  3,  1841  ..  . 
Nov.  I,  1841  .  . 
April  I,  1839.  • 
Dec.  27,  1837.. 
Aug.  31,  1853. 
Jan.  20,  1855.  . 
Sept.  6,  185  I .  . 
May  3,  1856  .. 
Oct.  I  I,  1S56.  . 
Sept.  6,  1 85  I  .  . 
Oct.  10,  1837.  • 
Sept.  I,  1856.  . 
March  17,  1855 
March  27,  1852 
April  14,  1855. 
Oct.  29,  1849.  . 
No\-.  1,  1841  .  . 
Jul)-  18,  1839.  . 
July  8,  1842  .  . 
Dec.  16,  1842.. 
July  I,  1838.. 
April  I,  1839.  • 


Benjamin  Dole. 
Daniel  H.  Chandler. 
Thomas  M.  Barret. 
George  Myer. 
P.  Hagelbergier  &  wife. 
George  Barrett. 
Jacob  Myers. 
Abraham  Van  Tuyl. 
William  S.  Fessenden. 
Pardon  C.  Sherman. 
John  Nichols 
Luke  Simonds. 
Zebedee  Simonds. 
Ira  N.  Fuller. 
Ezra  H.  Heath. 
Jasper  Tabor. 
John  Healands, 
J.  How. 

Isaac  Woodward. 
William  Bates. 
James  Collvil. 
Alexander  Richley. 
D.   H.  Chandler. 
William  Andre. 
George  Vance. 
Jacob  Heavy. 
Zacheus  H.  Preston 
Thomas  Thiel. 
John  L    Unger. 
Jonathan  Stevens. 
Truman  Vanderlip. 
George  Roth. 
Ira  Stebbins, 
Ira  Stebbins. 
Nicholas   Reading. 
Orvilla  Kirby. 
William  Horton. 
P.  C.  Sherman. 
Michael  Hagelberger. 
(jeorge  Myers 
Abraham  Van  Tuvl. 
D.  H.  Chandler. 


I'ROM     Till';    IlOLl.AXD    ('OMI'AW. 





Date  ok  D  ed. 







s-c   pt .  .  .  . 
n-e  111  pt .  . 
n-\v  m  pt  . 
!1-\V  pt   .  .  . 

April  5.  1839.. 
April   5,  1839.  • 
Dec.  20,  1838.. 
April  I,  1839.  • 

Ira  Woodard. 
Benjamin  Rathbun.  jr. 
Daniel  Morton. 
D.  H.  Chandler. 


Concord  has  eight  beneficiar}-  and  secret  societies  besides  a 
lodge  of  Free  Masons  located  as  follows:  five  at  Springville, 
two  at  Woodward  Hollow  and  one  at  East  Concord.  The  fol- 
lowing statistics  relate  to  the  several  lodges  : 

E.  A.  v.,  SPRIN(;VILLE    UNION   NO.  36. 

This  society  was  instituted  in  December,  1879,  with  twelve 
charter  members  ;  present  membership,  112.  The  following  is 
a  list  of  the  original  officers  ;  James  N.  Richmond,  President ; 
Mrs.  A.  Blackam,  Vice-President  ;  Mrs.  E.  S.  Van  Valkenburg, 
Auxiliary  ;  William  Stone,  Treasurer  ;  A.  R.  Taber,  Secretary; 
A.  J.  Moon,  Accountant  ;  George  R.  Clark,  Chanc;  A.  L. 
Vaughan,  Advocate  ;  Rev.  E.  T.  Fox,  Chaplain  ;  P.  A  \'an 
\'alkenburg.  Watchman  ;   William  Blackam,  Warden. 

A    ().    U.  W.,  SPRINCVII.LE    LODGE,  NO     I  55 

The  lodge  was  organized  Jan.  28,  1878,  with  seventeen  orig- 
inal members  ;  charter  members,  forty-one  ;  present  member- 
ship, fifty-seven.  The  following  were  the  original  officers  :  W. 
H.  Warner.  M.  W.;  R.  W.  Tanner,  G.  T.  R.;  Philip  Herbold, 
O.;  George  H.  Barker,  R.;  George  B.  Clark,  T.;  John  P.  Myers. 

R.  T.  OF    r.,  S1'RIN(;\  ILLE  COUNCIL.  NO.  5  I. 

Organized  June  21.  i87iS.  with  fourteen  charter  members: 
present  membership,  135.  The  original  officers  were;  J.  W. 
Reed.  S.  C;  L.  D.  Chandler.  V.  C;  W.  H.  Jackson.  P.  C;  A. 
F.  Bryant,  Chap.;  Miss  Ida  Reed.  Sec:  X  H.  Thurber.  Treas.; 
J.  B.  Flemings.  Herald  ;  Miss  Lizzie  Billings.  (luard  ;  N.  G. 
Churchill,  Sen. 


C.  M.  B.  A.  (Catholic  Mutual  Benefit   Association),  LOCATED  AT 


The  Association  was  organized  in  the  Spring  of  1879,  with 
twenty-one  charter  members ;  present  membership,  the  same. 
The  original  officers  were:  Peter  Weismantel,  Pres.;  Frank 
Weismantel,  First  Vice-Pres.;  Nicholas  Rassell,  Second  Vice- 
Pres.;  Fred  Fox,  Treas.;  John  Bolender,  Cor.  Sec;  Camille 
Hugel,  F"in  Sec;  Marshall  Demult,  Marshal;  Jacob  Heire, 
Guard  ;  Victor  Collard,  Nicholas  Rassell,  Peter  Heire,  Matthew 
Metzler  and  Sigismund  Schewrtz,  Trustees. 

G.  A.  R. — (T<ARY    POST,  NO.  87,  LOCATED  AT    SPRIXGVILLE. 

Organized  Aug.  15,  1881  ;  charter  members,  eighteen;  pres- 
ent membership,  twenty.  The  original  officers  were:  H.  P. 
Spaulding,  Commander;  J.  P.  Meyers,  S.  V.  C;  J.  Oswald,  J. 
V.  C;  O.  M.  Morse.  Adj't ;  E.  L.  Hoops,  Q.  M.  George  H 
Barker,  O.  D.;  S.  E.  Spaulding.  O.  G.;  W.  H.  Agard,  Chap. 
C.  VVaite,  Surgeon;  E.  D.  Bement,  S,  M.;  \V.  H.  Warner,  Q. 
M.  Sergt. 

E.  A.   C,  EAST  CONCORD  UNION,  NO.    I  50. 

Instituted  Sept.  14,  1880;  charter  members,  sixteen;  present 
membership,  forty-six.  The  original  officers  were  James  Crans- 
ton, Chan.;  Sterling  Titus,  Advocate;  George  L.  Stanbro. 
Pres.;  Charles  Spencer,  Vice-Pres.;  B.  E.  VanSlyke,  Aux.;  L. 
A.  Stanbro.  Treas.;  Libbie  M.  Van  Slyke,  Sec;  Amelia  Hor- 
ton,  Acct.;  Annis  Titus,  Chap.;  Sarah  Baker,  Warden  ;  Morris 
Baker,  Sen.;   Edward  Bayless,  Watchman. 


Instituted  May  28,  1879;  charter  members,  twenty-seven; 
present  membership,  thirteen.  Original  officers ;  George  W. 
Briggs,  Pres.;  Job  Woodward,  Vice-Pres.;  Charles  Hartley, 
Rec  Sec;  Layton  M.  Goodcll,  Fin.  Sec;  Philo  Woodward, 
Treas.;  C.  C.  Alger,  Chap.;  Charles  Kn()wles,  C;  Myron  E. 
Palmerton.  1.  G.;  Josiah  Woodward,  O.  G.;  W.  M.  Woodward, 
P.  P. 


Instituted  Ma\'  28,  1 880  ;   charter  members,  twent}';   present 

NKWSI'AI'KkS.  267 

niciTibcrsliip,  thirty,  (^n'^inal  officers:  William  Woodward 
Chan.;  Isaac  Woodward,  Adxocatc  ;  l\rry  T  Scott,  Pros, 
(amcs  L.  Tarbox,  Vicc-Pres  ;  Mianda  Tarbox.  Aux.;  Philo 
Wootluard.  Trcas  ;  W.  G.  Clark,  Sec  ;  Mrs.  Viola  Woodward. 
Acct.;  Mrs.  Susan  Scott,  Chap;  Albert  Potter,  Warden;  Mns, 
Anna  Woodward,  Sen.;  Andrew  Geif^er,  Watchman. 


The  first  newspaper  in  the  town  was  the  Springville  Expriss, 
l)ublished  by  E.  H.  Hough,  commencing  in  1844,  continuing 
four  years. 

The  Springville  Herald  was  started  May  4,  1850,  and  had  a 
long  and  influential  career,  ardently  advocating  the  principles 
of  tlie  Whig  and  Republican  parties.  E.  D.  Webster  &  Co, 
were  the  founders,  but  after  the  second  week  Mr.  Webster 
assumed  the  sole  proprietorship,  holding  it  until  December, 
1856,  when  he  disposed  of  the  establishment  to  J.  B.  Saxe. 
The  latter  continued  to  publish  the  paper  until  1863,  when,  on 
account  of  the  excessive  cost  of  publishing  in  war  times  and  to 
devote  himself  to  the  ministr\-  and  to  agriculture,  he  discon- 
tinued the  paper. 

The  American  Citi'^cii,  started  in  1855,  was  published  during 
the  presidential  campaign  of  1856  by  E    C  Saunders. 

The  Poiiiy  Weekly,  a  local  paper,  diminutix'e  in  size,  was  pub- 
lished by  W.  A.  P'errin  several  months  in  1858. 

In  January,  1864,  Augustine  W.  Ferrin,  who  formerl\'  had 
assisted  Mr.  Saxe  in  editing  the  Herald,  returned  discharged 
from  the  army,  in  which  he  had  served  faithfully  until  physi- 
cally disabled.  Leasing  Mr.  Saxe's  office  and  procuring  con- 
siderable new  material,  he  started  the  Chro>neU\  wliich  he  pub- 
lished until  March,  1865,  when  he  was  attracted  to  Buffalo  to 
fill  the  position  of  city  editor  of  the  Express. 

The  establishment  was  then  leased  b)-  N.  H.  Thurber,  who 
from  March,  1865,  until  Januar\-,  1866,  published  the  'fribiine. 
Mr.  Ferrin  then  bought  the  material  and  took  it  to  Plllicott- 
\ille,  founding  the  Cattaraitii^ns  Repitblieaii. 

W.  W.  Blakcly  started  the  Springville  Journal  March  16, 
1867,  and  has  continued  the  publication  ever  since.  Receiving 
from  Mr.  Saxe  the  old  files  of   the   Herald,  he  resolved    to  per- 


petuate  the  name  of  the  respected  predecessor,  and  therefore 
re-christened  his  "p^.'^er  Journal  and  Herald.  J.  H.  Melven  be- 
came a  partner  in  the  enterprise  in  November,  1867,  and  con- 
tinued as  such  until  March,  1873,  v\hen  he  sold  his  interest  to 
his  partner. 

The  Students  Repository  was  for  several  months,  be<^inning" 
in  1867.  published  in  the  interest  of  Griffith  Institute  by  W.  R. 
De  Puy  and  J.  H.  Melven. 

The  Local  Ncivs,  edited  and  published  by  J.  H.  Melven,  long 
connected  with  the  Herald  3.nd  other  papers,  and  F.  G.  Meyers, 
was  started  in  Springville,  Nov.  9,  1879,  ^'''<^  i"^  ^till  jDublished 
b)'  the  same  parties. 

The  first  power  printing  press  arrived  in  Springville  in 
August,  188I,  for  printing  the  Journal  and  Herald.  In  Octo- 
ber, 1883,  Melven  &  Meyers  procured  one  for  the  "Loeal   Neivs. 

The  people  of  this  and  surrounding  towns  have  shown  their 
appreciation  of  local  papers  by  giving  a  generous  support. 
One  of  the  strongest  indications  of  the  town's  growth,  prosper- 
ity and  intelligence  is  the  fact  that  about  three  thousand  copies 
of  these  local  papers,  the  Journal  and  Herald  ?ind  Loeal  Neivs, 
are  issued  every  week. 

liKXiRAI'ilK  AI,    SKKICIIKS.  269 



The  family  histc^rics  that  fcjllow  the  general  history  of  each 
town  in  this  volume  have  been  compiled  at  an  expenditure  of 
much  time  and  labor.  Diligent  care  has  been  exercised  to 
make  them  correct,  but,  notwithstanding,  in  some  cases  desir- 
able data  has  not  been  obtainable,  and  some  errors  and  omis- 
sions seem  unavoidable. 

It  has  been  the  general  aim  not  to  indulge  very  much  in 
eulogy,  but  to  present  the  facts  and  let  the  reader  draw  his  own 

Much  space  has  been  allotted  to  family  records,  not  only  to 
furnish  general  information,  but  to  enable  successive  genera- 
tions to  trace  their  genealogy. 

Much  of  the  matter  relating  to  pioneer  times  and  other 
topics  has  been  placed  in  connection  with  the  family  histories, 
as  the  relations  of  the  persons  with  it  seems  to  make  it  a  more 
suitable  ])lace  to  insert  it. 

Ainaziali  A.shinaii. 

Amaziah  Ashman  was  born  in  Connecticut,  in  1783.  From 
there,  he  removed  to  Ontario  county,  and  resided  in  the  Town 
of  West  Bloomfield  some  years.  He  came  from  that  place  to 
this  town  in  1809.  and  located  land  on  lot  4,  township  seven, 
range  seven,  on  Townsend  hill.  He  moved  his  family  here  in 
May,  1 8 10.  John  Stuart  and  his  wife,  another  young  married 
couple,  came  out  with  Ashman  and  remained  one  year  and  then 
went  back.  It  took  them  three  da}-s  to  come  from  Buffalo  to 
Townsend  hill.  They  had  to  cut  their  own  road  part  of  the 
way.  The\'  built  a  small  house  or  shanty,  covered  with  bark, 
and  moved  into  it — -without   floors,  door  or  windows. 

At  that  time,  there  were  no  families  either  east  or  west 
nearer  than  ten  miles,  and    the  nearest    on   the    north    were    at 


Boston,  and,  f)n  the  southeast,  at  or  near  Sprhigville.  Mr. 
Ashman  taught  school  occasionally  in  earh'  time.  He  also 
kept  hotel  for  a  few  years  on  his  farm  on  Townsend  hill.  He 
served  as  a  soldier  on  the  Niagara  frontier  in  the  war  of  18 12- 
15,  and  was  in  skirmishes  and  engagements  on  both  sides  of 
the  river.  He  was  once  taken  prisoner.  He  was  at  the  burn- 
ing of  Buffalo.  He  was  Town  Clerk  the  first  year  after  the 
Town  of  Concord  was  organized,  and  when  it  contained  Con- 
cord, Sardinia,  Collins  and  North  Collins,  and  was  elected  to 
that  ofifice  si.xteen  years  in  succession.  He  also  held  the  oflfice 
of  Justice  of  the  Peace  for  eighteen  years,  and  frequently  pre- 
sided at  town  meetings.  For  the  first  twenty-five  years  after 
its  organization,  he  was  one  of  the  leading  men  of  the  town. 
He  cleared  and  owned  a  large  farm,  on  which  he  resided  until 
he  died,  in  i85i.  He  was  seventy-eight  years  of  age  at  the 
time  of  his  death. 

His  wife.  Thankful  Ashman,  died  March  14,  1881,  in  the 
ninety-fourth  year  of  her  age.  She  was  a  resident  of  this  town 
about  seventy-one  years,  which  is  a  longer  period  than  any 
other  person  ever  lived  here  who  was  twent}'-one  years  of  age 
when  they  came. 

Their  children  were  : 

John  H.,  born  181 1  ;  married  Frelove  King;  for  second  wife. 
Sally  Turner,  died  in  Illinois,  September  1874. 

Hannah,  born  1813;  married  Augustus  Bonnel  ;  lives  in 

Alonzo  Curtis,  born  1815;  married  Hannah  Tj-rer  ;  lives  in 
Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 

Ariette,  born  1818;  married  first,  Thurber,  second,  Saunders; 
died  in  1854. 

Malvina,  born  I820;  married  John  V'^arren  ;  he  is  dead,  she 
lives  in  East  Otto. 

Sarah,  born  1822;  married  Samuel  Wheeler;  lives  in  this 

Levi,  born  1825;  died  young. 

Alma,  born  1828;  married  Cyrus  Hurd  ;  lives  in,  this 

Alzora,  born  1832  ;   married  Norman  Cook  ;  died  in  1855. 

Helen,  born  1834;  died  1845. 


John    Albi'o. 

]o\\\\  Alhi'o,  one  of  the  two  first  settlers  in  this  town,  was 
born  in  Rhode  Island,  in  1776;  in  1792,  he  remo\'ed  to  Sara- 
toga count\%  N.  v.,  and  from  there  he  enii<^rated  to  the  Town 
of  Concord,  in  1807.  He  first  located  on  lot  forty-one,  town- 
ship seven,  rant^^e  six,  b\'  the  bi^  sprin<j^  where  Luzerne  Katon 
now  li\'es.  Wlien  he  first  canie  to  this  town,  his  famil}-  con- 
sisted of  his  wife  and  three  children — Emery  D.,  Malvina  and 
Maria.  In  the  Summer  of  180S,  Mrs.  Albro  died  ;  at  that  time 
there  was  only  one  other  famil\-  in  the  Town  of  Concord,  that 
of  Chrif^topher  Stone,  who  li\'ed  about  where  Mr.  Joslyn's 
family  Wvc  now,  and  there  were  no  families  h'vn'ni^  in  an\'  of  the 
adjoining  towns  except  Boston.  At  that  time,  there  was  no 
minister  living  an}'where  in  this  part  of  the  country,  and  the 
best  that  could  be  done  to  gi\e  Christian  burial  to  the  departed 
was  to  send  to  Boston  for  Deacon  Richard  Cary,  who  came  ten 
miles  through  the  woods,  accompanied  b\-  some  of  his  neigh- 
bors, to  lead   in  the  funeral  serx'ices. 

After  the  death  of  his  wife,  Mr.  Albro  went  East  and  re- 
turned the  second  Spring.  He  married  a  second  wife  in  Pitts- 
tord,  Monroe  county,  N.  V.  He  did  not  remain  on  lot  number 
lorty-one  but  a  short  time,  when  he  purchased  the  north  part 
of  lot  eight,  township  six,  range  six,  now  within  the  corpora- 
tion, and  moved  onto  it.  He  built  him  a  log  house  near  where 
the  old  hay-barn  now  stands,  on  the  east  side  of  BufTalo  street, 
just  south  of  the  forks  of  Sharp  street  and  the  Tounsend  Hill 
roads.  He  kept  ta\'ern  there  and  cleared  up  a  farm.  The  first 
town  meeting  lield  in  the  Town  of  Concord,  when  it  contained 
.Sardinia,  Concord,  (^)llins  and  North  Collins,  was  held  at  John 
Albro's  log  tavern,  in  1S12.  The  first  school  ever  taught  in 
the  Town  of  Concord  was  taught  b}'  Anna  Richmond,  in  the 
Summer  of  18 10,  in  a  small  log  barn  of  Mr.  Albro's  that  stood 
on  the  west  side  of  Buffalo  street,  nearly  opposite  his  house. 

Mr.  Albro  lived  in  this  town  over  twenty  years,  when  he  sold 
out  his  farm  to  Mr.  Jlewett  and  remoxed  to  Gowanda,  where 
he  kept  hotel  several  years,  h'rom  there  he  removed  to  Wayne, 
Du  Page  county,  Illinois,  in  1S53,  where  he  died  Feb.  2,  1861, 
at  the  age  of  eighty-five  years.      His  second  wife    died    at  the 


house  of  her  daughter  in  ]-5uffa!o,  Jan.  4.  1862,  aged  sevent\- 
five  years.  Her  chikh'en  were  Ira,  Ehza  C,  James  R.,  Augus- 
tus G.,  Almyra.  Jerome  B.  and  Harriet  C. 

Emory  D.  Albro  resided  in  this  town,  but  died  in  Wyoming- 

Malvina  died  in  Cincinnati,  Ohio. 

Maria  married  Harry  Keeny,  and  died  in  Warsaw,  Wyoming 

Jerome  B.  went  as  a  soldier,  and  died  in  the  hospital  in 
Annapolis,  Md. 

Ira  Aibro  is  a  prosperous  farmer  in  Wa)'ne,  Du  Page  county, 

James  R.  is  a  farmer  and  lives  in  Clymer,  Chautauqua  county, 
N.  Y. 

Augustus  G.  is  a  farmer  and  li\'es  in  New  Brighton,  Bea\er 
county,  Penn. 

Harriet  C.  married  John  Benson  and  died  in  Buffalo. 

Almyra  died  in   Gowanda,  Cattaraugus  county. 

Emory  I).  Albro. 

Emory  D.  Albro  was  born  in  Saratoga  county,  in  1802,  and 
was  brought  to  this  town  by  his  parents  in  1807  ;  he  was  married 
to  Polly  Seymour,  May  ist,  1824,  and  removed  to  Warsaw, 
Genesee  count}\  In  1828  his  wife  died.  He  returned  to 
Springville  in  1851;  married  Caroline  C.  Cochran,  P"eb.  14 
1847.  She  died  April  1,  1879,  aged  sixt}'-six  years,  one 
month  and  seventeen  days. 

Emory  D.  Albro's  children  were  Elaenor,  married  to  Mr.  Bris- 
tol.    Lives  in  Gainsville,  Wyoming  count}'. 

Hellen  M.,  died  in  Buffalo,  in  1854,  aged  twenty-five  years. 

Gary  R.,  married  Olive  S.  Smith,  in  Illiiu^is,  in  1861  ;  died  in 
1864  ;  left  one  child. 

Plumb  Albro,  born  March  26,  1841  ;  Dec.  25,  [866,  was  mar- 
ried to  Ella  L.  Richardson,  at  West  Concord,  by  Rev.  B.  C. 
Vanduzee  ;  have  one  child — Ellen  E.  Albro.  He  died  at 
Gainsville,  April  16,  1881. 

Rollin  J.  Albro,  was  married  to  PVancena  Barnett,  May  5, 
1 87 1.  He  died  May  13,  1879,  ''"•  this  village,  aged  thirty-six 
years  and  six  months.      Left  one  child. 

BIO(;RAI'ni(AL    SKETCHES.  2/3 

Lora,  married  C.  C.  McClurc,  Jr.  Tlicy  live  in  Buffalo. 
Charles  N.,  lives  in  Springville,  at  the  old  homestead. 
Byron  C  ,  lives  in  Canada. 

Joshua  Aj^ard. 

Joshua  Al4.ux1  was  born  April  i6,  1789,  in  Connecticut,  where 
he  was  married  in  March,  18 14,  to  Lucy  Sibley,  who  was  born 
fune  18,  1792.  lie  came  to  Concord  in  1816,  and  located  on 
lot  sixty-three,  township  seven,  range  six,  where  he  lived  until 
his  death,  Sept.  18,  i860.  His  wife  having  died  June  9,  1831 
he  married  a  second  time,  Nov.  15,  1831,  Mrs.  Electa  Canfield, 
who  died  Feb.  23,  1880,  aged  seventy-eight  years.  By  his  first 
wife  he  had  five  children. 

Maria,  born  July  12,  1818  ;   married  in  1840  to  Ira  E.  Drake. 

Mary,  born  Juh'  25,  1821  ;  married  in  1842  to  Luman 

Amelia,  born  Nov.  9,  1822;  married  1847.  to  Horace  Lan- 
don  ;    1861,  to  Judson  Wait. 

Austin,  born  Jan.  9,  1825  ;   married  in  1852  to   Emily  Field. 

Hannah,  born  Oct.  21,  1828;  married  1857  to  John  Hill; 
1870  to  Marvin  Field. 

By  his  second  wife  he  had  one  daughter,  Mellisa,  born  Apri[ 
4;  1839  ;   married  Marvin  Field  in  1863  ;  died  April  27,  1865. 

Mr.  Agard  was  a  prominent  man  in  the  early  history  of  the 
town.  He  was  assessor  for  many  years  and  was  an  officer  in 
the  militia  and  Deacon  of  the  Baptist  church.  He  was  also 
Supervisor  of  Concord. 

Kzekicl  Adams. 

Ezekiel  Adams,  son  of  Joseph  Adams,  was  born  in  the  town 
of  Old  Salisbury,  Mass.,  on  the  i6th  -day  of  Oct..  17 19.  Piis 
father  was  a  ship-carpenter  by  trade,  but  dying  when  Ezekiel 
was  but  fifteen  years  of  age,  he  was  left  to  shift  for  himself. 
When  he  had  reached  the  age  of  eighteen  years  he  was  appren- 
ticed to  a  Mr.  Hale,  to  learn  the  carpenter  and  joiner's  trade 
The  terms  of  his  services  were  that  at  the  end  of  his  apprentice 
ship  of  three  years  he  was  to  receive  a  freedom  suit  and  a  set  of 
tools.  Both  the  agreement  and  the  reward  were  faithfully 
carried  out.     In  the  meantime  his  widowed  mother  moved  to 

Plymouth,  Grafton  county,   N.  H.     As  soon  or  soon  after  his 



term  of  service  expired  he  joined  her  there.  In  i8i2,he\vas 
married  to  Miss  Mary  Hickok.  In  1816,  on  the  first  day  of 
May,  he  left  Plymouth  in  company  with  a  brother-in-law  for  the 
Holland  Purchase.  They  came  through  horse-back.  After 
their  arrival  here  and  after  visiting  a  few  days  among  friends, 
both  went  to  Buffalo  to  find  employment  Mr.  Adams  found 
work  at  his  trade  on  the  old  Court  House,  then  in  course  of 
construction.  He  received  one  dollar  per  day,  x\fter  his  day's 
work  was  done  his  evenings  were  spent  in  sawing  wood  for  the 
villagers,  making  nearly  as  much  at  this  as  he  received  for  his 
daily  wages.  Mr.  Hickok  hired  out  to  work  on  the  brick-yard 
and  by  performing  the  work  of  two  men  he  received  double 
pay.  After  the  close  of  the  building  season  they  returned  to 
Concord  and  invested  their  summer's  wages  in  securing  a  home. 
They  bought  James  Pike's  claim  of  200  acres  on  the  north  part 
of  lot  thirty,  paying  him  some  $400  for  the  same  (3n  it  a  few 
acres  were  cleared  and  he  had  built  a  small  log-house. 

That  Fall   both  returned    to   Plymouth.      Early  in  the  new 
year  Mr.  Hickok  was  married  to  Miss  Roda  Pike  and  soon  after 
they  both    set   out    for  their    home  on  the    Holland    Purchase, 
where   they   arrived  on    the    twenty-eighth  day  of    Feb.,  1S17. 
They  put  their  horses  together  and  came  through  with  a  wagon. 
Adams  and  Hickok  divided  their  claim  soon  after  tlieir  return. 
Adams  taking  north  one-hundred  acres  and  on  this  the  remain- 
der of  his  days  were  passed.      He  died  Sept  2,    1847,   aged   fifty- 
five  years.      His  venerable  wife  survives,  aged  at   the  present 
writing,   nearly  ninety-six  years.     The  fruits  of   this   marriage 
were  four  sons  and  one  daughter.     Three  are  living  to-da}-.  \iz  : 
Abner  C,  born  April  6,  1820  at  Concord. 
Andrew,  born  March  16,  1823,  at  Concord. 
William  L.,  born  Sept.  13,  1824,  at  Plymouth,  N.  H, 
Caroline,  born  April  28,  1826,  at  Concord  ;  died  March  2,  1870 
Ambrose,  born  Aug.  10,  1829,  at  Concord  ;   died  Jul}-,  1882. 

A.  C.  Adams. 

A.  C.  Adams,  son  of  Ezekiel  Adams,  was  born  April  6,  1820, 
on  lot  30,  township  7,  range  7,  and  lived  with  his  parents  until 
he  was  twenty  years  of  age,  when  he  went  to  Black  Rock  and 
hired  out  to  drive  team  for  ten  dollars  per  month.     In  the  Fall 

hto(;rai'iii(AL   sketcfies.  275 

of  1 84 1,  li(j  attended  school  at  the  Siblc}-  settlement  to  Augus- 
tine Sibley,  teacher.  In  the  VaW  of  1842,  he  taught  school  at 
Morton's  Corners,  after  which  he  followed  teaching  Winters 
and  working  at  home  Summers  until  1850,  when  he  married 
Elsie  A.  Chase,  of  l^oston.  He  then  moved  onto  the  okl  home- 
stead and  lived  there  two  years,  after  which  he  moved  to  Bos- 
ton, where,  in  company  with  Truman  Vanderlip  and  Seth  T. 
Newell,  he  ran  a  tanner}'  and  dry  goods  store.  In  1858,  he 
commenced  surveying,  which  he  has  followed  ever  since.  Soon 
after  he  sold  out  and  in  company  with  George  A.  Moore,  of 
Buffalo,  bought  the  William  Adams  place  of  five  hundred 
acres,  where  Norman  Moore  now  lives,  which  place  they  ran 
for  eight  years.  This  he  sold  and  bought  the  Mills'  place, 
where  he  now  lives.      His  children  are: 

John  O.,  lives  at  home. 

Alvin  married  Virgie  Mason,  anci  li\es  at  home. 

Jennie  L.,  married  Charles  Churchill  and  li\es  in  Springville. 

Carlton,  lives  at  home. 

Clinton,  lives  at  home. 

Ethan,  died  about  1872. 

Andrew  Atlams. 

Andrew  Adams  was  born  in  this  town  in  1823.  His  father's 
name  was  Ezekiel  Adams ;  his  mother's  maiden  name  was 
MaryHickok;  his  grandfather's  name  was  James  Adams  ;  his 
grandmother's  maiden  name  was  Mary  Currier.  Ezekiel  Adams 
came  to  this  town  from  New  Hampshire  in  1817.  He  settled 
on  lot  30,  township  7,  range  7,  where  he  owned  and  occupied 
land  until  his  death,  in  1847.  Andrew  Adams  resides  upon  the 
land  which  his  father  settled  upon  in  1817.  He  was  married 
in  1848  to  Vanila  Francisco.     Their  children  are: 

Lenna  R. 

Leona  A.,  married  Milton  Trevett. 

Clellie  M. 

Edwin  Anwator. 

Edwin  -Vnwater  was  born  in  the  town  of  Collins  Oct.  1 1, 
1854,  lived  in  North  Collins  and  came  to  Concord  in  1857;  his 
father's  name  is  David  Anwater  ;  his  mother's  maiden  name, 
was   Margaretta    Basler.     Thev  emigrated    from    Wurtemburir 


Germany,  in  1854;  his  father  and  mother  are  now  living  with 
him  ;  he  is  unmarried.     The  children  are  : 

Edwin,  born  Oct.  11,  1854. 

Mary,  born  July  18,  1858. 

Charles,  born  Sept.  14,  i860. 

When  Edwin  was  three  years  old,  one  afternoon  he  went  out 
into  the  fields  and  strayed  into  the  woods.  Night  came  on  with 
a  snow  storm,  it  being  in  the  month  of  November,  The  family 
and  neighbors  searched  for  him  until  2  o'clock  A.  M.,  and  did 
not  find  him.  In  the  morning  the  search  was  renewed,  and  his 
mother  found  him  under  a  log  that  rested  on  a  stump,  he  came 
out  all  right  and  gives  this  narrative. 

Henry  Ackley. 

Henry  Ackley  was  born  in  Guilford,  Vt.,  April  26,  18 14.  His 
father's  pame  was  Henry  Ackley;  his  mother's  maiden  name 
w^as  Chloe  C.  Putnam.  Mr.  Ackley  came  to  this  town  when 
two  years  of  age  with  his  mother,  and  Uncle  Daniel  Putnam, 
the  latter  locating  on  lot  38,  range  7,  township  7.  Mr.  Ackley's 
grandfather,  Jcssee  Putnam,  having  precceded  them  in  1 808  or 
'09,  and  located  on  lot  32,  range  7,  township  7.     He  died  about 

1834  at  Pine  Grove,  Penn.  He-  was  one  of  our  very  earliest 
pioneer  settlers.  To  illustrate  the  primitive  condition  of  civil- 
ization in  the  early  days  of  our  town,  Mr.  Ackley  relates  that 
upon  the  death  of  his  grandmother,  Mrs.  Putnam,  about  1820, 
at  the  residence  of  his  son,  Daniel  Putnam  ;  her  remains  were 
placed  upon  a  rude  bier  and  carried  by  men  on  foot  through 
the  woods  all  the  way  to  the  Boston  cemetery,  to  be  interred. 
Mr.  Ackle}'  has  always  resided  in  to\\n  and  been  engaged  in 
farming,  excepting  five  or  six  years  subsequent  to  1842,  when 
he  was  employed  in  Harvey  &  Weston's  tannery,  then  situ- 
ated at  what  is  now  known  as  Fowlerville.     He  was  married  in 

1835  to  Janette  Drake.     The\'  had  two  daughters: 
Eouise,  died  in  1861. 

Emma,  married  to  Alphonso  Smith,  in  1871. 

01iv<M*  E.  Alger. 

01i\er  E.  Alger  was  born  in  the  town  of  Concord,  Januarx' 
12,  1842;  is  an  engineer  by  occupation;  was  married  May  10. 
1864.   to    P'lorence   J.   Hinsey,   of  Pekin,  Tazewell  county.  111. 


His  father's  name  was  S.  W.  Alt^cr,  wlio  was  born  in  the  \car 
1803,  came  to  Boston,  Erie  county,  N.  Y.,  in  1826,  and  served  his 
time  as  an  apprentice  with  Hatch  &  Alger,  tanners,  and  settled 
in  Concord  in  1830.  His  mother's  maiden  name  was  Louisa 
Carr,  who  was  a  dau<^hter  of   Elder  Clark  Carr. 

David  D.  Barrett. 

Mr.  Barrett's  father,  Thomas  M.  Barrett,  was  born  at  Wood- 
stock, Conn.,  March  20,  1777;  from  there  he  moved  to  the  vil- 
lage of  Schenevus,  Otsego  county,  N.  Y.,  where  he  was  mar- 
ried to  Hannah  Chase,  daughter  of  one  of  the  first  settlers  of 
Otsego,  and  sister  of  Judge  Chase  of  that  county.  In  1810  he 
removed  with  his  family  to  Concord,  settling  on  lot  fort}',  in  the 
northwest  part  of  the  town.  He  bought  his  land  of  the  Hol- 
land Company,  paying  $90  for  fifty  acres,  and  taking  a  deed, 
his  deed  being  the  first  one  given  for  land  in  the  territory  com- 
prising the  present  town  of  Concord,  previous  settlers  simply 
having  their  land  articled  to  them  as  it  was  termed.  Mr.  Bar- 
rett came  with  a  span  of  horses  and  cut  the  first  road  through 
from  the  Boston  Valley  road  on  to  Horton  Hill.  When  set- 
tled in  his  new  home  he  found  himself  surrounded  for  a  con- 
siderable distance  on  either  side  by  the  primeval  forest,  as  yet 
undisturbed  by  man.  He  related  that  in  going  in  search  of  his 
cows,  he  sometimes  found  them  feeding  quieth'  in  company 
with  a  herd  of  five  or  six  deer. 

Although  meager  educational  prixilcges  found  Mr.  Barrett  at 
20  years  of  age  with  scarcel)'  the  rudiments  of  an  education  ; 
his  energy  and  perseverance  secured  sufficient  education  so  that 
he  taught  school  and  understood  surveying.  He  brought  a 
compass  with  him  to  Concord,  but  ne\XM-  practiced  surve)-ing. 
He  was  the  first  Supervisor  of  the  original  town  of  Concord, 
and  held  the  ofifice  eight  years.  He  was  also  Supervisor  of  the 
present  town  of  Concord  eight  years.  The  title  of  Major  he 
acquired  from  the  position  he  held  in  the  militia  while  a  resi- 
dent of  Otsego  count}'.  He  lived  where  he  first  located  till  his 
death  in  September,  1844.  His  wife  died  in  1867  or  1868. 
They  had  a  family  of  twelve  children,  six  girls  and  six  boys. 
The  five  oldest  were  born  in  Otsego  county  :  their  names  were 
Betsey,  Clarissa,  George,   Liberty,  Manly,  Temperance,  Josiah, 


Hannah,  Reuben,  lH?iy,  Elvira  and  David.  They  all  lived  to 
years  of  maturity,  but  Reuben  and  David  are  the  only  ones 
now  living. 

David  D.  Barrett  was  born  March  20,  1829,  in  Concord,  in 
which  town  and  Colden  he  has  since  been  a  resident.  He  is  a 
farmer  by  occupation,  and  in  1882  was  the  candidate  of  the 
Greenback  party  for  County  Clerk.  He  married  Sophina  Pike, 
daughter  of  Isaiah  Pike.  They  have  no  children,  except  an 
adopted  daughter. 

The  Brigg-s  Family. 

MRS     I      A     I.RIGGS 

Captain  Samuel  Briggs  li\-ed  in  Taunton,  Mass.,  during  the 
time  of  the  Revolution.  In  his  \-ounger  da}-s  he  was  Captain 
of  a  whaling  vessel  that  sailed  from  New  Bedford,  Mass.  His 
wife's  maiden  name  was  Ruth  Paul.  In  after  years  he  removed 
from  Taunton  to  P'ranklin  county,  and  bought  a  farm  and  mills 
on  Miller  river  in  the  town  of  Orange.  On  a  certain  occasion, 
during  a  flood,  he  was  attempting  to  save  some  logs  which 
were  going  over  the  dam,  when  he  was  struck  by  one  of  the 
logs  and  knocked  over  the  dam  upon  the  rocks  below  and 
killed.  Captain  Tyrer,  an  early  settler  in  this  town  who  was  at 
that  time  a  young  man  and  worked  for  Captain  Briggs,  ran 
down  and  picked  him  up  and  carried  him  to  the  house.  Cap- 
tain Brigg's  widow  came  to  this  town  in  18 16,  and  lived  until 
1830,  when  she  died  at  the  age  of  eighty-five  years. 


His  children  were  five  boys:  John,  Samuel,  Shubel,  Simeon 
and  Ephraim  A.,  and  three  girls  :  Sylva,  Nancy  and  Ruth.  All 
of  the  boys  except  the  youngest  lived  and  died  in  Massachu- 
setts. Sylva  married  Sylvenus  Bates.  They  moved  here  in 
the  winter  of  181 1  and  18  12  on  an  ox-sled  from  Massachusetts 
and  settled  in  Collins  where  she  died.  Nancy  married  John 
Cobb.  About  18 16,  John  Cobb  with  his  family  came  here, 
went  to  Olean  and  floated  down  the  Allegheny  and  (3hio  and 
went  up  the  Wabash  to  Crawford  county,  111.,  where  they  set- 
tled and  lived  and  died.  They  had  a  large  family  of  children. 
One  of  them,  Amasa  Cobb,  enlisted  in  the  time  of  the  Mexi- 
can war.  After  his  return  he  studied  law  and  was  elected  to 
the  State  Legislature  of  Wisconsin,  first  to  the  Assembly  then 
to  the  Senate.  When  the  late  war  broke  out  he  raised  a  regi- 
ment and  was  appointed  Colonel,  and  served  under  McClellan 
in  the  Peninsular  campaign,  after  which  he  was  promoted  to 
Brigadier  General.  When  he  came  home  he  was  elected  to 
Congress  twice  from  Wisconsin.  After  a  few  years  he  removed 
to  Lincoln,  Neb.,  where  he  is  now  one  of  the  Judges  of  the 
Supreme  Court. 

Ruth  married  Nathan  Godclard. 

Ephraim  Alien  Briggs. 

Ephraim  Allen  Briggs  was  born  in  Taunton,  Plymouth 
county,  Mass.,  in  1783.  He  went  with  his  parents  to  Orange, 
Franklin  county.  In  1806,  he  was  married  to  Sally  Townsend, 
of  the  town  of  New  Salem,  Franklin  county,  and  they  resided 
there  until  18 15.  They  had  five  children  born  in  Massachu- 
setts. They  came  here  with  horses  and  wagon,  and  were  four 
weeks  on  the  road,  and  settled  on  Townsend  Hill  on  the  east 
part  of  lot  sixty,  township  seven,  range  six,  and  cleared  up  a 
farm.  In  1839,  they  removed  to  the  middle  part  of  the  unim- 
proved lot  fifty-three,  township  seven,  range  six,  and  cleared  up 
another  farm  on  which  the\-  resided  until  his  death,  which 
occurred  on  the  25th  of  February,  1 861.  He  was  seventy-eight 
years  of  age  at  the  time  of  his  death.  After  several  years  she 
went  west  to  visit  her  children  in  Wisconsin  and  Minnesota, 
where  she  died  at  the  residence  of  her  daughter,  Sally  Briggs 
Canfield,  in  Waseca  county,  Minn.,  June  25,  1869. 


After  a  long  life  of  useful  toil  they  rest  from  their  labors. 
They  came  here  when  the  country  was  almost  an  unbroken 
wilderness,  and  they  labored  earnestly  and  continuously  and 
cleared  up  two  farms,  and  reared  a  large  family  of  children. 
Although  they  never  possessed  a  very  large  amount  of  this 
world's  goods,  yet  they  were  generous  and  free-hearted,  and  no 
one  in  need  who  desired  aid  went  away  from  their  door  empty 
handed,  and  the  same  might  be  said  of  most  of  the  old  pion- 
eers. My  mother  always  enjoyed  excellent  health,  and  she 
endured  and  accomplished  very  much,  beside  doing  the  neces- 
sary household  work  and  caring  for  a  large  family  of  children 
she  spun  and  wove  and  frequently  consumed  the  mid-night  oil 
over  her  work.  She  carried  us  all  safely  through  the  measles, 
scarlet  fever  and  other  ailments,  and  doctors  were  very  seldom 
seen  at  our  home.  Throughout  her  life  of  crowded  care  she 
did  not  worry  or  scold,  but  quietly  and  pleasantly  pursued  the 
even  tenor  of  her  way.  She  never  spoke  evil  of  others,  but 
always  found  something  in  the  character  of  every  one  that  was 
entitled  to  a  kind  word.  In  life  she  "fought  the  good  fight 
and  kept  the  faith,"  and  she  approached  the  grave  "  soothed 
and  sustained  by  an  unfailing  trust  in  the  life  to  come." 

Their  children  were  : 

Mary  Elvira,  born  May  9,  1 808. 

Ephraim  T.,  born  June  8,  18 10. 

Sylvia,  born  August  5,  181 1. 

Thomas  M.,  born  March  23,  1813. 

Jonathan,  born  Eebruary  12,  1815. 

Erasmus,  born  August  31.  1818. 

Suel,  born  Ajjril  7,  1820. 

Sally,  March   17,  1823. 

Cindcrrella,  born  October  5,  1825. 

Christopher,  born  March  21,  1828.. 

Chandler  C,  born  Jul}^  20,  1830. 

Mary  Elvira  married  William  Field  and  died  March  19,  1847. 

Ephraim  T.  married  Jane  Flemings.  He  was  a  carpenter  and 
joiner  by  trade  and  also  a  farmer,  and  was  at  one  time  Captain 
of  the  Springville  Rifle  Compan)-.  He  died  June  30,  1848, 
aged  thirty-eight  years. 

Their  children  were : 

bio(;rai'hical  sketches.  281 

Jane  Ann,  George  W.,  Maria  S.  and  Viola. 

Jane  Ann  followed  teaching  for  several  years  previous  to  her 
marriage  and  was  an  excellent  teacher.  She  married  William 
Baker  of  Buffalo,  and  died  July  16,  1865,  aged  thirt\'-t\\o  years 
and  four  months. 

Maria  S.  was  also  a  teacher  and  died  Januar)-  31.  1865,  aged 
nineteen  years  and  nine  months. 

George  W.  died  young. 

Viola  married   Ira  C.  Woodward    and  resides  in  Springviile. 

Sylvia  married  Stary  King. 

Thomas  M.  married  Phcebe  Spaulding  ;  he  is  a  farmer,  and 
resides  in  La  Crosse  county,  Wisconsin.  They  reared  a  family 
of  seven  children — Allen,  George,  Morris,  Adelia,  Fayette, 
Sarah  and  Chancey,  who  are  all  living  in  Wisconsin,  except 
Fayette,  who  died  in  1870. 

Jonathan  is  unmarried,  and  his  principal  business  has  been 
teaching  here  and  in  the  West,  in  which  calling  he  has  been 
very  successful.  When  gold  was  discovered  in  Colorado  he 
was  among  the  first  who  went  there  to  engage  in  mining.  He 
is  now  and  has  been  for  several  years  engaged  in  teaching  in 
Garnavillo,  Clayton  county,  Iowa. 

Erasmus  lives  in  Springviile. 

Suel  married  Phoebe  Ballou  ;  he  is  a  farmer,  and  li\es  in  La 
Crosse  county,  Wisconsin.  He  has  been  elected  Justice  of  the 
Peace  and  Supervisor  a  number  of  times,  and  was  also  once 
elected  Assemblyman. 

Sally  married  Orville  S.  Canfield,  and  lives  in  Wanseca 
county,  Minn. 

Cindcrrella  married  William  Smith,  and  died  Jul\-  5th,  1874, 
aged  forty-eight  years,  nine  months. 

Christopher  married  Jane  Colburn.  He  is  a  farmer,  and 
lives  in  West  valley,  Cattaraugus  county.  They  have  one  child, 
Charlotte,  who  married  John  West,  and  lives  near  West  valley. 

Chandler  C.  married  IMioibe  J.  Woodward,  in  Concord,  Oct. 
5,  1853.  She  was  born  in  North  Collins  in  1834.  He  is  a  far- 
mer, and  lives  near  Blue-earth  City,  Minn.  They  have  two 
children  : 

Arthur  A.,  born  July  i8th,  1859. 

Suel  C,  born  Nov.  29th,  1865. 


Julius  Benieiit. 

Julius  Bcment  was  born  in  Oneida  county,  N.  Y.,  in  1789. 
He  came  to  this  town  from  there  in  181 1,  driving  a  yoke  of 
oxen  all  the  way.  He  stopped  in  Buffalo  three  months 
and  cut  cord  wood,  reaching  this  town  in  August.  He  bought 
land  on  lot  11,  range  6,  township  7,  upon  which  he  always 
resided  until  his  death,  in  1876.  He  was  married  in  1824  to 
Sallie  Chafee 

Their  children  were  : 

Diana  Bement,  married  Sherman  Jacobs. 

Roxana  Bement,  married  Daniel  Willson  ;  reside  in  Illinois; 

Lucinda  Bement,  married  Franklin  Blake  ;  reside  in  Orleans 
county,  N.  Y.;  merchant. 

Elmore  Bement. 

Albert  Bement,  married  Esther  Twichell  ;  reside  in  Golden  ; 

Edward  D.  Bement,  married  Sophia  Wilson  ;  reside  in 
Springville;    barber. 

Elmore    Beineut. 

Elmore  Bement  was  born  in  this  town  in  1834.  At  twenty 
years  of  age  Mr.  Bement  went  to  California  via  Nicarauga,  and 
engaged  in  gold  mining,  which  he  pursued  for  five  years,  when 
he  returned  via  Panama  and  engaged  for  two  years  in  the  grain 
commission  business  at  Chicago.  In  1861' he  again  visited  Cal- 
ifornia,via  the  Isthmus,  and  remained  about  five  years,  devoting 
his  time  to  gold  and  silver  mining,  lumbering  and  the  duties  of 
a  soldier.  He  was  sixteen  months  in  the  volunteer  service  of 
the  United  States  army,  being  attached  to  Company  G,  Second 
regiment  California  cavalry.  The  movements  of  his  regiment 
led  him  into  the  wilds  of  Arizona  and  Nevada.  Mr.  Bement's 
experience  and  observations  on  the  Pacific  slope  have  been 
varied  and  extensive.  He  now  resides  in  town  and  is  a  farmer. 
He  was  married  in  1867  to  W'ilhelmina  Splattar.  They  have 
three  children  : 

First — Frank  C. 

Second — George  L. 

Third— Carlotta  M. 


Wells  Brooks. 

Wells  Brooks  was  born  in  1804.  In  an  carl\-  dax'  his  parents 
came  to  the  town  of  Boston.  Subsequently  tiiey  removed  to 
this  town.  Wells,  when  a  young  man,  taught  school  occasion- 
ally. He  studied  law,  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  and  practiced 
his  profession  for  eighteen  or  twenty  years  in  this  town.  While 
living  here  he  held  the  office  of  Justice  of  the  Peace,  was  twice 
elected  Member  of  the  A.ssembly,  and  in  1849  was  elected 
County  Clerk  of  Erie  county,  and  removed  to  Buffalo.  He 
was  afterwards  elected  to  the  office  of  Supervisor  from 
the  Tenth  ward  for  several  terms.  Mr.  Brooks  was  a  good  law- 
yer and  possessed  fine  talents  and  sound  judgment.  In  all 
positions  and  relations  of  public  life  he  enjoyed  an  enviable 
reputation,  and  deserved  praise  for  the  fidelity  and  ability  he 
manifested  in  the  discharge  of  his  duties.  Mr.  Brooks  married 
Helen  McMillen,  daughter  of  Joseph  McMillen  of  this  town, 
Jan.  I,  [833. 


Wells  Brooks,  born  April  21,  1804:  died  Dec,  23,  1859. 
Helen  McMillen,  born  Nov.  30,  18 14;   died  Feb.  26,  1872. 


Imogene,  born  Sept,  4,  1835;  died  March  13,  1841. 
Preston,  born  March  17,  1837;  died  Oct.  23,  i860. 
Sarah,  born  Dec.  21,  1S31  ;   died  June  6,  1^64.. 
Howard,  born  Aug.  14,  1839. 
Henry  Wells,  born  Nov,  13,  1840. 
Willis  Herbert,  born  Jan.  12,  1843. 
Helen  McMillen,  born  Dec.  16,  1844. 

Henry  W.  Brook.s. 

Henry  W.  Brooks,  son  of  Wells  Brooks  and  Helen  McMillen 
Brooks,  was  born  in  Springville  in  1841.  When  he  was  five 
years  of  age  his  parents  removed  to  Buffalo,  where  he  lived 
until  1875,  when  he  became  a  resident  of  Springville.  He  was 
one  of  a  family  of  seven  children,  three  of  whom  are  living — 
Henry  W.,  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  Willis  H.,  who  resides  in 
Kent  county,   Mich.,  and   Helen   M.,  who  married  Charles  G, 


Coss,  and  resides  in  Glean,  X.  V.  The  three  oldest,  Imogene, 
Preston  and  Sarah,  are  dead.  Howard,  the  youngest,  was 
drowned  near  St.  Louis,  Jul}'  4,  1881. 

Henry  W.  Brooks  was  married  in  1863  to  Amanda  J.  Hart- 
man.  They  have  five  children  living:  Robert  W.,  Lillian  W., 
Henry  \\\  jr..  William  M.  and  Charles  \V. 

They  have  lost  two — Sarah  A.  and  May. 

Eaton  Beiisley. 

Eaton  Bensley  was  a  soldier  in  the  war  of  181 2.  He  came 
to  this  town  from  Herkimer  county,  N.  Y.,  in  the  Spring  of 
1 8 16,  and  built  a  saw  mill  near  the  mouth  of  Spring  brook,  and 
engaged  in  farming.  He  resided  in  town  until  his  death,  in 
1878.  He  was  twice  married,  first  to  Sophia  Russell,  by  wiiom 
he  had  six  children,  as  follows  : 

John  R.  Bensley,  died  when  a  child. 

George  E.  Bensley,  married  Anna  L.  Tanner;  is  in  the  grain 
commission  business  at  Chicago. 

D,  Cytherea  Bensley,  married   Rev.   L.  W.  Olney ;   reside  in 
^    S.  Vestina  Bensley,  married  x\lanson  Chaffee  ;  both  are  dead. 

John  R.  Bensley,  married  Mary  A.  White,  first  wife  ;  Au- 
gusta Euller,  second  wife  ;  is  in  the  grain  commission  business 
at  Chicago. 

]-:  Sophia  Bensley,  married  Herbert  Scoby ;  reside  in  Union- 
town,  Kansas. 

Mr.  Bensley's  second  wife  was  Agne.s  McCaa,  by  whom  he 
had  seven  children,  as  follows  : 

^-  Agnes  L  Bensley,  married  Madison  C.  Scob}',  stock  dealer  in 

Mary  J.  Bensley,  married  Elbert  Cornwall,  first  husband  ;  M. 
L.   Price,  second  husband  ;   United  States  surgeon,  in  Texas. 

David  W.  Bensle}',  married  Luc\-  H.  Twichell  ;  hardware 
merchant  at  Springville. 

Malona  Bensley,  died  in  1.^59. 

Louis  K.  Bensley,  grain  shipper  at  Denison,  Iowa. 

Katie  W.  Bensley,  resides  at  Chicago  ;  is  a  teacher. 

1!I()(;rai'iii(AI.  skktcmes.  285 

J)jivi<l  W.  Bi'iishy. 

David  W.  Benslcy  was  born  Nov.  9,  1845,  near  Springville» 
In  1864  he  went  to  Chicay,"o  and  engaged  for  eleven  years  in 
the  grain  business,  when  he  returned  to  Springville  and  became 
a  hardware  merchant.  He  was  married  in  1^74.  They  have 
four  children,  as  follows:  Agnes  H.,  William  Iviton,  Bernes  L. 
and  Lucy. 

Mr.  Benslcy's  mother,  Mrs.  Agnes  Iknisley,  died  April  7, 
1880,  aged  sixt)^-seven  years  ten  months. 

Mr.  D.  W.  Henslc}-  died  in  the  Spring  of  1883. 

Slam  Bootli's  Statement. 

I  came  to  this  town  in  February,  18 17,  was  not  married  at 
that  time.  I  came  from  Tolland  county,  Conn.,  with  John 
Brooks.  We  came  with  a  yoke  of  oxen  and  span  of  horses, 
and  were  five  weeks  on  the  road.  We  came  in  the  Spring  to 
the  Susquehanna  river,  Penn.,  staid  there  till  the  next  Winter 
and  then  came  through  by  way  of  Painted  Post,  Cayuga  lake, 
Canandaigua  and  on  to  Buffalo.  We  staid  at  Heacox's  tavern 
and  next  day  went  out  to  the  Indian  village  and  staid  over 
night.  We  had  to  ford  one  branch  of  Buffalo  creek,  the  ice 
was  running.  We  got  stuck  in  the  creek,  had  to  unload  part 
of  our  goods,  and  wade  out  with  them  on  our  backs.  Next 
day  we  got  as  far  as  Green's  tavern,  two  miles  south  of  Potter's 
Corners  (Hadwin  Arnold  place)  and  staid  over  night.  Next 
day  came  to  Boston  Corners  and  staid  at  Torrey's.  Next  day 
went  up  to  where  the  State  road  and  the  valley  road  fork  where 
Brooks  had  made  a  location  and  put  up  a  shanty. 

I  was  born  in  May,  i8oi,and  was  in  mj- sixteenth  year.  I 
taught  the  first  school  in  the  Sibley  neighborhood  in  the  Win- 
ter of  1817-18,  it  was  not  an  organized  district  school  for  there 
was  no  district  organized  at  that  time.  I  think  the  Sibley 
school  house  was  built  about  1821,  and  I  think  Mahala  Eaton 
Mrs.  Butterworth)  taught  the  first  Summer  school  in  the  new 
house,  and  Oliver  Needham  the  first  Winter  school.  I  tausfht 
the  Liberty  Pole  school  in  the  Winter  of  '22-'23,  the  Townsend 
Hill  school  in  the  Winter  of  '24-'2  5,  and  in  the  Sibley  district 
in  '26-'27. 


Mr.  Booth  died  Nov.  2,  1882,  aged  eighty-one  years,  five 
months  and  eight  days. 

Warren  Booth. 

Warren  Booth  was  born  in  this  town  September  13,  1836, 
His  father's  name  was  Elam  Booth.  His  mother's  maiden 
name  was  Sibyl  Ingalls.  He  has  always  resided  in  town,  is  a 
farmer  by  occupation.  He  was  married  in  1864  to  Dora  Rob- 
inson.    Their  children  are  : 

Nettie  L.,  born  April  10,  1870. 

Day  E.,  born  Aug.  26,  1878. 

Mr.  Booth  is  a  member  of  the  A.  O.  U.  W.,  and  Past  Select 
Counselor  of  Boston  Lodge  No.  79,  Royal  Templar  of  Tem- 

Morgan  L.  Batlgley. 

Mr.  Badgley  was  born  in  Cortlandville,  Cortland  county,  in 
this  State,  December  29,  1808.  In  1831  he  removed  to  Buffalo- 
and  was  employed  in  the  drug  store  of  Messrs.  Pratt,  Allen  & 
Co.,  and  soon  thereafter  he  became  one  of  the  proprietors.  In 
August,  1832,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Harriet  A.  Colton.  In 
1835  ^^^  removed  with  his  wife  and  child  to  Springville  and 
entered  into  business.  He  came  to  Springville  as  the  principal 
clerk  and  manager  of  the  business  of  his  brother-in-law,  Manly 
Colton,  then  a  merchant  and  the  builder  and  owner  of  the 
mill  still  known  as  the  Colton  mill,  on  Main  street.  In  1836-7 
Mr.  Colton  failed  as  did  many  others  at  that  time.  Mr.  Badgley 
suffered  much  by  the  failure.  However  he  was  enabled  soon 
after  to  engage  in  the  mercantile  business. 

By  his  ability  and  integrity  he  soon  gained  the  confidence  of 
the  citizens  of  this  communit}'  and  prospered  in  his  business  to 
such  an  extent  that  he  in  the  course  of  time  accumulated  a 
large  property.  He  was  in  the  mercantile  business  tor  a  long- 
time, and  at  one  time  owned  the  Colton  mill.  In  the  latter 
part  of  his  life  he  loaned  money  and  dealt  in  notes  and  mort- 
gages. He  was  kind  to  the  poor  and  persons  in  sickness  and 
distress.  He  and  his  wife  suffered  the  great  affliction  of  their 
lives  in  the  death  of  their  only  son  Heniy,  who  died  May  10, 
1845,  aged  eleven  years  and  seven  months.  The  shadow  cast 
by  his  early  death  never  departed  from  their  lives. 


Mr.  Badijlcy  died  March  i8,  1878,  in  the  seventieth  year  of 
his  age. 

Mrs.  Badi^ley  continues  to  reside  at  her  home  in  Springville 

Henry  M.  Blackmar. 

The  ancestors  of  the  Blackmar  famil)' were  of  En<4iish  descent. 
The}-  located  at  an  early  day  near  the  Connecticut  River,  in 
Connecticut,  from  whence  Mr.  Blackmar's  grandfather,  Martin 
Blackmar,  emigrated  to  Greenfield,  Saratoga  county,  N.  Y., 
about  1780.  He  was  a  prominent  and  influential  man  and  a 
surveyor  ;  possessing  talent  and  skill  suflficient  to  manufacture 
his  own  surveying  instruments.  He  was  accidentally  shot  in 
181 2,  while  hunting  bears  with  others,  in  the  Green  Mountains. 
The  bear-skin  cap  which  he  wore  being  mistaken  for  a  bear,  he 
became  the  unfortunate  target  of  a  brother  hunter. 

Mr.  Blackmar's  father,  William  Blackmar,  was  born  in  Green- 
field, Saratoga  county,  N.  Y.,  Oct.,  19,  1805.  In  Oct.,  1825,  he 
came  to  Erie  county,  being  a  passenger  on  the  first  regular 
packet-boat  that  passed  over  the  Erie  canal.  He  li\ed  in  Ham- 
burg three  years,  where  he  learned  the  trade  of  carpenter  and 
taught  school.  In  182 1  he  went  to  Buffalo  and  served  two 
years  as  jailor  under  Sheriff  Lemuel  W'asson. 

He  was  married  in  1831,  to  Almira  Chafee  and  followed  his 
occupation  in  Buffalo  and  Hamburg  until  1837,  when  he 
moved  to  Concord,  where  he  has  since  lixed.  He  now  resides 
with  his  son,  Henry  M.  He  has  seven  children  li\ing,  resi- 
ding in  different  states. 

Henry  M.  Blackmar  was  born  in  Buffalo,  Oct.  24,  1831. 
When  six  )-ears  of  age  he  came  to  Concord  where  he  has  since 
resided.  His  occupation  is  farming.  Mr.  Blackmar  takes  an 
active  and  prominent  part  in  public  affairs.  He  was  Commis- 
sioner of  Highways  eight  or  nine  }'ears  and  twice,  1 876-1 877, 
represented  with  energy  and  fidelit}'  his  town  on  the  Board  of 

He  was  married  in  1862  to  L\'dia  Ferrin.  The\-  ha\e  had 
two  children  : 

Helen  May,  born  March  20,  1867  ;  died  May  31.  1879. 

Roy,  born  June  29,  1872. 


Lothop  Beebe. 

Lothop  Beebe  came  from  the  town  of  Silasbury,  Addison 
county,  Vt.,  to  this  town  in  1816,  and  remained  two  years,  then 
started  to  return  to  Vermont.  He  stopped  at  East  Bloomfield, 
Ontario  county,  and  remained  there  about  three  and  a-half 
years  and  worked  at  blacksmithing.  He  was  married  Feb., 
1820  to  Sally  Bemus  and  returned  to  Springville  in  June,  1821. 
He  has  lived  in  Concord  about  forty  years  of  his  life,  and  in 
Ashford  about  twenty,  and  has  followed  the  business  of  black- 
smithing  and  farming. 

In  1825,  he  built  a  blacksmith  shop  on  Main  street,  in  Spring 
ville,  extending  from  George  E,  Crandall's  store  to  the  west. 
In  1826  he  built  a  dwelling  house  where  Richmond's  brick  store 
stands,  on  the  corner  of  Main  and  Mechanic  streets.  He  car- 
ried on  the  business  of  blacksmithing  here  several  years.  He 
served  as  a  soldier  in  the  war  of  181 2-1 5,  in  the  eastern  country 
and  after  he  came  here  he  held  different  ofifices  in  the  militia 
and  was  made  Colonel  of  the  248th  Regiment,  with  Homer 
Barnes,  Lieutenant  Colonel  and  David  Bensley,  Major.  Mr. 
Beebe  and  Mrs.  Beebe  are  both  living  at  East  Ashford  ;  he  is 
eighty-seven  years  old  and  she  is  eighty-two.  Their  children 
were : 

Martha,  born  1822;  married  Hiram  H.  House;  she  died  in 

Marshall,  born  May  1823,;  married  Caroline  Fairbanks; 
he  died  in  1877. 

Maria,  born  Sept.  1826;  married  Hiram  H.  House  ;  she  died 
Aug.,  1854. 

Edward  Cheever,  born  April,  1S23,  he  died  Aug.,  1861. 

Norman,  born  May,  1834;  married  Susan  Davis;  lives  at 
Lake  Christal,  Minnesota. 

Sally  Ann,  born  Sept.,  1836;  she  died  August,  1861. 

Elvira,  born  Jan.  17,  1840;  married  Jehiel  D.  Whitne)- ;  li\"es 
in  East  Ashford. 

Dr.  Moses  Blakeley, 

Son  of  Moses  and  Phoebe  Blakeley,  was  born  in  Bennington^ 
Vt.,  Jan.  I,  1796,  and  in  1814  he  was  united  in  marriage  to  Miss 
Irene  Washburn,  and  fourteen  children  were  the  fruits  of  this 
union.      Nine  of  them,  with  the  \'enerable  wife  and  mother,  are 


still  li\inL(.  He  mo\-cd  to  the  town  of  C^iilins  in  1838,  and  for 
sixteen  years  he  very  successfully  practiced  medicine  in  this  and 
the  surrounding  country.  In  1854  he  moved  to  the  village  of 
Aurora,  where  he  enjo\'ed  a  lucrative  practice  in  his  profession 
up  to  the  time  of  his  death  He  served  on  the  lines  during  the 
war  of  1 8 12  and  181 5,  and  his  venerable  widow  now  recei\'es  a 
pension  for  his  services  Dr.  Blakeley  acquired  quite  a  local 
reputation  in  the  practice  of  medicine.  He  died  at  his  home 
in  1868.     Family  record  : 

Isaac  C,  born  Oct,  31,  1817;  married  Anna  Tanner,  Oct.  30, 

Angeline,  born  1820;  married  Nelson  Hills;  died  in  1877. 

Moses,  Jr.,  born  1822  married  Polly  Beckwith  ;  lives  in  Mich. 

Ansel  W.  born  1824;  married  Caroline  Adams  and  Viola 

Nancy,  married  Elijah  Bull;   died  in  1862. 

Melissa,  married  Schuyler  Jones;  li\'es  in  Nebraska. 

Edgar,  born  1827. 

Julia,  married  John  Wheeler;  died  in  1872. 

Mary,  married  Robert  Willett ;  died  in  i8m. 

Andrew  J.,  married  Almira  Tyrer. 

Wellington,  married  Emily  Brandymore. 

Maria,  married  Joseph  Wiser. 

Edgar  and  Edwin — twins. 

Dr.  Isaac  V.  Blakeley. 

Dr.  Isaac  C.  Blakeley  was  born  Oct.  31.  1817,  and  came  to- 
Concord  in  the  }-ear  1838.  His  father's  name  was  Moses 
Blakely,  who  died  in  1868.  He  was  a  soldier  in  the  War  of 
1812;  was  at  the  Battle  of  Plattsburgh  ;  he  was  a  practicing 
physician.  His  widow,  surviving  him,  gets  a  pension.  His 
mother's  maiden  name  was  Irene  Wasburn.  His  occupa- 
tion is  a  doctor,  has  practiced  medicine  fort\'-two  years.  Was 
married  Oct.  30.  1842,  to  Anna  Tanner,  who  is  a  descendant  of 
the  Wilbur  famih'  of  Collins. 

Emma  A.,  born  Aug.  19,  1843  '-  niarried  to  James  Wells. 

Mortimer  C,  born   Nov.  10,  1845. 

Araminta  A.,  born  March  8,  1847;  died  Oct.  18,  1862. 

Ansel  W.,  born  Aug.  8,  1849. 

John  W.,  born  Aug.  19.  1855  ;  married  to  Suella  Doniker. 


Edgar   Blakeley. 

Edgar  Blakeley  was  born  Nov.  ii,  1827,  in  the  Town  of 
Java,  Wyoming  county,  N.  Y.  His  father's  name  was  Moses 
Blakeley  ;  his  mother's  maiden  name  was  Irene  Washburn — 
both  born  in  Burlington, Vermont.  His  father  was  a  practicing 
physician.  Was  married,  Feb.  18,  1847,  ^^  Miss  Anna  Knight. 
His  occupation  is  a  farmer  and  dealer  in  live  stock.  The  names 
of  his  children  are  : 

Alburtus  E.,  born  June  21,  1849;  married  to  Annita  Jones. 

Galen  E.,  born  Sept.  i,  1852  ;  married  to  Rosa  Blakeley. 

Celia,  born  Oct.  22,  1855  ;  married  to  Lindsey  Thompson. 

Addie,  born  Aug.  18,  1862. 

Chester   H.    Briggs. 

Chester  H.  Briggs  was  born  in  the  Town  of  Collins,  April  25, 
1849,  and  came  to  Concord  in  the  year  1878.  His  father's 
name  was  Oliver  Briggs,  who  died  April  30,  i860;  his  mother's 
maiden  name  was  Keziah  Berry,  who  died  Sept.  2,  1870.  He 
is  a  farmer  by  occupation  ;  was  married  Oct.  22,  1873,  to  Mary 
A.  Carroll,  daughter  of  Patrick  Carroll,  of  Angola. 

His  brother  Charles  Briggs,  enlisted  in  the  Tenth  New  York 
Cavalry  and  served  three  years,  and  then  re-enlisted  for  the 

They  have  one  child,  Frankie  Briggs,  who  was  born  June  15. 

Ansel    Blakeley. 

Ansel  Blakeley  was  born  Oct.  30,  1824.  His  father's  name 
was  Moses  Blakele)' ;  his  mother's  maiden  name  was  Irene 
Washburn.  He  was  married  Dec.  31,  1850,  to  Caroline  Adams, 
who  died  March  I,  1870,  and  he  was  married  to  Viola  Thomp- 
son, June  4,  1871,     His  children  are: 

Ledra,  born  Dec.  25,  1855  ;  died  June  28,  1858. 

Sophronia,  born  Feb.  7,  1857. 

Duane  S.,  born  April  24,  1859. 

Elmer  E.,  born  July  2,  1863;  died  Oct.  9,  1871. 

Dee  A.,  born  Feb.  24,  1870. 

AVilliain    Ballon. 

William  Ballou,  Sr,,was  born  in  Richmond,  Cheshire  county, 
New  Hampshire,  Dec.  26,  1792.     From  there    he  removed  to 


Rutlaiul  count}-,  Vermont,  and  from  there  to  Zoar  in  Collins, 
in  1817,  thus  becoming  one  of  our  early  pioneers.  He  resided 
in  Zoar  until  1844.  when  he  moved  to  Sprini(\Mlle,  where  he  died 
in  1866.  He  was  married  in  Vermont,  in  1813,10  Eunice  Cook, 
daughter  of  William  Cook,  who  settled  in  Zoar  about  1815, 
where  he  kept  tavern  at  one  time.  He  died  in  1853,  Mrs. 
Ballou  was  born  in  the  same  town  that  her  husband  was,  and, 
what  is  an  uncommon  coincidence,  at  the  same  date.  They 
had  eight  children,  the  three  oldest  being  born  in  \"ermont. 
\'iz  : 

Hetsc}-,  born  in  1814;   died  in  1 81 8. 

Laura  E.,  born  in  181 7;   married  John  T.  Wells. 

Lucy  S.,  born  1820;  married  Clinton  Hammond. 

John,  born  1822;  married  Mary  Perigoo. 

William,  born  1826;  married  Louisa  Evans. 

Oliva,  born  1828;  married  Da\id  S.  Reynolds. 

Philana  married  Jerome  Barnet, 

Josephine,  born  1837,  died  in  1863. 

William  Ballou  is  an  extensive  jeweler  at  De  Kalb,  111.:  he 
has  a  famil}'  of  four  children. 

James  BloodgooU. 

James  Bloodgood  was  born  January  5,  1801,  in  the  town  of 
Columbia,  Herkimer  count}',  \.  Y.  ;  occupation,  a  farmer. 
Came  to  this  town  in  June,  1827,  was  married  (3ctober  10,  1830, 
to  Nancy  Vaughan,  who  was  born  November  30,  18 10.  Her 
father's  name  was  James  Vaughan.  Mr.  Bloodgood  has  been 
a  resident  of  the  town  of  Concord  for  a  period  of  fifty-five 
years.  His  history  is  part  and  parcel  of  the  histor}-  of  many  of 
the  early  settlers  of  Concord.  Perhaps  an  extract  from  a  pub- 
lication entitled.  "  The  first  fift}'  years  of  the  ^L^dison  Uni- 
versity," is  appropriate  : 

"  James  Bloodgood,  born  in  Columbia,  Herkimer  count}-, 
January  5,  1801,  came  to  the  Seminar}-  in  '24  and  left  in  "27; 
settled  as  a  farmer  in  Springville,  Erie  count}-  ;  married  Nancy 
\^uighan  of  Oueensburg,  N.  Y.  ;  taught  school  much  in  con- 
nection with  his  farming.  His  only  son  graduated  at  Madison 
University  in  1852." 

Referring  to  the  same  publication  : 


Delevan  Bloodgood,  born  at  Springville,  August  20,  1831, 
entered  in  '48  and  graduated  '52.  Married  at  Washington,  D. 
C,  to  Jennie,  daughter  of  the  late  John  Ruger.  After  study 
of  medicine  in  Ann  Arbor,  Mich.,  and  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  took 
M.  D.  from  Jefferson,  Md.,  College.  Studied  at  medical 
schools  in  Pittsfield,  Mass.,  New  York  city  and  Buffalo,  N.  Y. 
Visited  Europe  in  '55.  In  '57  Assistant  Surgeon  in  United  States 

His  first  cruise  was  of  two  and  a  half  years  in  the  flag  .ship 
of  the  Pacific  squadron,  the  steamship  Merrimac,  afterward 
the  Rebel  iron  clad.  Visited  principal  ports  on  western  coast 
of  North  and  South  America,  and  the  islands  of  the"  Pacific  ; 
in  '60 ;  at  Boston  Navy  Hospital.  Next  in  steamer  Mohawk 
captured  two  slavers.  In  arduous  service  during  the  war  in  the 
Gulf.  After  battle  at  Port  Royal,  on  transport  Atlantic,  con- 
veying sick  and  wounded  north.  In  '62  Surgeon  on  the  Daco- 
tah,  watching  the  Rebel  ram  Merrimac  ;  cruised  after  Semmes 
and  other  privateers  ;  two  years  on  the  coast  of  the  Carolinas, 
in  chase  of  the  Chesapeake.  Detached  from  Dacotah,  caught 
by  Rebel  raiders  at  Gunpowder  river,  Md.,  but  soon  escaped. 
Recruited  in  N(n\-  York.  In  '65  made  cruise  on  the  lakes  in 
the  Michigan.  In  '66,  on  receiving  ship  Vermont,  New  York 
harbor.  In  '67  sent  to  the  Jamestown  at  Panama,  which  was 
suffering  from  yellow  fever  ;  the  passage  of  sixt\--six  days 
from  Panama  to  San  Francisco  a  terrible  one,  every  sixth  per- 
son having  died.  Spent  following  winter  in  Alaska  ;  next 
summer  cruising  on  the  coast  of  North  America.  Had  a  cruise 
on  coast  of  Mexico  in  Lackawana,  then  ordered  to  Na\'y  Yard 
New  York,  where  he  still  remains. 

The  Blotlgett  Family. 

Abial  D.  Blodgett  and  famih-  lived  man\'  \-ears  and  the  chil- 
dren attended  school  on  Townsend  Hill.  They  were  all  apt  schol- 
ars. They  removed  from  this  town  about  1845  to  McHenry 
county,  111.,  and  settled  near  Harvard.  Albert,  the  eldest  child, 
enlisted  in  the  army  and  went  to  Mexico  during  the  Mexican 
war,  and  came  homesick.  He  did  not  recover  and  died  in  1852. 
Ellen  married  I'rank  Diggins,  Helen  married  I.  E.  Baklwin  and 

lUoOKAl'llICAI.    SKKTCHKS.  293 

Hattic  married  H.   C  Jerome.     The)-  all    li\e  at   or  near    Har- 
\ard,  McHenr\-  c<)uiU\'.  111. 

Abial  D.  Rlod^ett  died  in  McHenry  cinintw  in  1861.  Susan, 
his  wife,  died  in  McHenr)-  county,  in    i<S66. 

Dolo.s  A.   I51«Klj'«'tt. 

Delos  A.  l^lodi^ett  was  born  in  Otse<^o  count}',  X.  \\ ,  and 
was  brouL^ht  to  the  town  of  Concord  by  his  parents,  when  a 
child.  He  received  his  education  in  this  town  in  the  cominon 
schools  and  Springville  Academ}-.  He  removed  with  his  par- 
ents to  McHenry  count}'.  111.  After  he  had  started  out  for 
himself  and  obtained  some  means  of  his  own,  he  in\x'sted  the 
same  in  pine  lands  in  Michiy^an,  and  continued  to  so  invest  for 
many  years.  i(S48  he  engaged  in  the  lumbering  business  in 
which  he  has  continued  ever  since  Besides  a  large  lumber 
manufacturing  establishment  in  Muskegon  and  extensive  pine 
lands  in  the  north  part  of  the  State,  he  has  .several  farms.  Mr. 
Blodgctt  is  a  public  spirited  citizen,  ready  to  assist  in  any  need- 
ful public  enterprise.  Though  not  a  professor  of  religion,  he 
built  a  church  and  presented  it.  a  free  gift,  to  the  people  of 
Hersey,  the  village  in  which  he  lived.  His  wife's  maiden  name 
was  Jennie  S.    Wood. 

Their  children  are  : 

John  \V.,  aged  t\\ent}'-three,  and  Susie  R.,  aged  eighteen. 

Mr.  Blodgett  has  taken  great  pains  to  educate  his  children. 
His  son,  besides  receiving  a  good  busidess  education,  has 
attended  the  Militar}- Acadeni}-  at  Worcester.  Mass..  two  years. 

J.  S.  Baruett. 

Mr.  Barnett's  father,  Gilbert  Rarnett,  was  born  in  Bridge- 
water,  near  Utica,  N.  Y.,  Dec.  I2,  1791.  He  removed  with  his 
family  to  Springville  in  1833,  and  leased  of  Col.  E.  W.  Cook,  a 
site  for  a  foundry  ^\hich  he  built  and  had  in  operation  in  1834. 
It  was  the  first  foundr}-  in  town,  and  the  first  work  done  was 
making  the  castings  for  tlie  "Big"  mill.  He  operated  the 
foundry  about  four  years  then  sold  it  to  a  Mr,  Kennedy.  Mr. 
Barnett  died  in  Wisconsin,  June  14,  1899.  He  was  married 
November  16,  1812,  to  Betsey  Dickinson,  who  was  born  near 
Utica,  N.  Y.,  February  23,  1794. 


They  had  eight  children,  namely  : 

Jedediah  S.,  born  Nov.  15,  181 3. 

Frederick  M  ,  born  March  26,  1817,  died,  June  14,  1856. 

William  D.,  born  Dec.  8,  18 19,  died  about  1870, 

Gilbert,  jr.,  born  Sept.  4,  1822. 

Elizabeth,  born  Nov.  29,  1824. 

Miles  A.,  born  March   18,  1828. 

Jerome  B.,  born  May  31,  1831. 

Lucy  A.,  born  April  13,  1835. 

Jedediah  S.  Barnett  was  born  in  Sullivan,  Madison  county, 
N.  Y.,  came  to  Springville  in  1834,  While  engaged  in  the 
foundry  business  with  his  father,  he  cast  the  first  cook  stove 
and  plow  made  in  town.  He  was  proprietor  of  the  foundry  at 
Springville  for  a  while  and  was  employed  for  twelve  years  in 
the  foundry  at  Gowanda,  N.  Y.  He  was  married  Dec.  25,  1839, 
to  Lydia  Demon. 

Have  had  four  children  . 

Morris  D.,  born  March  27,  1841  ;  married  Mary  Hurd  ;  resides 
in  Springville. 

Francena,  born  July  27,  1845  ;  married  Rollin  J.  Albro. 

Agnes  M.,  born  Nov.  27,  1848  ;  died  Sept    19,  1853. 

Albert  M.,  born  Sept.  2,  1859;  married  Lillian  Davis, 

X.   Boleiider,  Jr. 

N.  Bolender,  Jr  .  was  born  in  Varysburgh,  N.  Y.,  Oct.  7, 
1853;  came  from  the  town  of  Sardinia  to  Concord  in  the  \-ear 
1876.  His  father's  name  is  N.  Bolender:  his  mother's  maiden 
name  was  Catharine  Bensinger;  his  occupation  is  milling;  \\as 
married  to  Miss  Julia  Rose  June  i,  18 10. 

N.  Bolender,  Jr.,  &  Bro.,  are  the  owners  of  a  farm  of  eighty- 
seven  acres,  three-fourths  of  a  mile  south  of  Morton's  Corners, 
upon  which  was  a  saw  mill  and  flouring  mill  of  four  run  of 
stones,  with  all  appliances  complete,  and  doing  a  good  busi- 
ness. March  22,  181 2,  the  flouring  mill  was  burned  with  its 
contents,  consisting  of  grain  of  all  kinds  and  seeds,  with  a 
quantity  of  flour.  The  mill  was  valued  at  $5,000,  and  about 
$1,000  in  stock;  A\as  insured  for  $2,500.  They  have  since 
rebuilt  their  mill  the  same  size  as  before.  They  are  also  own- 
ers of  a  custom  mill  at  Collins  Center  ha\^in<>'  t\\\)  run  of  stone  ; 

I'.iocRAi'iricAi.   SKi:T(.in:s.  295 

are  also  running;"  a  cider  mill  and  shinL;ie  mill  in  connection 
with  the  custom  mill  at  Collins  Center.  There  are  three  good 
dwelling  houses  on  their  farm. 

Anson  lilasdoll. 

Anson  Blasdell  was  born  March  30,  1S41,  in  the  town  of 
Collins,  Erie  count)',  N.  V.,  and  came  to  Concord  in  the  )'ear 
1864:  was  married  Nov.  15.  1873,  to  Miss  Juliette  Gaylord. 
I  lis  father's  name  was  Ah'in  Blasdell  ;  his  mother's  maiden 
name  was  Al/ana  Irish  ;  his  grandfather's  name  was  William 
l^lasdell ;  his  grandmother's  maiden  name  was  Tamar  Allen. 
Mr.  Anson  Blasdell  says:  My  grandfather,  although  seventy 
years  of  age,  enlisted  in  the  late  war  in  the  State  of  Iowa,  and 
died  in  a  hospital  in  Illinois.  He  was  a  soldier  in  the  war  of 
18 12.      The)'  have  two  sons  : 

Ja)^  born  March  5,  1875. 

Lee,  born  July  22,   1876. 

Byron  E.  Bristol. 

Byron  E.  Bristol  was  born  in  Si^ringville  in  1842  ;  his  father's 
name  was  Adoniram  Bristol ;  his  mother's  maiden  name  was 
Lucinda  Harvey.  Mr.  Bristol  enlisted  Sept.  24,  1861,  in  Com- 
pany A,  One  Hundredth  Regiment,  New  York  Volunteers. 
He  was  Orderly-Sergeant  of  his  compan)- ;  he  was  first  with 
McClellan's  army  in  the  Peninsula  campaign,  and  took  part  in 
the  battle  of  Fair  Oaks  ;  he  was  afterwards  transferred  to  Mor- 
ris Island,  under  the  command  of  General  GihiKn'e,  ^\•hich  \\as 
intended  for  the  besieging  of  Charleston.  In  this  siege  he  was 
sexerely  wounded,  four  balls  striking  and  penetrating  his  breast 
simultaneous!)',  two  of  which  have  never  been  removed.  From 
Charleston  he  was  removed  to  Virginia,  where  he  participated 
in  the  siege  of  Petersburg,  at  which  place  he  was  mustered  out 
of  the  service  Sept.  24,  i^'64. 

Mr.  Bristol  was  married  in  i860  to  Julia  E.  Grover.  They 
have  one  child — Frank  E. 

AVarner  Bond. 

The  Bonds  came  from  New  Salem,  Mass.,  nearl)-  sixty  years 
-ago,   and    settled    in   the   north   part   of  Ashford,   Cattaraugus 


county,  N.  Y.  Warner  Bond's  father,  John  P.  Bond,  bought 
land  of  the  Holland  Land  company,  on  which  he  settled  and 
lived  until  his  death,  Sept.  26,  1879.  He  was  one  of  the  first 
settlers  of  the  town,  a  hardy  pioneer  ^\■hose  dexterity  in  wield- 
ing the  axe  was  rarely  equaled. 

He  married  Sally  Shultus.  Of  their  children  three  lived  to 
mature  years  : 

Abbie  J.,  married  Adelbert  Tainter,  and  died  in  Ashford  in 

Perry,  died  in  1871. 

Warner,  who  was  born  Aug.  7,  1846,  in  Ashford,  where  he 
has  always  resided  as  a  farmer;  was  married  in  ib6g  to  Linda 
Goodemote.  They  have  three  children — Carl,  Lula  M.  and 

tTosepli  BrittOTi. 

Mr.  Britton's  father,  John  Britton,  came  to  Boston,  Erie 
county,  from  New  Jersey,  in  18 10.  He  served  as  a  soldier  on 
the  Buffalo  frontier,  in  the  war  of   181 2.      He  died  in  Boston. 

Joseph  Britton  was  born  in  Boston,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  17,  1817; 
removed  from  that  town  to  his  present  home  in  Concord,  in 
1855.  He  was  married  in  1845,  to  Emily  C.  Rhodes.  They 
have  one  adopted  daughter,  Mrs.  Carl  Waite,  of  Springville, 

Edward  D.  Benient. 

Edward  D.  Bement  was  a  son  of  Julius  Bement,  one  of  the 
earliest  pioneers  of  Concord,  a  mention  of  \\hom  is  made  in 
another  part  of  this  work.  The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  born 
in  Concord,  Aug.  8th,  1842,  where  he  has  since  resided,  except 
two  years  residence  in  Buffalo — 1 870  and  187 1 — where  he  was 
engaged  in  the  flour  and  grain  trade. 

Mr.  Bement  enlisted  Aug.  3,  1861,  in  the  i  T6th  New  York  Vol- 
unteers, Co.  F.  He  left  Fort  Porter  for  the  scene  of  the  war 
Sept.  5 ;  went  into  camp  at  Fort  Chapin,  near  Baltimore  ; 
left  there  Nov.  6,  for  Ship  Island,  off  the  coast  of  Mississippi. 
On  account  of  sickness  he  was  left  off  at  the  hospital  at  Fort- 
ress Monroe  ;  not  recovering  his  health  he  was  discharged  on 
account  of  reasonable  disability,  Dec.  11.  1861,  and  returned 

lilOCRArillCAI,    SKF/KHKS.  297 

He  was  married  Nov  21,  1866,  to  Miss  Sophia  11.  Wilson  ; 
they  have  one  child,  Burtic  K.,  born  May  21  1870.  Mr.  Be- 
ment  was  Collector  of  the  town  of  Concord  in  18S1.  He  is  at 
present  proprietor  of  a  livery  stable  and  a  well  equiped  suite  of 
barber  rooms  in  Sprint;ville. 

IJlakcley  Faiuily. 

John  D.  Blakeley  was  born  in  Greenville,  Cireene  county, 
N.  Y.,  ini8i3,  of  New  En<;^land  parents,  who,  in  1815,  when. he 
was  two  \x'ars  old,  moved  to  the  town  of  Willink,  now  Aurora. 
He  worked  upon  the  farm  near  the  village  of  East  Aurora, 
teaching  school  winters,  until  1846.  Four  years  he  was  con- 
nected with  a  woolen-factory  at  West  Falls.  Moved  to  Spring- 
ville,  Sept.  10,  185 1,  where  he  has  since  resided,  for  the  first 
few  years  in  the  harness  business,  then  a  spinner  in  a  woolen- 
factory  and  a  carpenter.  During  the  last  twent)'-two  years  he 
has  been  in  mercantile  life,  and  by  steady  industry  and  careful 
management  has  acquired  a  fair  competence      His  son 

Walter  W^  Blakeley,  N\as  born  in  Aurora,  in  1846,  is  editor  and 
publisher  of  the  Journal  and  Herald,  a  local  newspaper  which  he 
began  publishing  in  1867  as  the  Springi'illc  Journal.  He  is  also 
proprietor  of  an  extensi\'e  and  well  arranged  book  and  sta- 
tionery store,  and  takes  an  acti\'e  interest  in  movements  that 
tend  to  build  up  the  moral  and  intellectual  culture  of  his  town. 

flarvis   Blooinficld. 

Jarvis  Bloomfield  was  an  early  settler  here.  He  was  a  farmer 
and  owned  until  his  death  the  mill  now  owned  b}'  C.  J.  Shut- 
tleworth.  He  had  four  children  :  Hiram,  the  oldest,  lives  near 
Rochester  ;  David  C,  lives  in  Sherman,  Chatauqua  county  ; 
Maria,  married  P'rank  Fargo,  and  lives  in  Warsaw  ;  Homer, 
when  last  heard  from,  lived  in  California.  Mr.- Bloomfield  died 
Ma\'  12,  1856,  aged  si.xty-eight  years  and  eleven  months. 

Samuel   Bradley. 

Samuel  Bradle\'  \\as  an  earh'  settler  in  this  town,  and  built 
and  managed  the  first  woolen  mills  ever  built  in  this  town.  He 
afterward  bought,  in  compan)'  with  his  son-in-law,  Silas  Rush- 
more,  the  Gardner  grist  mill.  A  few  years  afterward,  while 
tendintr    the   mill   at   ni<>"ht,   he    fell    from    the  stairs    and    was 


injured  so  badly  that  he  died  in  a  short  time.  None  of  the 
family  or  descendants  have  lived  in  this  town  for  forty  or  fifty 

Charles  E.  Botsfoitl,  C.  E. 

C.  E.  Botsford  was  born  in  Syracuse,  N.  Y..  in  1837.  When 
he  was  five  years  of  age,  the  family  moved  to  Yorkshire,  N.  Y,, 
and  to  Springville  in  1847,  where  he  has  ever  since  held  a 
residence.  He  attended  school  three  years  at  the  Springville 
Academy,  where  he  developed  a  rare  proficiency  in  mathemat- 
ics, which  resulted  in  his  becoming  a  professional  civil  engineer 
and  surveyor. 

About  1856,  he  became  assistant  engineer  in  the  construc- 
tion of  the  Brooklyn  city  water  works.  He  remained  in  this 
position  se\'en  years,  at  the  expiration  of  which  time  he  gave 
his  attention  to  the  locating  and  construction  of  railroads  for  a 
period  of  ten  years,  principally  in  the  States  of  New  York, 
Pennsylvania  and  Connecticut.  Besides  being  actively  engaged 
in  the  building  of  railroads,  he  made  a  great  many  preliminary 
surveys.  Among  the  roads  which  he  assisted  in  building  are 
the  Rondout  &  Oswego,  in  New  York  ;  the  Sull'van  &  Erie  in 
Pennsylvania,  and  the  New  Haven,  Middletown  &  W'illimantic, 
in  Connecticut.  Of  the  last-mentioned,  he  was  chief  engineer, 
and  also  of  the  Rochester  &  Pittsburgh. 

Mr.  Botsford  has  undoubtedly  the  largest  prix'ate  librar\-  in 
Erie  county  outside  of  Buffalo.  His  collection  now  numbers 
one  thousand  volumes  of  standard  works. 

Mr.  Botsford  was  married  in  1876,  to  Roselia  M.  Parmenter, 
a  graduate  of  GrifTfith  Institute.  They  have  two  sons,  Charles 
and  Heman. 

The  Bhike    Faiuily. 

Ebenezer  Blake  came  to  this  State  from  Canada  about  1816, 
and  after  stopping  at  several  different  places  for  a  while,  finally 
settled  on  Townsend  Hill,  in  1829,  He  reared  a  large  family 
of  children  : 

Adonirum  J.,  the  eldest,  died  in  Cuba,  N.  Y..  in  1843. 

John  G.  lives  in  Mount  Carroll,  111. 

Rosina  (Blake)  Rowley  lives  in  Springville. 

Benjamin  F.  lives  in  Gaines,  Orleans  county. 


Chirinda  died  in    1848. 

Louisa  (Blake)  Willis  died  in  I <S6o. 

Charles  E.  died  in  1873. 

Harn-  li\'es  in  Rome,  N.  Y. 

Cephas  lives  in  Gaines,  Orleans  county,  N.  V. 

Saphronia  M.  lives  in  Blaine,  Porta<^e  county.  Wis. 

Sylvester  H.  Barnhart. 

Mr.  Barnhart  was  born  at  Dickinson's  Landin<^,  Stormont 
county,  C.  W.,  Sept.  19,  1842.  His  parents  were  of  Canadian 
birth.  He  received  instruction  in  the  hi^ijjhcr  branches  from  a 
private  instructor,  and  tauLjht  school  four  }'ears  in  his  native 
county,  then  relinquishcil  the  pursuit  on  account  of  his  health; 
in  1864  he  went  to  St.  Catharines,  C.  W.,  and  worked  for 
three  years  at  cabinet  and  undertaking'  business ;  from  that 
time  up>.to  the  present  he  has  mainly  followed  the  occupation 
of  harnessmaker  and  saddler  in  \'arious  places  in  New  York, 
Pennsylvania,  and  in  the  cities  of  Cleveland,  Chica<^o,  Detroit, 
and  Cincinnati.  He  is  at  present  (1883)  located  in  Springville. 
While  at  Corr\',  Pa.,  he  was  engaijed  for  a  while  in  the  electro 
gold  and  silver  plating  business.  He  was  also  engaged  for  a 
hardware  firm  in  Cleveland,  O.,  for  some  time. 

In  the  manufacture  of  harness,  Mr.  Barnhart  is  a  \-er\'  skillful 
workman,  his  wcM'k  taking  first  premium  when  ])ut  on  exhibi- 

<ir<M>rj»-e   1).   I5ra<ltVn'd  (Colored). 

George  D.  Bradford  was  born  in  the  cit}'  of  New  Orleans, 
La.,  June  8,  1850.  At  the  commencement  of  the  rebellion  in 
1861  he  joined  a  division  of  Rebel-General  Longstreet's  army, 
stationed  in  New  Orleans,  in  the  capacity  of  an  officer's  waiter. 
He  filled  this  position  until  the  occupation  of  New  Orleans  by 
the  Union  army,  under  General  Butler  in  1862,  when  he  joined 
the  Union  forces,  and  became  an  assistant  in  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Si.xteenth  regnnent  New  York  volunteers,  with 
which  he  remained  during  all  the  hard-fought  battles  in  which 
it  took  part  and  until  the  close  of  the  war  in  1865,  when  he 
came  to  Springville  with  Capt.  Charles  F.  Crary  ;  after  Captain 
Crar}''s  death   he  became  an   inmate  of   Mr,  J.  N.  Richmond's 


family,  and  expresses  thanks  for  their  kindness  and  the  educa-- 
tional  privileges  they  gave  him. 

Statement  of  Mrs.  Boyles. 

I  was  born  in  Connecticut  ;  my  father's  name  was  Abel  Ab- 
bey ;  my  name  was  Melinda  Abbey  ;  came  from  Connecticut 
to  Lyle.  Broome  county,  this  state,  in  1803;  my  father  came 
to  Sardinia  in  181 3  and  bought  of  Sumner  Warren  a  saw  mill 
and  a  quarter  section  of  land  where  Sardinia  village  now  is; 
he  moved  his  family  on  in  March,  1814;  was  about  three  weeks 
coming  through  ;  he  came  with  two  span  of  horses  and  a  yoke 
of  oxen  ;  stayed  the  last  night  of  our  journey  at  Jackson's,  east 
of  Arcade  ;  on  coming  into  the  town  of  Sardinia  we  passed 
where  a  Mr.  Eaton  and  another  man  had  made  a  beginning 
where  Rice's  Corners  are  now,  but  both  had  gone  east  on 
account  of  the  Indians,  and  one  of  them  never  moved  back  ; 
we  found  General  Knott  on  his  place,  and  IVIr.  Mariam  and 
Cartwright  about  where  Thomas  Hopkins  and  Mr.  Hosmernow 
live,  and  Godfrey  and  Palmer  lived  just  west  of  Colgrove's  Cor- 
ners, on  the  Andrc\\s  place.  The  saw  mill  that  father  bought 
of  Warren  stood  about  where  Mr.  Simonds'  mill  is,  and  the 
little  log  house  stood  about  where  Andrews'  grocery  stands 
now  ;  there  was  no  other  house  where  Sardinia  village  now  is, 
nor  nearer  than  Godfrey's  west  of  Colgrove's  Corners. 

Mr.  Warren  had  built  a  shant}'  on  the  place  where  Hiram 
Crosby  now  lives,  but  not  long  after  he,  Godfrey  and  others 
were  called  out  on  the  lines  to  serve  as  soldiers,  and  his  wife 
went  up  and  stayed  with  Mrs  Godfrey  while  they  were  gone. 
Old  Mr.  John  Wilcox  lived  on  the  Olen  place,  lot  thirty-four, 
township  five,  range  seven. 

Ezekiel  Smith  lived  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  as  you  come  down 
towards   Springville. 

A  man  by  the  name  of  Wolsey  lived  on  the  old  Carney  place. 

John  Johnson  lived  oii  lot  fifty-six  about  where  his  son  Rich- 
ard now  lives,  and  John  and  Jeremiah  Wilcox  had  commenced 
on  the  next  lot  below. 

Morton  Crosby  was  on  the  Jonathan  Madison  place,  and  Com 
modore  Rogers  lived  next  this  side  ;  then  Capt.  Charles  Wells  ; 
then  Jedediah  Cleveland  ;   then  Richmond's  folks  were  next. 

iiloCRAl'lIKWl,     SKF/ICIIKS. 


Horace  Rider  and  the  Sears  fami!>-  li\ed  on  the  hill  on  lot 
fifty-seven,  a  half  or  three-fourths  of  a  mile  nearly  north  of  the 
Hakes  brids^e. 

Ezekiel  Hard}'  li\'ed  on  lot  fort\--two. 

lacob  Wilson,  Benjamin  Wilson  and  Daniel  Hall  lived  in  the 
eart  i)art  of  the  town   near  where  the  railroad  junction  is  now. 

These  are  all  the  families  that  were  in  town  at  that  time  that 
I  can  remember. 

In  June,  1814,  Adelia  Sears,  a  yount;'  woman,  luini,^  herself 
with  a  skein  of  \-arn,  in  the  barn,  where  she  was  at  work  wea\-- 
ini^;  her  family  and  friends  never  knew  what  caused  her  to  do 
the  act.  I  remember  that  Mr.  Warren  and  his  wife  and  four 
more  of  us  rode  down  on  horseback  fixe  miles  throu<^h  the 
woods  to  where  the  Sears  family  lived  at  the  time. 

In  the  Summer  of  1814  I  taught  school  in  Sardinia.  It  was 
in  a  log  house  east  of  Colgrove's  Corners,  that  stood  near  New- 
ell Hosmer's  present  residence. 

All  the  men  liable  to  do  military  duty  had  been  called  to  the 
frontier,  only  two  or  three  who  were  exempt  from  age  remained. 
When  in  the  school  room  that  Summer  we  could  hear  the  can- 
non at  Fort  Erie,  Chippewa  and  Lund)''s  Lane  distinctl)-. 
We  sometimes  felt  rather  lonesome  back  in  the  wilderness  and 
most  of  the  men  gone  to  the  war. 

In  181 5,  my  father  and  Deacon  Russell  were  highwa)'  com- 
missioners, and  laid  out  the  road  through  Springville  on  West. 
In  1815,  I  was  married  to  Jeremiah  Wilcox  b}'  Christopher 
Douglass.  Escp,  and  moved  down  and  commenced  keeping 
house  on  the  creek,  about  t]iree-c]uarters  of  a  mile  east  of  the 
Hakes  bridge  On  the  29th  of  Februar\-,  1S16,  there  was 
a  caucus  down  at  Richmond's,  and  m\-  brothers  and  others 
came  down  from  the  east  part  of  the  tt)wn  to  attend  the  cau- 
cus ;  I,  too,  went  down  to  \isit  with  the  Crosby  folks,  and  left 
the  house  alone,  and  before  we  returned,  the  house  and  every- 
thing in  it  burned  up.  We  went  to  the  Barny  Carny  place  and 
staid  one  year,  and  then  went  back  onto  the  creek  and  kept 

The  girls  in  the  Richmond  famil\-  were  Anna,  Betsey,  Sally, 
and  Louisa;  the  boys,  George  and  Frederick.  Richmond's 
log  house  was  used  for  various  kinds   of   public  gatherings.      I 



remember  that  when  the  town  meeting  was  held  there  once  or 
twice  when  the  four  towns  were  all  in  one  ;  militia  trainings 
were  held  there  ;  religious  meetings  were  held  there  also,  and 
they  had  good  meetings,  too.  I  remember  that  when  Mr.  Fay, 
of  Townsend  Hill  was  married,  that  for  their  wedding  tour  he 
and  his  wife,  each  with  a  good  horse,  took  a  horseback  ride  in 
good  style  down  to  Richmond's  on  Sunday  to  meeting.  Social 
gatherings  were  held  there,  when  sometimes  nearly  all  from 
Sardinia  village  to  Springville  were  present. 

In  those  early  days  we  had  to  endure  many  hardships  and 
privations,  but  the  people  were  generally  friendly  and  we 
enjoyed  ourselves  very  well,  and  had  some  very  good  times. 

In  1820,  we  moved  up  on  to  lot  thirty-three,  township  seven, 
range  six,  where  the  brick  house  now  is,  on  the  west  side  of 
Vaughan  street.  The  families  living  on  or  near  that  street  at 
that  time,  are  Archibald  Griffith,  at  East  Concord,  Nathan 
Godard  and  Cyrus  Cheney,  on  the  Steele  place,  William 
Wright,  on  the  Bloodgood  place,  Jonathan  Mayo,  west  of  the 
road.  Captain  Wells,  on  south  part  of  lot  thirty-three,  John 
Henman,  Elijah  Matthewson,  Hale  Matthewson,  on  the  Hor- 
ton  place,  Abner  Chase  on  road  running  west  from  Vaughan 
street,  Culver  lived  where  William  Pingry  does,  Douglass  lived 
down  on  the  creek,  old  Mr  Madison  lived  on  the  Byron  Wells 
place,  Deacon  Jennings  lived  where  William  McMellan  does  and 
Ben   Rhodes   lived   on  the  Jabez  Weeden  place. 

When  I  first  came  to  Springville,  David  Sticknex'  kept  hotel 
in  a  small  log  house  near  the  Opera  House.  W^hen  we  passed 
from  one  room  to  the  other  had  to  step  over  a  log.  Fred  Rich- 
mond traded  a  little  and  Jinks  and  Stanard  traded  on  Buffalo 
street,  between  the  Methodist  and  Baptist  churches.  Not  long 
after  that  Rufus  C.  Eaton  kept  hotel  in  the  old  yellow  house 
that  stood  back  of  the  Universalist  church  near  the  pond.  I 
went  to  some  shows  there  in  1819.  The  first  frame  house  built 
in  Springville  was  by  David  Leroy ;  it  stood  a  little  south  of 
the  Presbyterian  church.  Dr.  Daniel  Ingals  lived  in  it  after- 
wards. Don't  know  for  certain  what  year  the  old  hotel  on 
Franklin  street  opposite  the  park  was  built,  but  I  remember  I 
went  to  a  ball  there  in  1 82 1.  Harry  Sears  kept  it  then.  I 
think  the  Eaton  grist  mill  was  built   before  1820      I  came  here 


and  had  wool  carded  in  1817.  I  think  there  niust  have  been  a 
carding  machine  before  Bradley  came.  I  think  Elliott  com- 
menced trading  in  1825  or  '26.  Dr.  Churchill  did  some  busi- 
ness in  early  times.  Dr.  Rumsey  was  a  young  man  and  died 
at  Mr.  Henman's  house  of  consumption  in  the  summer  of  1816. 
Dr.  Woodward  was  next  and  Dr.  Reynolds,  then  Drs.  Daniel 
and  Varnc)'  Ingals.  My  father  sold  out  in  Sardinia  to  Dudley 
and  Horace  Clark  and  went  to  Elyra,  0.,and  died  there.  Two 
or  three  years  after  we  moved  to  Vaughan  street  we  raised  a 
fine  crop  of  wheat,  but  could  sell  it  for  only  three  shillings,  or 
three  and  six  per  bushel  ;  we  also  had  to  sell  sheep  for  fifty 
cents  a  head. 

Mr.  Wilco.x  died  in  Ashford,  March  24,  1843. 

My  son  John  A.  died  in  Minnesota. 

Sardis,  Abel  and  x\lfred  died  in  Calif(^rnia. 

Carlos  E.  died  in  Mexico. 

Albert  Tracy  died  in  Kansas. 

M\^  daughter,  L.  C).  Wilcox,  died  in  1839,  ^ged  eighteen 

Maria  married  Janies  Goodemote  and  lives  in  Ashford. 

Lucy  married  Alden  Kellogg  and  li\'es  in  Pennsylvania. 

Mr.  Boyles  died  in  Nov.  1877. 

Murray  Cliaiirtlor. 

Murra\-  Chandler,  son  of  Elam  Chandler  and  Sail)-  Fleming 
Chandler,  was  born  in  Concord,  Jan.  I,  1847.  He  was  married 
March  29,  1876,  to  Filena  Smith,  daughter  of  Calvin  Smith, 
Esq.  of  Springville.  They  have  one  child,  Robert  Smith 
Chandler,  born  Feb.  6,  1879.  ^^^-  ^-  '^  '^  cheese  maker  and 
farmer.  His  father  came  to  Concord  from  Vermont,  and  was 
engaged  for  a  time  in  mercantile  business  at  Ellicottville,  N. 
Y.;  now  lives  at  Yorkshire,  N.  Y. 

Georg'e  Cosliiie. 

George  Cosline  was  born  Dec.  15,  1844,  in  the  town  of  Bos- 
ton, Erie  county,  N.  Y.,  came  to  Concord  in  1857;  is  a  farmer 
and  was  married  Nov.  9,  1859,  ^^  Janette  Hickok,  of  the  town 
of  Concord.  They  have  one  son,  George  S.  Cosline,  who  was 
born  May  15,  1864.      His  brother,  Henry  Cosline,  enlisted  and 


served  three  years  in  the  late  war,  and  until  discharged.  George 
Cosline  was  drafted  and  paid  $300  for  a  substitute.  He  was  in 
the  Mississippi  Valley  for  seven  years  and  cut  two  thousand 
cords  of  steamboat  wood. 

Albert  Crosby. 

Albert  Crosby  was  born  June  28,  1853,  in  Sardinia.  His 
father's  name  was  Hiram  Crosby,  and  his  mother's  maiden 
name  was  Susan  Jackman.  He  has  worked  at  the  business  of 
farming  and  cheese  making.  He  was  married  in  1874  to  Miss 
Ella  Smith,  daughter  of  William  Smith  and  Cinderrella  Briggs 
Smith.  They  own  and  occupy  a  farm  on  lot  fifty-three,  town- 
ship seven,  range  6,  in  the  town  of  Concord. 

They  have  two  children  : 

Alonzo  Erasmus^  born  June  18,   1875. 

Elsie  E.,  born  March  30,  1877. 

Statement  of  Vernain  C.  Cooper. 

I  was  born  in  the  town  of  Kingsbuiy,  Washington  county, 
N.  Y.;  my  father's  name  was  Samuel  Cooper;  my  mother's 
maiden  name  was  Betsey  B.  Armstead  ;  my  father  came  to  this 
town  in  1809,  and  took  up  lot  thirty-three,  township  seven, 
range  six,  but  did  not  settle  on  it.  and  soon  after  sold  it ; 
he  returned  East.  In  May,  181 1,  my  father  started  from 
Washington  county  to  move  to  this  town.  The  family  con- 
sisted of  father,  mother,  myself  and  my  younger  sister  Betsey. 
My  uncle  Nicholas  Armstead  and  a  small  boy,  George  Arm- 
stead,  came  with  us  ;  we  came  with  two  yoke  of  oxen  hitched 
to  our  wagon  and  drove  two  cows  ;  we  were  three  weeks  com- 
ing through  and  were  compelled  to  camp  out  nights,  frequently 
in  the  woods  ;  one  or  two  basswood  trees  were  cut  for  the  cattle 
to  browse  upon  ;  mother  prepared  something  for  us  to  eat  and 
we  slept  under  the  wagon  ;  I  was  so  young  that  I  cannot  tell 
for  certain  the  route  we  came,  or  all  the  incidents  that  occurred, 
but  I  think  we  came  b\'  w<iy  of  Pike  and  Arcade  ;  I  remember 
when  we  passed  the  Tice  place  in  this  town ;  they  were  burning 
brush  on  the  sides  of  the  road,  and  it  was  so  hot  that  we  could 
hardly  get  through  safely;  we  arrived  on  the  7th  of  June  and 
located  on   lot   nineteen,  township  seven,  range  seven,  on   land 

r.KXikAl'IIICAI.     SKKIIIIKS,  305 

nf)\v  owned  b\'  G.  VV.  Spauldin<4' ;  our  house  was  built  some 
distance  west  of  liis  house  on  the  south  side  of  the  road  ;  there 
was  no  saw  mill  in  this  town,  and  our  house  had  to  be  built 
without  lumber;  the  bod\'  was  of  logs,  the  roof  was  shingled 
with  bassu'ood  bark,  and  the  floor  w<is  made  of  plank  sjjlit  out 
of  basswood  logs,  called  "  puncheons,"  and  all  the  planing, 
matching  and  fitting  they  received  was  performed  with  an  axe  ; 
the  door  for  the  first  Summer  was  a  blanket  hung  up. 

Thomas  McCx^e  came  in  soon  after  we  did  and  located  on  lot 
eleven,  the  place  that  Laban  Smith  now  owns. 

James  Brown  came  in  soon  after  and  settled  on  lot  twenty, 
township  seven,  range  seven. 

His  son.  Obadiah  Brown,  located  on  lot  twenty-eight,  town- 
ship seven,  range  seven. 

Isaac,  Ezra,  Hira  and  Daniel  Lush,  four  brothers,  came 
and  settled  on  lot  twenty-seven,  township  seven,  range  seven, 
where  Hira  C.  Lush  now  lives.  They  came  from  Augusta. 
Oneida  count}'. 

Smith  Russell  came  and  settled  on  lot  twelve,  townshij) 
seven,  range  se\'en,  on  the  north  side  of  the  Genesee  road,  on 
land  now  (iwned  by  Henry  Scott. 

Channing  Tre\itt  came  and  located  on  lot  eighteen,  township 
seven,  range  seven,  and  put  up  a  saw  mill  in  18 1 3,  where  the 
Wheeler  Brothers  now  are. 

Alexander  Clements  came  and  located  where  Samuel  Stevens 
now  li\"es. 

All  the  above-named  families  came  in  and  located  before, 
and  lived  in  this  neighborhood  during,  the  War  of  1812-15. 
Most  of  them  were  called  out  to  serve  as  soldiers  on  the  Nia- 
gara frontier;  some  of  them  went  more  than  once.  My  father 
was  drafted  twice  but  hired  substitutes  each  time.  The  first 
time  he  hired  his  brother-in-law,  Nicholas  Armstead,  who  got 
badh'  wounded  ;  the  second  time,  he  hiretl  Isaac  Lush.  Dur- 
ing the  fore  part  of  the  war.  the  settlers  feared  that  the  Indians 
on'  the  Cattaraugus  and  Buffalo  Creek  reservations  might  side 
with  the  British  and  make  war  on  the  settlers;  but.  when  the}' 
learned  that  those  Indians  took  sides  against  the  British  and 
assisted  the  Americans  when  desired,  that    fear  passed   away. 

The  Indians  were   always  very  friendly  with   us,  and  used  to 



stay  at  our  house  over  night  frequently,  and  mother,  out  of 
friendship  and  matter  of  policy,  went  down  to  the  reservation 

Immediately  after  the  close  of  the  war,  settlers  began  to 
come  in  quite  fast,  and  within  two  or  three  years  the  following 
families  came  to  our  neighborhood:  Jonathan  Spaulding, 
Benjamin  Trevitts,  John  Andrews,  Everett  Fisher,  Daniel  Per- 
sons, Samuel  Eaton,  Asa  Philips,  Roswell  Olcott,  James  Tyrer, 
Ambrose  Cram,  Ebenezer  Merrick,  Frederick  Wood,  Cary 
Clements,  Samuel  Sampson,  Emery  Sampson. 

There  was  no  grist  mill  in  this  town  for  several  years  after 
we  came,  and  we  had  to  go  to  Boston  to  get  our  grinding  done^ 
until  Jonathan  Townsend  built  his  mill  on  Smith  brook, 
in  1816. 

People  from  Collins  used  to  come  to  our  house  on  their  way 
to  Boston  to  mill,  and  stay  over  night,  and  take  our  wagon  and 
go  on  to  Boston  and  get  their  grists  ground,  then  come  back 
and  stay  another  night  at  our  house,  then  in  the  morning  hitch 
on  to  their  drays  and  go  winding  through  the  woods  with  noth- 
ing but  a  path  to  follow  to  their  homes  in  Collins. 

A  great  many  people  used  to  sta}'  at  our  house  over  night, 
some  going  to  mill,  some  looking  for  land  or  moving,  and  fre- 
quently there  would  be  six  or  eight  there  at  a  time.  Once, 
father  was  digging  a  well,  and,  in  order  to  prevent  accidents, 
laid  rails  over  the  top  at  night,  but  one  of  our  oxen  recklessly 
walked  onto  the  rails  and  went  to  the  bottom  ;  but,  by  the  use 
of  ropes  and  the  assistance  of  travelers  stopping  there  that 
night,  he  was  hoisted  out  and  landed  safely  on  terra  firuta. 

A  wolf  once  killed  one  of  our  sheep  and  dragged  her  up  onto 
a  big  elm  log,  and  was  found  there  taking  his  breakfast  in  the 

One  time,  a  bear  killed  one  of  ni}-  father's  hogs,  and  he  and 
Mr.  Brown  took  the  remains  of  the  hog  down  b}'  the  little 
spring  brook  and  baited  a  bear  trap,  which  they  constructed  of 
logs  and  pins  or  stakes,  and  they  caught  the  bear  by  one  hind 

When  we  went  to  the  trap,  a  large  dog  that  had  followed  us 
into  the  county  rushed  up  and  attacked  the  bear  in  the  trap, 
but  the  bear  seized  him  in  his  fore  paws,  and  would  have  hugged 


him  to  death.  We  tried  to  pr)-  his  paws  apart  with  liand 
spikes  to  Hberate  the  dog,  but  could  not  do  it,  and  finally  had 
to  knock  the  bear  in  the  head  and  killed  him  ;  we  then  took 
him  up  to  the  house  and  kept  him  several  days  for  people  to 
look  at. 

My  father's  family  were  ; 

Vernam  C.  Cooper. 

Betsey  Cooper  married  Luke  Simonds;  lives  in  Concord. 

Julia  Ann  married  Jonathan  Swain;  died  in  Colden. 

Margaret  died  in  this  town  twenty  years  ago. 

Samuel  died  in  Illinois  twenty-seven  years  ago. 

Phoebe  died  in  Ohio  eighteen  years  ago. 

Elark}'  Lodusky  lives  in  Concord. 

Ezra  Lush's  mother  was  sister  to  my  father,  and  Ezra's  wife 
was  sister  to  m}-  wife. 

Veriiani  C.  Cooper's  Family. 

He  married  Keziah  Sampson,  Jul)'  28,  1828.  Their  children 
were  : 

Colvin  Cooper. 

Caroline  married  Job  Woodward;  lives  in  Concord. 

Cary  married  Helen  Gray;  he  died  in  Kansas,  1879. 

Ann  married  Frank  Perkins  ;  he  died  nineteen  years  ago. 

Clementine  died  when  a  child. 

Carlos  died  when  a  child. 

Leroy  died  at  Staunton  hospital.  District  of  Columbia, 
Dec.  8,  1864,  aged  nineteen  years,  nine  months  and  nineteen 

William  Wallace  married  Flora  Stage  ;   lives  in  Concord. 

John  Wesley  married  Mariette  Colburn  ;  lives  in  Concord. 

The   Cooliraii    Family. 

Samuel  Cochran,  who  was  one  of  the  very  first  settlers  in  the 
present  Town  of  Concord,  was  born  Jan.  21,  1785,  in  the  Town 
of  Gifford,  Vermont,  and  was  married  Nov.  6,  1805,  to  Catharine 
Gallup,  who  was  born  Feb.  22.  1787,  in  the  Town  of  Colrain, 
Mass.  He  was  descended  from  the  Scotch  Covenanters,  who. 
flying  from  the  persecutions  under  King  James,  settled  in  the 
North  of  Ireland  ;  while  she  was  a  descendant  of    a   Hugenot 


family  which  had  escaped  from  the  massacre  of  St.  Bartholo- 
mew. Soon  after  marriage,  the  youthful  pair  moved  to  Tioga 
county,  N.  Y.,  near  the  present  Town  of  Painted  Post,  where 
they  remained  until  the  Fall  of  i8o8,  when,  having  found  their 
location  to  be  destitute  of  water  in  the  dry  season,  they 
decided  to  go  where  living  water  was  abundant. 

At  this  time,  the  Holland  Land  company  were  distributing 
their  circulars  and  maps,  and  inviting  settlers  to  visit  their 
lands.  One  of  these  fell  into  Cochran's  hands,  on  which  the 
present  location  of  Springville  was  named  "Cold  Springs,"  on 
account  of  their  abundance,  coldness  and  purity.  His  late  ex- 
perience decided  him  to  visit  the  place  for  himself.  In  the 
month  of  September  or  October,  1808,  in  company  with  Joseph 
Yaw,  an  uncle  of  his  wife,  he  started  on  foot,  equipped  with 
blanket,  knapsack  and  staff,  to  visit  Cold  Springs,  now  Spring- 
ville. He  came  through  the  southern  tier  of  counties  to 
Angelica,  and  from  there  b}'  what  was  known  as  the  McClure 
settlement,  in  the  Town  of  Franklinville,  Cattaraugus  county, 
Joseph  McClure  having  cut  to  that  place  a  sled  road  from 
Angelica,  which  was  barely  a  track  indicated  by  blazed  trees, 
from  which  the  logs  had  been  cut  and  rolled  awa\\  McClure 
had  been  educated  for  the  medical  profession,  but  disliking  it 
he  had  left  Belchertown,  Mass.,  and  moved  to  Angelica,  N.  Y., 
in  the  Summer  of  1804,  when  his  skill  and  accuracy  as  a  sur- 
veyor had  attracted  the  attention  of  the  principal  surveyor 
and  agent  of  the  Holland  Land  company,  Joseph  Ellicott,  by 
whom  McClure  was  employed,  and  sent  into  the  wilderness  to 
survey  the  subdivisions  of  the  Purchase,  and  appreciating  the 
loveliness  and  fertility  of  the  broad  valle}'  of  the  Lschua,  he 
decided  to  make  it  his  home  and  moved  there  in  1806.  From 
this  point,  Cochran  and  Yaw  had  onl}'  blazed  trees  to  guide 
them  down  the  south  branch  of  the  Cattaraugus  creek  to  the 
forks  where  the}' crossed  to  the  north  bank  of  the  stream  which 
they  followed  down  as  far  as  the  place  kno^\■n  as  the  George 
Shultus  place.  P^rom  this  place,  the\'  came  up  the  ravine  to 
what  is  now  called  Cattaraugus  street,  to  the  site  of  the  present 
Village  of  Springville.  They  found  only  the  two  families  of 
Christopher  Stone  and  John  Albro.  Stone  on  Buffalo  street 
just  south   of-  Eaton  street,  and  Albro  farther  north. 


Cochran  &  Yaw  took  up  lot  2 ;  Cochran  the  south  part. 
With  tlic  help  of  Albro  &  Stone  they  cut  logs  and  rolled  up  the 
body  of  a  house  high  enough  to  stand  under  the  lowest  side  of 
the  roof.  This  structure  was  located  at  the  point  of  the  hill 
about  forty  rods  south-west  of  the  Edward  Goddard  place, 
where  a  few  years  later  Yaw  built  a  house  and  spent  his  days. 
At  first  Cochran's  house  had  no  floor  or  window  and  not  a  nail 
in  it.  Pins  driven  into  augur  holes  in  the  logs  furnished  shelv- 
ing, seats  and  table.  The)-  had  what  might  be  regarded  as  a 
novelty  at  the  present  da)-,  a  bedstead  with  only  one  leg  to  it, 
in  which  were  two  augur  holes,  receiving  the  two  rails  from  the 
sides  of  the  house  which  furnished  the  other  legs  and  side, 
ready  for  bark  cording,  which,  in  those  days,  was  considered 
a  rather  extravagant  and  great  luxury.  As  soon  as  the  shant}' 
was  ready  Cochran  returned  for  his  wife,  by  way  of  Buffalo  and 
Batav'ia,  following  only  blazed  trees  as  far  as  Boston,  from 
which  place  a  sled-road  had  been  cut  out  to  Buffalo.  The  first 
road  or  travelled  path  from  Springville  to  Buffalo  was  up  Frank- 
lin street  to  the  Russell  orchard,  then  by  the  Wilson  place, 
Townsend  Hill,  Pike,  Adams  and  Trevett's,  to  Boston.  Coch- 
ran was  soon  ready  to  return  to  his  future  home,  where  his  life 
was  spent  and  where  he  and  his  wife  rest  in  the  beautiful  cem- 
eter\'  on  the  farm  they  so  long  occupied. 

All  their  effects  were  easily  packed  on  a  small  sled  drawn  by 
a  yoke  of  steers,  and  the  father,  mother  and  child  started  for 
this  wilderness  home,  by  the  way  of  Batavia  and  Williamsville. 
F^rom  the  latter  place  he  was  nine  days  in  reaching  Springville, 
and  this  was  only  accomplished  with  the  greatest  exertion, 
often  being  compelled  to  cut  and  roll  the  logs  from  trees  that 
had  fallen  across  the  track.  Crossing  the  Buffalo  creek  on  the 
ice  was  a  serious  affair.  After  the  ice  had  first  formed  the 
water  in  the  creek  had  fallen  about  a  foot,  the  ice  breaking 
along  the  bank  had  formed  again  below,  leaving  a  strip  of  the 
first  formation  projecting  from  the  bank.  In  crossing  the  run- 
ner of  the  sled  ran  so  firmly  under  the  ledge  that  the  steers 
were  unable  to  back  it  out.  After  \'ainl)'  tr\^ing  to  extricate 
the  sled,  it  being  quite  dark,  he  took  the  child  in  his  arms  and 
with  his  wife,  walked  nearly  a  mile,  to  the  Indian  Council  House, 
where  the  Indians  were  holding  one  of  their  wild  dances,  feath. 


ers  and  paint  giving  them  a  hideous  appearance.  Here  he  left 
his  wife  and  child,  while  he  with  two  or  three  Indians,  returned 
to  extricate  the  sled,  which  delayed  his  return  about  two  hours, 
which,  to  the  young  wife,  seemed  an  age,  alone  with  the  howl- 
ing, painted  savages.  She  had  seldom  seen  Indians,  but  her 
mind  was  filled  with  stories  of  their  savage  ferocity  and  memory 
was  faithful  in  bringing  them  all  up  fresh  before  her  as  they 
danced,  howling  around  their  camp-fire.  One  of  the  squaws  took 
the  baby  in  her  arms  and  danced  around  the  fire  with  it  singing 
their  war  songs,  which  seemed  to  please  the  child  far  more  than 
the  mother,  who  expected  every  moment  to  see  it  tossed  in  the 
fire.  Another  took  her  fur-trimmed  overcoat,  put  it  on  and 
followed  in  the  dance  and  finally  disappeared  out-doors  with  it. 
Her  feelings  can  better  be  imagined  than  described.  Her 
child  seemed  safe  but  the  thought  that  her  fur-trimmed  coat, 
the  bridal-gift  of  her  mother,  was  gone  forever  and  she  could 
not  hide  her  tears.  "White  squaw,  baby,  cry,"  said  one  who 
could  speak  a  little  English. 

At  last  her  husband  returned  with  the  Indians  who  had 
accompanied  him.  All  was  right  again,  but  that  scene  could 
never  be  forgotten  by  the  mother.  They  stayed  at  the  Council 
House  all  night.  The  Indians  fed  their  steers  and  gave  them 
breakfast  for  which  they  would  take  no  remuneration.  The 
only  similar  instance  in  their  long  journey.  They  obtained 
shelter  nights  and  food  until  they  reached  Boston  corners. 
Thence  it  took  them  two  da}'s  to  reach  Springville,  camping 
one  night  beside  a  fallen  tree,  between  the  Lewis  Trevitt  place 
and  the  Pike  school-house,  about  five  and  one-half  miles  from 
their    new   house,  which    they  reached    on   the    following  day. 

When  they  left  Boston  they  started  very  early  with  strong- 
hopes  to  reach  Springville  that  night,  but  a  strong  wind  had 
prostrated  se\'eral  trees  across  their  track,  which  had  given  them 
a  day  of  the  hardest  labor  to  get  through,  but  all  in  vain.  The 
bright  hopes  of  the  morning  were  all  blasted  and  though  it  was 
cold  and  blustering  they  were  compelled  to  spend  the  night 
beside  a  fallen  tree  near  the  roots  which  were  turned  up.  Hem- 
lock brush  was  piled  on  the  ground  and  a  covering  of  it  on 
poles  overhead,  a  fire  built  before  it  which  kept  Cochran  bus}- 
through   the   night,  to   suppl)-  with    fuel    and    tend    while     the 


mother  had  a  six-months'  child  to  keep  comfortable  and  quiet. 
The  steers  had  to  make  their  supper  and  breakfast  on  browse. 
They  were  all  read}-  for  another  early  start  and  reached  the 
shanty  of  John  Russell,  on  lot  one,  near  the  an<;le  (just  west  of 
the  corporation  line)  on  Franklin  street,  built  since  Cochran  went 
for  his  wife.  It  was  a  pleasant  surprise  for  Cochran  and  wife 
to  come  upon  this,  shanty  in  the  wilderness,  with  its  genial 
occupants  and  they  were  made  welcome  there  the  first  night  in 
Concord,  and  the  wives  formed  a  union  that  night,  baptised 
with  many  tears  (but  they  were  tears  of  joy)  that  lasted  all 
through  their  future  lives.  And  their  "  pine-knot"  torches 
often  guided  them  through  the  woods,  half  a  mile,  from  shantv 
to  shanty,  for  a  long  winter  evening's  visit.  The  next  morning 
Russell  and  Cochran  went  down  together  to  Cochran's  house  to 
clear  out  the  snow  which  they  found  abundant  in  it,  as  the  roof 
covered  only  about  three-fourths  of  the  top,  no  doors  in  it  and  no 
chinking  had  been  done.  But  the  snow  was  soon  ejected  and  fire 
built  at  one  end  where  there  was  not  any  roof  and  both  wives 
were  soon  there  getting  their  two  suppers  together.  With  what 
thrilling  interest  the  survivors  of  these  two  families  recounted 
these  scenes  over  fifty  years  after. 

Though  greath'  surprised  by  the  addition  of  Russell  and  wife 
to  the  town  since  Cochran  went  for  his  family,  he  was  disap- 
pointed in  finding  that  Albro  had  lost  his  wife  and  left  for  his  old 
home  in  the  east.  During  the  winter  of  1808  and  1 809,  Stone, 
Cochrane  and  Russell  were  the  only  settlers  within  ten  miles. 
Cochran  and  Russell  were  the  two  first  permanent  settlers  of 
the  town  of  Concord.  Stone  and  Albro  removing  to  other 
parts  of  the  country.  The  first  money  earned  b}'  Cochran  was 
by  making  ashes,  boiling  the  lye  into  salts,  in  a  two-pail  iron 
kettle,  and  carrying  the  salts  in  a  trough  he  had  dugout,  on  his 
back  to  the  asher}'  in  Hamburg,  twenty-two  miles  distant.  With 
this  mone)'  he  was  enabled  to  pay  his  bill  made  in  Boston  when 
moving  into  Concord.  It  is  difficult  to  picture  to  ourselves  the 
hardships  of  pioneer  life.  The  winter  blasts  penetrated  the 
hastily-built  shanties.  There  were  no  fire-places  and  no  chim- 
neys save  a  big  hole  in  the  roof,  through  which  all  the  heat  as 
well  as  the  smoke  escaped.  The  cattle  lived  on  browse  and  for 
a  while  these  hardy  settlers  had  to  supply  much  of  their  provis- 


ions  from  the  game  of  the  surrounding  wilderness.  They  had 
no  neighbors  within  ten  miles.  The  curling  smoke  from  these 
three  humble  but  happy  homes  was  all  there  was  to  cheer  the 
forest  gloom.  Never  were  neighbors  more  highly  prized  than 
by  those  hopeful  pioneers  who  where  closely  united  by  their 
common    experiences  and  the    necessities  of  their  forest  life. 

Much  of  their  out-door  labor  w^as  done  in  common.  Together 
they  logged  and  cleared  their  land  and  soon  each  had  three  or 
four  acres  burned  and  in  condition  to  plant  corn  and  potatoes. 
They  struggled  hard  under  adverse  circumstances  to  supph" 
their  actual  wants.  But  sympathy  and  generous  friendship 
made  their  lot  happ)-  and  often  in  later  years  they  were  heard 
to  call  those  early  days  of  struggle  and  privation  the  happiest 
of  their  lives.  Cochran  and  Russell  with  their  wi\-es,  went  on 
foot  to  Gary's,  in  Boston,  ten  miles,  on  a  visit,  each  of  the  men 
carrying  a  bab)'  in  their  arms.  They  did  not  start  for  the  after- 
noon visit  at  five  P.  M.  Nor  did  they  return  the  same  evening, 
but  took  two  days  for  the  trip  and  felt  well  paid. "  This  visit 
was  soon  returned  by  Asa  Gary  and  wife. 

A  few  years  later,  when  Peter  Pratt  had  settled  in  Gollins,  now- 
known  as  Zoar,  Russell,  Gochran,  and  their  wives,  and  Albro, 
who  had  returned  with  a  young  wife,  went  with  an  ox  sled 
eight  miles  to  spend  an  evening  at  his  house.  It  took  a  good 
part  of  the  day  to  get  there  and  all  night  to  get  back.  Still  no 
doubt  they  worked  lively  and  gossiped  very  little  about  their 
neighbors.  About  this  time  Gochran  heard  that  a  man  named 
W^aterman  had  settled  upon  the  Gattaraugus  Greek,  where  the 
village  of  Gowanda  is  now  situated.  As  there  were  W'atermans 
in  his  native  town  he  determined  to  visit  him  in  hopes  to  hear 
from  his  eastern  home  again.  To  accomplish  this  he  first  went 
eight  miles  to  get  Peter  Pratt's  old  mare  on  which  his  wife  could 
ride  and  carr)-  the  baby,  for  he  had  come  to  the  conclusion  after 
carrying  the  bab}'  to  Boston  and  back  that  baby  had  got  big 
enough  to  ride  a  horse,  while  he  was  needed  to  go  ahead  and 
pick  out  the  way,  there  not  being  any  road.  They  travelled 
over  twenty-five  miles,  over  the  terrible  breakers  and  ravines  of 
Zoar,  along  the  Gattaraugus  creek,  then  an  unbroken  wilder- 
ness, to  reach  Waterman's.  On  their  return  the  mare's  colt 
broke  its    leg,  which  caused   another    day's    delay.     The  visit 


which  was  returned  by  Waterman  and  wife  on  horse-back, 
occupied  five  da\'s.  Such  incidents,  trixial  in  themselves, 
throw  a  clearer  li<^ht  upon  the  lives  and  feelings  of  our 
ancestors  and  give  us  a  better  comprehension  of  the  hardships 
they  endured,  than  can  be  obtained  from  the  most  eloquent 
descriptions.  These  pioneers  had  no  communication  with  the 
outside  world  and  the  friends  they  left,  except  as  intelligence 
was  brought  to  them  from  time  to  time  by  some  new  settler. 
There  were  but  few  additions  to  the  settlement  until  1810, 
when  quite  a  number  of  families  joined  them.  The  next  year, 
and  }'ear  following,  additions  were  so  numerous  through  the 
town  that  when  troops  were  called  for  in  the  war  of  1812,  quite 
a  compan}-  went  from  the  limits  of  the  present  Town  of  Con- 
cord. Cochran  was  appointed  Ensign  by  Colonel  Stevens  and 
had  charge  of  the  company  from  this  town,  and  were  placed  at 
the  batter}- on  foot  at  Black  Rock  the  night  Buffalo  was  burned, 
and  came  near  being  taken  prisoners  in  the  morning.  When 
Buffalo  was  burning  a  company  of  Red  Coats  were  sent  down 
the  ri\er  to  silence  the  battery,  which  had  been  doing  bad  work 
with  their  small  boats,  which  had  been  continually  crossing  the 
river  during  the  night.  And  this  companyof  Red  Coats  were  near 
the  battery  when  Colonel  Chapin  was  seen  coming  at  full  speed 
from  another  direction  and  in  time  warned  them  to  make  their 
escape,  when  they  all  fled,  some  running  but  a  few  rods  jumped 
down  the  bank  by  the  river  side  and  were  safe  from  their  shots, 
whilst  others  ran  for  the  woods  some  forty  or  fifty  rods  on  a 
double  quick,  the  balls  whizzing  by  them,  Cochran  was  among 
this  number  and  as  he  dodged  behind  a  big  hemlock  tree  a  ball 
struck  the  tree  throwing  the  bark  so  sharph'  in  his  face  that  he 
thought  certainly  the  bullet  hit  him.  Cochran,  in  after  \'ears, 
often  spoke  of  this  as  the  most  terrible  event  of  all  his  life,  for, 
on  the  last  fire,  the  cannon  ran  over  his  foot  crushing  off  the 
nails  from  his  toes  and  he  came  near  fainting  and  fallino-  at 
every  step  the  pain  was  so  terrible.  Onh'  one  of  the  company 
got  hit  b\-  the  enemy's  bullets  and  that  but  a  flesh  wound  in 
his  arm.  When  the  British  had  spiked  the  guns  they  returned 
to  the  city  for  plunder.  At  the  close  of  the  war,  Cochran 
received  a  commission  from  the  Government  as  aide-de-camp 
to   Brigadier-general   and   afterwards   to   Major-general.      Much 

314  l!I()(;RArHICAL    SKKTCIIES. 

of  the  time  during  his  Hfe  he  held  some  town  office,  was  one  of 
the  first  stockholders  in  the  Springville  Academy  and  a  trustee 
all  his  life.  Most  of  the  time  its  treasurer  and  during  its  darkest 
days  and  most  trying  periods,  one  of  its  most  firm  and  liberal 
supporters.  At  its  opening  he  was  so  anxious  to  see  it  start 
full  that  he  put  in  five  scholars,  though  part  of  them  were  so 
young  as  to  more  properly  belong  to  the  district  school.  He 
was  ever  ready  to  aid  in  every  benevolent  and  public  enterprise 
in  the  place.  His  second  log  house  was  built  on  the  corner 
of  Central  avenue  and  Franklin  street,  occupying  the  ground 
on  which  the  beautiful  and  stately  mansion  of  D.  \V.  Bensley 
now  stands.  In  1823,  he  built  the  house  on  Main  street,  in 
which  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  days.  When  this  house  was 
finished  the  traveling  public  pressed  him  so  hard  for  accommo- 
dation that  in  1S24,  he  put  up  a  sign  and  kept  public  house  for 
twenty  years.  Though  he  voluntarily  abandoned  the  liquor 
traffic  and  kept  a  temperance  house  for  three  or  four  years. 
This  house  is  again  being  fitted  for  a  hotel  by  F.  K.  Davis. 
Cochran  died  in  1845  "ot  quite  sixty-two  years  of  age,  leaving 
a  wife,  five  sons  and  four  daughters,  all  of  whom  but  the  eldest, 
were  born  in  Springville. 

His  eldest  son,  Orson,  was  born  Jan.  26,  181 5,  and  lived  in 
Concord  till  ^840,  when  he  moved  to  Otto,  near  Waverh*.  He 
was  elected  Justice  of  the  Peace  in  1850,  which  office  he  has 
held  ever  since,  now  over  thirty-five  years.  Was  town  super- 
intendent of  Common  School  there  till  the  office  was  aban- 
doned.     He  still  lives  at  Otto,  near  Waverly. 

Joseph  G.,  the  second  son,  was  born  Feb.  5,  1817.  He  pre- 
pared for  College  at  Springville  Academy  and  graduated  at 
Amherst  College  and  Union  Theological  Seminary,  N.  Y.,  and 
was  sent  by  A.  B.  C.  F.  M.,  in  1847.  ^o  Persia,  Asia,  where 
he  died  after  twenty-five  years  of  \'er)-  successful  labor  in  the 
mission  field.  In  1847,  ^^  ^^'^^^  married  to  Miss  Deborah 
Plumb,  a  daughter  of  Joseph  Plumb,  formerly  of  Gowanda. 
She  continued  a  missionary  on  the  same  field  where  her  hus- 
band died.  Her  son.  Dr.  J.  P.  Cochran,  is  laboring  with  heron 
the  same  field. 

Byron,  the  third  son,  was  born  Jan.  30,  1821.  Has  held 
:several  offices  in  the  militia,  was  on    Brigadier  and  Major-Gen- 


eral's  staff.  Was  elected  Justice  of  the  Peace  five  times,  was 
deacon,  elder  and  Sunday  school  superintendent  of  the  Presby- 
terian church,  Springvllle,  for  over  thirty  years,  till  health 
failed  and  he  resigned.     He  still  resides  in  Springville. 

Augustus  G.,  the  fourth  son,  was  born  July  i,  1825.  He 
served  three  years  in  the  war  of  the  Rebellion,  was  with  Sher- 
man in  his  grand  march  through  Georgia,  returned  from  the 
hospital  in  poor  health  and  is  now  living  on  a  farm  in  the  Town 
of  Great  Valley,  Cattaraugus  county. 

David  H.,  the  fifth  son,  was  born  July  5th,  1828;  prepared 
for  college  at  Springville  Academy.  Graduated  from  Hamil- 
ton College  about  the  year  1849.  Was  principal  of  Fredonia 
Academy  about  three  years,  from  which  place  he  went  to  the 
State  Normal  school  at  Albany  as  Professor  of  Chemistry,  &c. 
Was  soon  chosen  president  of  Albany  State  Normal  school,. 
where  he  remained  till  about  1861  or  1862,  when  he  was  elected 
president  of  Brooklyn  Collegiate  and  Polytechnic  Institute, 
where  he  still  remains  as  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D. 

Colonel  Elbert  Willett  Cook. 

Elbert  Willett  Cook — familiarly  known  as  Colonel  Cook — 
was  a  son  of  Paul  and  Jerusha  Cook  and  grandson  of  Constant 
and  Isabel  Cook,  and  in  direct  line  with  their  ancestors  who 
came  to  this  country  about  1630.  The  ancestors  of  his  mother. 
Miss  Jerusha  Hatch,  came  over  in  the  Mayflower,  and  landed 
at  Plymouth  Rock.  She  was  of  the  same  family  as  Israel  T. 
Hatch  of  Buffalo  and  Judge  Pringle  of  Batavia. 

Elbert  Willett  was  born  April  2^,  1804,  in  Springfield.  Otsego 
county,  N.  Y. 

Miss  Thankful  Plumb  Murray,  born  in  Orwell,  Rutland 
count)',  Vt.,  was  a  daughter  of  Jonathan  and  Roslinda  Murray. 
Elbert  Willett  Cook  and  Thankful  Plumb  Murray  were  mar- 
ried in  Springville,  Erie  county,  N.  Y.,  Nov.  29,  1832.  Their 
children  were  : 

Hiram  Henry,  born  Oct.  17,  1835,  and  died  unmarried  July 
18,  185S. 

Harriet  Maria,  born  Nov.  19,  1837,  and  died  unmarried  Sept. 
18,  1857. 

3i6  hio(;raphical  sketches. 

Olive  Bascom,  born  March  20,  1839  ^"^  died  unmarried 
August  31,  1868. 

Elbert  Plin}-,  born  Nov.  5,  1841  ;  married,  and  living  in 
Havana,  Schuyler  count)',  N.  Y.     Banker  and  miller. 

Jonathan  Paul,  born  Nov.  30,  1846;  married,  and  lives  in 
Springville,  Erie  Co.,  N.  Y.;  a  farmer. 

Grace,  born  Oct.  11,  1855;  unmarried,  and  lives  in  Havana, 
Schuyler  Co.,  N.  Y. 

Mrs.  Thankful  P.,  wife  of  Elbert  W.  Cook,  died  in  Havana, 
Schuyler  Co.,  N.  Y.,  Nov.  21,  1872.  Elbert  W.  Cook  and 
Lucretia  M.  Batterson — a  sister  of  the  first  wife — were  married 
Nov.  24,    1872,   in   Havana,  Schuyler  Co.,  N.  Y.     She  died   in 


His  father  died  in  the  service  during  the  war  of  1 8 12,  leaving 
his  mother  and  six  small  children — four  bo\\s  and  two  girls — 

Elbert  cared  for  himself  after  about  ten  }'ears  of  age.  At 
about  fifteen,  he  went  to  learn  the  trades  of  tanning  and  curry- 
ing, shoemaking  and  harness-making.  During  his  apprentice- 
ship, he  earned  b}'  extra  work  enough  to  pay  for  such  things  as 
he  desired,  which  were  not  considered  necessar}-  for  an  appren- 
tice in  those  days,  and  had  by  these  extra  earnings,  when  his 
time  was  out,  a  light  horse  equipage,  worth  $80;  a  set  of  tools 
for  making  shoes  and  harnesses,  and  $100  worth  of  leather. 
He  commenced  business  for  himself  by  shoemaking,  going 
from  family  to  family,  as  was  the  custom  in  those  days.  After 
earning  about  $120,  he  commenced  schooling  himself,  hereto- 
fore having  had  very  poor  privileges.  He  spent  o\'er  three 
years  in  school ;  most  of  the  time  at  Skancatlas,  N.  Y.,  mean- 
while supporting  himself. 

Directly  after,  he,  with  his  brothers,  Charles  and  Hiram, 
eno^aged  in  public  works,  obtaining  contracts  in  Pennsylvania, 
New  Jersey  and  New  York.  The  compan}-  to  which  he  be- 
longed, built  eighteen  miles  complete  of  the  Chemung  Canal, 
in  N.  Y. 

Soon  after  he  came,  in  compan)-  with  his  brother  Hiram,  to 
Springville,  N.  Y.,  and  purchased  the  grist-mill  and  woolen- 
mills,  with  adjoining  lands,  deeds  bearing  date  July  10,  1831. 
He  also  purchased  divers  tracts  of  land,  and  improved  them,  in 

liloCKAl'lIKAI.    SKKTCllKS.  317 

all  ab(iut  six  luiiulrcd  acres.  He  li\cd  in  S])rinLj\ilIc  about 
thirty-six  years,  duriiii^  which  time  he  rebuilt  the  grist-mill  and 
woolen-mills,  enlarging  their  capacities.  He  also  made  man)- 
other  improvements. 

Soon  after  coming  to  Spring\-ille,  he  was  elected  to  office  in 
the  militia  and  trained  in  the  Fall  as  Captain,  next  year  as 
Adjutant,  next  as  Lieutenant-Colonel,  next  as  Colonel,  which 
office  he  held  sexcral  \-ears,  although  he  twice  tendered  his 

lie  was  noted  for  his  public  spirit,  doing  alwa)-s  what  he 
could  to  promote  public  welfare.  Of  a  generous  nature,  he 
was  kind  to  the  poor;  as  a  rule  furnishing  employment  to  the 
needy.  Hard  to  refuse  a  friend,  he  often  extended  aid  of  a 
nature  that  xxorked  to  his  own  disadvantage. 

He  was  a  staunch  temperance  man,  freely  spending  time  and 
money  for  its  benefit.  His  name  was  used  by  temperance  men 
for  the  Assembly,  the  Senate  and  for  Congress. 

In  May,  1867,  he  moved  to  Havana.  Schuyler  county,  N.  Y., 
in  consequence  of  Xhe  death  of  his  brother  Charles,  who  died 
the  preceding  October.  A  constant  hard  worker  through  life, 
he  adhered  to  the  old  habit  instead  of  living  at  ease.  He  set 
about  improving  lands  and  buildings  there  as  in  his  own  home. 

For  years  a  professed  infidel,  without  excitement,  he  quietly 
experienced  a  change  and  found  himself  in  full  harmony  with 
Christians.  From  this  time  he  commenced  contributing  to  aid 
the  progress  of  Christianity,  giving  liberally  to  churches  far 
and  near,  frequenth"  outside  of  his  own  denominatior, .  He 
furnished  the  lot,  prepared  the  ground,  and  erected  a  fine 
brick  structure,  costing  in  all  over  $30,000,  and  presented  it  a 
free   gift  to  the   Baptist  church  to  which  he  belonged. 

Another  monument  of  his  generosity  was  utilizing  the  Peo- 
ple's College  building — main  part  six  stories,  with  wings  four 
stories,  standing  unoccupied.  Securing  title  thereto  he  pre- 
sented it  to  the  Baptist  denomination — the  building  and  nine- 
teen acres  of  good  land  and  about  sixty  thousand  dollars  in 
cash.  To-day  it  is  heated  \\Tth  steam,  supplied  with  warm  and  cold 
water  in  all  the  rooms,  has  a  boarding-house,  dormitories  and 
chapel  connected  with  the  school.  Although  young,  it  ranks 
among  the  highest  in  the  State  for  its  discipline  of  students. 

3t8  biographical  sketches. 

Colonel  Cook,  in  Springville,  N.  Y.,  is  as  familiarly  known  in 
Havana,  N.  Y.,  as  Deacon  Cook.  W.  v..  R. 

Johnson  Chase. 

Johnson  Chase  lives  in  Machias.  He  says:  My  father, 
Enoch  Chase,  came  to  Concord  from  Vermont  in  the  Fall  of 
1810,  and  located  on  lot  twenty,  township  six,  range  six,  since 
known  as  the  Goodemote  place ;  he  and  his  brother  came 
through  with  two  span  of  horses  ;  C.  Douglas  had  a  log  house 
built  on  the  creek  above  the  Shultus  bridge,  and  we  lived  in  it 
till  our  house  was  built. 

During  the  war  of  1812-15  there  were  living  on  the  creek, 
Christopher  Douglas,  David  Shultus,  William  Shultus,  Enoch 
Chase,  George  Shultus,  Moses  White,  Truman  White,  Frances 
White.  Within  the  Corporation  I  remember  the  Eaton  fam- 
ily, John  Albro,  Samuel  Cochran,  Joseph  Yaw,  Isaac  Knox, 
Samuel  Burgess,  Alva  Plumb,  David  LeRoy,  David  Stannard, 
Jerry  L.  Jenks,  David  Stickne}^  Dr.  Daniel  Ingals,  Milo  Ful- 
ler, Elijah  Perigo,  Benjamin  Gardner.  Gardner's  grist  mill,  I 
think,  was  built  in  1 8 14,  and  Milo  P"uller,  run  a  carding  ma- 
chine in  connection  with  the  mill. 

The  families  east  of  the  village  were  Deacon  Jennings.  James 
Henman,  the  Madison  family,  Noah  Culver  on  the  Pingry  place 
and  Bascom  on  the  Dodge  place. 

In  1S16  we  moved  to  Little  Valley,  Cattaraugus  county; 
there  was  no  road  south  from  Springville  then  ;  we  had  to  go 
up  to  Richmond's,  cross  the  creek,  take  the  State  road  and  go 
beyond  Machias,  then  to  Ellicottville  and  on  to  Little  Valley. 
There  was  only  one  house  between  Richmond's  and  Franklin- 
ville  ;  only  two  log  houses  in  Ellicottx'ille,  and  three  or  four 
settlers  in  Little  Valley. 

Enoch  Chase,  Sr.,  died  in  Little  Valley  in  1825. 

Enoch  Chase,  Jr.,  died  in  Iowa  in  1839. 

Lyman  died  in  Iowa. 

Kimball  lives  in  Iowa. 

Statement  ol"  Joel  Chafee. 

;       My  father's  family  started  from  Rutland  count}-,  Vt.,  Feb.  1, 
1817,  and  came  with  a  yoke  of  o.xen  and  a  wooden-shod  sled  to 



( )n()iRlai;a  count}-;  there  we  found  bare  ground  and  traded  off 
our  sled  and  got  an  old  wagon,  and  paid  $20  to  boot ;  there 
were  father  and  mother  and  six  children  of  us,  and  we  carried 
our  own  beds  and  took  them  in  nights  and  laid  them  on  the 
floor  and  slept  on  them,  and  we  carried  and  cooked  our  own 
provisions  and  did  not  buy  any  meals  on  the  road  ;  we  were  on 
the  road  six  weeks;  some  storm}'  days  we  did  not  travel;  we 
left  the  Buffalo  road  somewhere  near  the  Genesee  river,  and 
came  through  by  or  near  Pike  and  Arcade  ;  stayed  at  Peter 
Sears',  near  Sardinia  village,  over  night,  and  came  down  to 
Richmond's  the  next  da}-  in  the  forenoon  ;  mother  had  walked 
considerable  of  the  wa}-  and  carried  a  child  and  was  nearly  tired 
out,  so  father  and  mother  and  the  younger  children  remained 
at  Richmond's  that  afternoon  and  night,  but  four  of  us  children, 
viz.,  Diana,  Joel,  Almira  and  Stephen,  came  on  by  ourselves, 
and  followed  marked  trees  through  the  woods  to  Springville 
and  u})  through  ^\-here  we  li\'e  now  (it  was  all  woods  here  then), 
and  down  where  the  Scoby  bridge  crosses  the  Cattaraugus 
creek,  and  down  a  piece  on  the  other  side  to  Uncle  Parmen- 
ter's  (Mrs.  Parmenter  was  sister  to  our  mother).  When  we  came 
to  the  Cattaraugus  creek  it  was  partly  frozen  over,  but  there 
was  a  strip  in  the  middle  where  the  water  was  the  deepest  and 
ran  the  swiftest  that  was  not  frozen,  and  there  w-ere  two  small 
poles  laid  across  the  open  space.  John  Holdridge  lived  on  this 
side  up  a  piece  from  the  creek,  and  when  we  came  to  the  house 
we  told  Mrs.  Holdridge  that  we  w-anted  to  go  over  to  Uncle 
Parmenter's,  and  she  went  and  called  Mr.  Holdridge,  and  he 
came  and  took  us  over  on  the  two  poles,  one  by  one,  and  we 
went  down  a  short  distance  to  Uncle  Parmenter's  house ;  if  we 
had  undertaken  to  cross  the  creek  alone,  probabl}-  some  of  us 
would  have  been  drowned. 

At  that  time  General  Knox  lived  on  the  corner  of  Main  and 
W'averl}'  streets.  Mr.  Burgess  lived  where  George  Weeden 
does.  Julius  Bement  lived  on  the  place  he  so  long  occupied, 
and  kept  "  bachelor's  hall."  We  lived  in  his  house  one  and 
three-fourths  years.  We  had  just  three  dollars  in  money  when 
we  arrived  here  ;  my  father  located  on  the  farm  we  now  occupy 
in  1 8 19;  at  one  time  we  lived  on  bran  bread  three  weeks,  and 
we  used  to  dig  leeks  and  boil  and   eat   them  ;  they  constituted 


a  considerable  portion  of  our  food.  My  father  got  money  to 
pay  his  first  tax  by  putting  up  a  leach  in  one  corner  of  the 
kitchen  and  boiling  the  lye  over  the  kitchen  fire  into  black 
salts  and  selling  them,  which  was  the  only  way  we  could  get 
money;  I  got  my  spending  money  by  burning  down  hollow 
trees  and  making  salts  out  of  the  ashes. 

Sophia  Russell  taught  the  first  school  in  this  district  in  her 
father's  chamber,  about  1819.  Before  that  we  went  to  the  vil- 
lage to  school,  kept  in  Widow  Gardner's  house  on  East  hill. 
The  first  school  house  in  this  district  was  built  b}'  subscription 
and  located  on  Main  street  on  the  corner  of  Deacon  Russell's 
land,  about  1820;  that  school  house  was  moved  down  to  the 
Chafee  Corners  about  1822;  David  Bensley  taught  the  first 
school  in  that  house. 

Once  father  and  others  clubbed  together  and  hired  Mr.  Bur- 
gess to  go  to  Buffalo  with  his  oxen  after  some  provisions  ;  it 
took  him  over  a  week  to  make  the  trip,  and  among  other  things 
he  bought  a  tierce  of  flour,  and  it  was  dix'ided  up  according  to 
the  amount  each  paid. 

The  Bensley's  built  a  saw  mill  on  the  Spring  brook  down  near 
the  Cattaraugus  creek  in  181 7. 

I  worked  for  Samuel  Cochran  by  the  month  in  1827  and 
helped  score  timber  and  draw  brick  for  the  old  acadenn-,  whicli 
was  built  that  season. 

Cliarles  Cliafee. 

Charles  Chafee  was  born  in  Claridon,  Rutland  count)',  \"t. 
His  wife's  maiden  name  was  Polly  Miles.  They  came  to  this 
town  March  15,  18 17. 

Betsey,  born  1802;  married  Elisha  Eaton.  Died  in  Concord 

Diana,  born  1804;  died  in  Concord  1818. 

Joel,  born  May,  1807. 

Almira,  born  August,  1809;  ni'H'i'ied  William  Blackmar. 
Lives  in  Concord. 

Stephen,  born  November,  181 1  ;  died  in  Wells\'ille.  Ohio  in 

Alanson,  born  November,  1813  ;  married  Vestina  Bensle\'. 
and  died  in  Concord  1874. 


hi()(;rai'iiical   sketches.  321 

Eliza,  born  March,  1816;  married  Edward  Cole  and  li\es  in 

Augustus,  born  August,  1818;  married  Alelinda  Andrus.  first 
wife,  and  li\es   in  Concord. 

Miles,  born  1822;   married  Caroline  Miner  and  li\-es  in  Iowa. 

Adaline,  born  1826;  married  Heman  Andrus;  tlied  in  Con- 
cord in  1850,  aged  twenty-four. 

Joel  Chafee. 

Joel  Chafee  was  born  in  Wallingford.  Vt.,  in  1807,  came  to 
this  town  with  his  parents  in  March  i8i7;'was  married  Oct. 
II,  1832;  his  wife,  Anna  Moulton,  was  born  in  the  tow  11  of 
Spencer,  Worcester  county,  Mass. 

Their  children  were  : 

Augusta,  born  Sept.  1835  ;  married  Joseph  Rumsey,  Oct.  1855. 

Bertrand,  born  Oct.,  1837;  married  Jennie   Richmond,  1871. 

Ellen,  born  March,  1845  '•  died,  Jan.,  1856. 

Rurdett,  born  Aug.  1849;  clied,  Aug.,  1849. 

Carlos  E.,  born  July,  185 1;  married,  Sept.,  1870,  Hattie 

Anna  Chafee  died  Sept.  24,  1882,  aged  seventy  years  and  one 
month.  Joel  Chafee  survived  her  but  a  few  months,  d}ing 
March  14,  1883,  aged  seventy-five  years,  ten  months  and  four- 
teen days. 

Bertrand  Chafee. 

Mr.  Chafee  was  born  in  Concord,  Oct.  26,  1837,  where,  with 
the  exception  of  two  or  three  years'  absence,  he  has  since  resid- 
ed. He  was  reared  on  the  farm  and  received  his  education  at 
the  Springville  Academ\'.  In  1855,  he  engaged  for  a  year  in 
the  jewelry  business,  at  Union  Springs,  Cayuga  county  N.  Y. 
The  following  two  years  he  spent  in  Buffalo,  first  as  clerk  for 
the  Western  Transportation  Company,  and  then  for  the  Ameri- 
can Express  Company.  Leaving  Buffalo,  he  returned  to  the 
farm  where  he  remained  until  1863,  when  he  engaged  in  the 
general  hardware  trade  in  Springville,  under  the  firm  name  of 
J.  Chafee  &  Son,  which  he  continued  for  twelve  years.  In 
1869,  in  company  with  C.  J.  Shuttleworth,  he  bought  the 
Springville  mills,  and  the    next    year  a  one-half  interest  in  the 


Pike,  N.  Y.,  mills.  They  afterward  purchased  the  entire  Pike 
mills.  They  dissolved  partnership  in  1874,  Mr.  Chafee  taking 
the  Springville  mills  which  he  carried  on  until  1880,  when  he 
leased  them  to  E.  L.  Hoopes,  having  previously  disposed  of 
his  hardware  interests  to  D.  W.  Bensley  in  1875.  He  is  also 
the  owner  of  several  farms. 

In  1870  and  '71,  Mr.  Chafee  was  elected  Supervisor  of  his 
native  town,  both  years  by  precisel)-  the  same  majority,  sixty- 
six.  In  1865,  he  was  elected  to  represent  the  fifth  Assembly 
District  in  the  Legislature,  and  took  an  active  part  in  the  pro- 
ceedings of  that  body. 

He  was  instrumental  in  getting  through  the  Legislature  the 
new  charter  of  the  village,  and  also  the  bill  regulating  the  sala- 
ries of  Supervisors  in  Erie  county. 

He  also  presented  to  the  Legislature  the  bill  which  changed 
Griffith  Institute  into  a  union  free  school  with  an  academic 
department.  Previous  to  this  change  he  was  for  ten  years — 
1866  to  '76 — one  of  the  Trustees  of  the  Academy  and  for  eight 
years  was  Treasurer  of  the  Board. 

Since  the  organization  of  the  S.  &  S.  R.  R.  in  1878,  Mr. 
Chafee  has  been  its  President  and  General  Manager. 

Mr.  Chafee  is  a  Knight  Templar,  and  in  1875  and  'jG  he  was 
Deputy  Grand  Master  of  the  Masons  of  the  State  for  the  dis- 
trict comprising  Erie  county. 

Mr.  Chafee  was  married  May  17,  1871,  to  Miss  Jennie  B. 
Richmond,  daughter  of  George  Richmond,  Sr.,  one  of  the 
earliest  settlers  of  Sardinia. 

Carlos  E.  Chafee. 

Carlos  Emmons  Chafee,  son  of  Joel  Chafee,  was  born  Jul}' 
2,  1 85 1,  in  Concord,  of  which  town  he  has  always  been  a  resi- 
dent. He  attended  school  several  years  at  the  Springville 
Academ\-.  He  is. at  present  conductor  on  the  Springville  and 
Sardinia  Railroad. 

Mr.  Chafee  was  married  Sept.  i,  1870,  to  Hattie  C.  Cochran, 
■  daughter  of  Byron  Cochran,  Esq.,  of  Springville. 

They  have  two  children  : 

Bessie  E.,  born  Aug.  1 1,  1876,  and  Jennie,  born  Sept.  28,  1880. 

(J  bio(;rai'iikal  sketches.  323. 

«Tohn  K.  Cliafee. 

John  R.  Chafee,  son  of  Alanson  Chafce  and  Vistina  Bcnsley 
Chafee,  was  born  in  Concord,  July  2,  1857,  where  he  has  always 
resided.  He  was  educated  at  Griffith  Institute.  Mr.  Chafee 
has  two  sisters :  Louella,  who  married  Edwin  Miller,  and 
resides  near  Minneapolis,  Minn.,  and  Emma,  who  also  resides 
near  Minneapolis. 

Angiistus  Chafee. 

Augustus  Chafee  was  born  in  this  town  in  i<Si8.  His  father's 
name  was  Charles  Chafee ;  his  mother's  maiden  name  was 
Polly  Miles.  Mr.  Chafee  is  a  farmer  and  has  always  resided 
in  town.  He  has  been  married  four  times  ;  b\'  his  second  wife 
he  has  two  children  : 

Sarah  M.  Chafee  married  Warren  Widrig. 

George  W.  Chafee. 

By  his  fourth  and  present  wife  he  has  one  child  :  Ella  R. 

Elder  Clarke    Carr. 

Elder  Clarke  Carr  was  born  in  East  Greenwich,  Rhode  Island, 
in  1774,  and  was  married  to  Patty  Merwin,  in  the  same  state. 
He  moved  to  Durham,  Greene  county,  N.  Y..  in  1802,  and  com- 
menced preaching  about  1803.  In  18 10,  he  moved  to  Ham- 
burg, Erie  county,  N.  Y.;  was  called  out  to  serve  on  the  Nia- 
gara frontier  in  the  War  of  1812,  and  was  at  Buffalo  at  the 
time  it  was  burned.  He  moved  to  the  north  part  of  Concord 
and  settled  in  the  valley  of  the  Eighteen-mile  creek,  about 
1 8 14.  For  years  he  was  pastor  of  the  Boston  Baptist  church, 
and  also  founded  several  churches  in  the  south  towns  of  Erie 
county.  He  died  in  the  Town  of  Concord  in  1854.  His  wife 
died  in  1879,  aged  ninet}--four  years.     They  had  three  children  : 

Louisa,  born  in  Durham,  Greene  county,  N.  Y.,  in  1803  '<  ^"^'^^ 
married  to  Samuel  W.  Alger  in  1824,  and  died  April  9,  1882,  in 

Clark  M.  was  born  in  Durham,  (ireene  county,  N.  Y.,  in 
1805,  a"d  died  at  Galesburg,  111.,  in  September,  1877. 

Laura  was  born  in  Durham,  Greene  county,  in  1807.  She 
was  married  to  Ambrose  Torre\- ;  died  in  the  town  of  Concord. 
in  October,  1881. 


The  Carr  Brothers. 

The  five  Carr  brothers,  a  brief  mention  of  M'hich  follows, 
A\ere  the  sons  of  the  late  Clark  M.  Carr,  of  Galesburg,  111.,  a 
former  resident  of  Erie  county,  and  <^randsons  of  Elder  Clark 
Carr,  an  early  settler  in  this  town,  and  an  early  preacher  in  this 
and  adjoining"  towns. 

Three  of  them  attended  Springville  Academy  and  also 
graduated  at  Knox  College,  111.  They  all  served  with  distinc- 
tion in  the  Union  army,  and  afterwards  occupied  prominent 
positions  of  public  trust. 

Eugene  A.  Carr  was  born  in  Concord,  N.  Y.;  at  sixteen 
years  of  age  he  went  to  the  West  Point  Military  academy  ; 
graduated  high  in  his  class  ;  was  appointed  second  lieutenant 
and  sent  to  the  Western  frontier  ;  in  a  battle  with  the  Sioux, 
was  wounded,  and  promoted  to  first  lieutenant ;  afterwards 
received  a  captain's  commission,  which  he  held  till  the  com- 
mencement of  the  Rebellion,  when  he  was  promoted  to  colonel. 
He  served  under  Generals  Lyon  in  Missouri  and  Grant  at 
Vicksburg,  where  he  was  wounded,  and  promoted  to  brevet 
brigadier-general,  ^\'hich  title  he  held  during  the  War.  At  the 
close  of  the  W^ar,  he  was  sent  b}-  the  Government  to  Europe  to 
inspect  military  fortifications.  As  an  officer  of  the  regular 
army,  he  is  now  stationed  in  Arizona.  He  married  Mary  Mc- 
Connel,  daughter  of  General  McConnel,  of  St.  Louis.  The}' 
ha\e  one  son,  Clark  N. 

B\'r()n  O.  Carr  was  born  in  Concord,  N.  Y.  During  the 
Rebellion,  he  was  quartermaster  in  the  Arm}-  of  the  South- 
west, with  the  rank  of  colonel.  After  the  War,  he  ^^•as 
appointed  superintendent  of  the  Ogden  division  of  the  Union 
Pacific  Railroad,  which  he  held  four  years  ;  subsequently,  he 
was  government  steamboat  inspector  on  the  Mississippi  river;  he 
now  resides  in  St.  Helena,  Cal.  He  was  married  in  1854  to 
Mary  E.  Buck,  of  Galesburg,  111. 

Horace  M.  Carr  was  born  in  Boston,  N.  Y.;  after  gradu- 
ating at  Knox  College  he  graduated  at  Hamilton  College; 
entered  the  ministry  ;  served  as  chaplain  in  the  Union  army 
during  the  War:   is  noA\- preaching  at  Parsons,  Kansas. 

Clark  E.  Carr  was  born  in  Boston,  N.  Y.;  after  gradu- 
ating at  Knox  College,  he  graduated  at  the  Poughkeepsie  Law    j 


I!I()(;rai'iirai.   skktciiks.  325 

school  :  j)racticctl  law  at  (lalcsburg,  111.;  was  a])])oiiUcd  aide- 
de-camj)  on  (io\crnor  Nates'  staff,  and  occuj)icd  that  position 
durin^f  the  War;  is  now  postmaster  at  (lalesburi;",  which  posi- 
tion lie  has  held  twenty-five  years. 

George  P.  Carr,  son  of  Clark  M.  Carr.  b\'  his  second  wife, 
was  born  in  Buffalo,  N.  Y.  He  served  as  cajitain  in  the  Union 
ami}-  during  the  War,  and  at  its  close  was  ajJiJointed  by  Presi- 
dent Johnson  parish  judi;'e  in  Louisiana  ;  while  occupying  this 
position  he  met  his  deatli  in.  a  m\-sterious  manner,  jjrobabl)'  a 
victim  of  the  intense  political  feeling"  rife  at  that  time.  He 
possessed  literary  talent  and  was  the  author  of  two  books  of 
poems  :   "The  Ri\er  of  Life,"  and  "  The  Contest." 

Clark  Family. 

Abraham  Clark,  Jr.,  father  of  Alanson  Clark,  Lsq.,  of  this 
town,  was  born  in  the  town  of  (jloucester,  Providence  count)', 
R.  L,  June  14,  1790,  being  the  fifth  in  a  family  of  ten  children, 
was  married  to  Alice  Blackmar,  who  was  born  in  Thompson, 
Windham  count}'.  Conn.,  AjM'il  24,  1795,  Feb.  18,  1816;  resided 
in  his  nati\'e  town  till  November,  181 8,  when,  with  his  family 
consisting  of  his  wife  and  one  child,  he  emigrated  "  west  "  to 
what  was  then  the  town  of  Concord,  Niagara  count}',  N.  \\ 
"Taking  up  "  a  piece  of  land  containing  one  hundred  acres, 
part  of  lot  fourteen,  range  eight,  township  seven,  being  about 
one  mile  from  Langford  postoffice,  in  what  is  now  the  town  of 
North  Collins;  he  afterwards  sold  his  claim  and  removed  to 
land  situated  in  the  the  same  town,  part  of  lot  twelve,  township 
se\'en,  range  eight;  here  he  resided  till  his  wife  died,  July  2, 
1853;  shortly  after  this  he  disposed  of  his  farm  to  his  sons^ 
Lyman  and  Alanson. 

April  29,  1854,  he  was  again  married  to  Mrs.  Julia  M.  Wright, 
and  removed  to  the  east  part  of  the  town  on  the  Genesee  road, 
near  the  present  Concord  line;  remaining  here  but  a  short  time 
he  removed  to  Evans  Center,  Erie  county,  where  he  continued 
to  reside  till  his  death,  April  25,  1864;  he  and  his  first  wife  were 
both  active  members  of  the  F.  B.  church. 

By  his  first  wife  he  had  ten  children,  as  follows; 

L}'man,  born  in  Gloucester,  R.  L,  Nov.  16,  1816;  married  to 
Emih'.   tlaughter  of  Abram   Coneer,   of  Shirle\';   now    lives  at 


Princeton,  Green  Lake'  county,  Wis.;  previous  to  his  removal 
he  was  for  some  time  Justice  of  the  Peace,  and  was  Supervisor 
of  the  town  of  North  Collins  in  1856-7. 

Anna,  born  in  Collins,  Erie  county,  N.  Y.,  May  7,  1819;  died 
Oct.  16,  1822. 

Emily,  born  March  6,  1822;  died  Nov.  13,  1838. 

Alanson,  born  April  3,  1B24. 

Hiram,  born  June  4,  1826. 

Alban,  born  March  19,  1829;  is  married  and  lives  at  Prince- 
ton, Wis. 

William,  born  April  19,  1831  ;  died  in  Princeton,  Wis.,  Oct. 
3,  1863. 

Susan,  born  May  26,  1833;  died  Oct.  7,  1834. 

Julia  A.,  born  Feb.  12,  1836;  died   Feb.  13,  1854. 

Henry  Clay,  born  July  13,  1839;  died   May  3,  1853. 

By  his  second  wife  : 

Julia  Clayanna,  born  Aug.  3,  1855  ;  lives  in  Buffalo  with  her 
mother  and  half  sister,  Mrs.  Eunice  Dole. 

Alanson,  fourth  child  of  Abraham  Clark,  has  always  resided 
within  the  limits  of  this  history,  being  the  only  one  of  his  fath- 
er's family  now  a  resident  of  this  State,  except  the  half  sister 
just  mentioned  who  resides  in  Buffalo.  He  was  married  at 
Hamburg,  N.  Y.,  by  Esquire  White,  Feb.  26,  1854,  to  Flora 
Palmerton  (born  Aug.  6,  1831),  daughter  of  William  Palmer- 
ton,  a  brother  of  Joshua  and  Henry  Palmerton,  all  of  whom 
were  early  settlers  of  the  town  of  Collins,  Joshua  having  settled 
near  Collins  Center  in  the  Spring  of  18 10,  the  others  following 
soon  after.  The  Palmertons  came  from  Danby,  Vt.,  and  are 
supposed  to  be  of  English  origin. 

William  Palmerton  married  Floranna  Delezenne,  who  was,  as 
her  name  indicates,  French  descent ;  they  had  eleven  children, 
four  of  whom,  Betsey,  Nathan,  Flora  and  John,  are  residents 
of  this  county. 

Delezenne  Palmerton,  the  eldest,  lives  at   Muskegan,   Mich. 

George  Edward  Palmerton  went  to  California  during  the  gold 
excitement,  and  has  not  been  heard  from  in  twenty-five  years, 
and  is  supposed  to  be  dead. 

The  other  members  of  the  family  not  mentioned  are  now 


Their  children  arc  as  follows  : 

Willis  (iaylord,  born  Nov.  10,  i«S54. 

Riley  Hiram,  born  Feb.  4,  1857. 

George  William,  born  May  26.  i<S5<S. 

Mr.  Clark  lixcs  one-half  mile  east  of  W'oodward's  Hollow 
(which  is  his  postoffice),  on  \\hat  has  ever  been  known  as  the 
Genesee  road,  is  a  farmer,  and   owns  a  dair\-  farm  of  275  acres. 

Willis  Gaylord  Clark  graduated  at  the  Oberlin,  O.,  Commer- 
cial college  in  August,  1874;  has  taught  school  considerable, 
and  in  the  Fall  of  1881  was  a  candidate  for  School  Commis- 
sioner in  the  third  district  of  Erie  county.  He  holds  the  office 
of  Justice  of  the  Peace,  to  which  he  was  elected  in  1882. 

Joiiatlian  O.  Caiifield. 

Jonathan  O.  Canfield,  was  born  Sept.  30,  181 1,  in  Ulster 
county,  N.  Y.  His  father,  Jonathan  Canfield,  was  a  minister. 
His  mother's  maiden  name  was  M£.rcyJHolly.  When  Mr.  Can- 
field  was  nine  years  old,  the  family  moved  to  Boston,  N.  Y., 
where  they  lived  twelve  years ;  they  then  removed  to  Genesee 
count}-,  where  the}'  lived  six  }'ears  ;  they  next  removed  into 
this  town,  where  Mr.  Canfield  has  since  resided.  The  follow- 
ing is  Mr.  Canfield's  family  record: 



Jonathan  Canfield,  born  Nov.  6,  1765  ;  married  July  15.  1787  : 
died  Dec.  9,  1851. 

Merc}'   Holl}',  born   April  9,    1771  ;    died  Now  25,  1855. 


Silvanus,  born  May  11,  1788;  married  Feb.  17,  1815,  to 
Abigail  Wood;  died  June  7,  1848. 

Josiah,  born  Sept.  14,  1789;  married  March  13,  1814,  to  Mary 
Crosby;  died  June  22,  1854. 

Sillick,  born  Sept.  12,  1791  ;  married  Jan.  22,  18 14,  to  Susan- 
na Tousey ;  died  Sept.  20,  1865. 

Wealthy,  born  Oct.  22,  1793  ;  married  Dec.  26,  1819,  to  Josh 
Baker;    died  Dec.  21,  1824. 

Mylo,  born  Oct.  7,  1796;  married  Jan.  i,  1826,  to  Electa 
Landon  ;  died  March  13,  1826. 


Watee,  born  March  31,  1799;  married  Nov.  13,  1853,  to 
Hiram  Moore;  died  December,  1855. 

Sally,  born  May  31,  1801  ;  died  Au^.  27,  1826. 

Rebecca,  born  June  18,  1804;  married  Nov.  11,  1827,  to 
John  B.  Landon  ;  died  May  14,  1874. 

Jane,  born  July  28,  1807;  died  Sept.  17,  1809. 

Oliver,  born  Oct.  22,  1809;  married  May  17,  1837,  to  Lau- 
rilla  Hopkins;  died  May  10,  1865. 

Jonathan  O.,  born  Sept.  30,  181 1;  married  first,  Sept.  7, 
1843,  to  Elvira  Horton  ;  second.  May  15,  1877,  to  Elizabeth 


*Ray   H.,  born  July  16,  1844;  married  1873  to  Lydia  Booth. 
Moses    H.,    born    Nov.    2,    1847;     married    1872    to    Melissa 

G.  l^ruce,  born  June  21,  1850;   married  1874  to  Kate  Brooks. 
Paul,  born  Sept.  21,  1855. 

*Ray  H.,  is  a  graduate  of  Eastman's  Business  College. 

Vincent  M.  Cole's  Statement. 

I  was  born  Sept.  19,  1814;  came  to  this  town  in  1817;  my 
wife's  name  was  Julia  Squires,  daughter  of  Seely  Squires;  she 
was  born  in  Concord,  and  died  in  1840;  I  was  married  to  my 
present  wife,  Catherine  Ostrander,  in  1842  ;  am  a  farmer.  My 
father's  name  was  Aaron  Cole  ;  m\-  mother's  maiden  name  was 
Sarah  C.  Gates.  My  father  was  left  an  orphan  at  an  early 
date,  and  removed  to  Concord  in  18 17,  and  lived  with  Orrin 
Sibley  one  Winter,  and  then  built  a  log  house  on  a  farm  of 
fift}'  acres,  one-half  mile  east  of  Orrin  Sibley's.  He  moved  into 
the  log  house  and  went  to  Hamburg  and  got  a  pig  and  brought 
him  home  under  his  arm,  and  put  him  in  a  pen  near  the  house. 
One  night  the  pig  squealed  and  mother  went  out  and  found  a 
bear  at  the  pen.  She  got  a  fire-brand  and  threw  at  him  and  he 
left.  Soon  after  the  bear  came  again  and  mother  dro\-e  him 
off,  and  left  some  fire  burning  near  the  pen  ;  but  the  bear  came 
a  third  time  and  got  the  pig,  and  killed  and  eat  him  up.  Some 
of  the  neighbors  built  a  bear  pen  of  logs,  near  where  the  \'os- 
burg  cheese  factory  now  stands,  and  caught  two  young  bears. 
The  wolves  used  to  kill  our  sheep  and  we  could  not  keep  sbeeo 


unless  wc  put  them  in  a  close  pen  at  nis^lu  near  the  house. 
There  was  j)lent}'  ot  wild  s^anie  in  the  woods,  our  dot^'  killed 
several  deer  alone,  when  the  snow  was  deep  and  the  crust  would 
bear  the  doi^.  When  he  killed  one  he  ^\■ould  come  to  the 
house  and  we  would  follow  him  back  and  t^et  the  deer.  We 
had  all  the  venison  and  bear  meat  we  wanted.  We  planted 
and  raised  a  good  crop  of  corn  among  the  logs  and  stumps,  by 
planting  the  corn  w  ith   an   old  axe.     The)'  had  three  children  : 

Li/.ette,  born  in  Concord   in    1842,  married  Thomas  Ui)ham. 

Ella,  married  Addison  Lonsbury. 

Jolin  is  a  dentist  and   li\es  in  Collins  Center. 

AIiiioii  I>.  Conger. 

Mr.  Conger  was  born  in  Danb\',  Vermont,  Jan.  12,  1815  ;  of 
Quaker  ancestr}'.  He  was  a  son  of  Noah  Conger  and  Hannah 
Griffith  Conger.  Mr.  Conger  came  to  Collins  in  1838,  where 
he  resided  until  1877,  when  he  removed  to  Springville.  While 
a  resident  of  Collins  he  was  engaged  chiefl}'  in  farming,  but  for 
some  years  past  his  business  has  been  loaning  money  and  buy- 
ing and  selling  real  estate.  He  was  Assessor  in  Collins  twenty- 
one  years.  Mr.  Conger  was  a  brother  of  the  Hon.  Anson  G. 
Conger.  He  was  married  in  1839  to  Sophronia  Potter,  daugh- 
ter of  Peter  Potter,  formerly  of  Granxille,  N.  Y.  They  have 
had  six  children,  xiz. : 

Noah,  born  April  26,  1841  ;  died,  A])ril  27,  1873. 

Hannah  M.,  born  Aug.  31,  1844. 

Lydie  E.,  born  Now  7,  1847  !  ciied  July  8,  1868. 

Andrew  W.,  born  June  5,  1850;  married  Florence  Clark, 
daughter  of  Timoth)- Clark,  and  resides  on  the  homestead  farm 
in  Collins. 

Albert  PI.,  born  Oct.  24,  1857. 

Jessie  M.,  born  Dec.  15,  1859;  married  Russell  F.  Prjant  . 
resides  in  Spring\ille. 

Mr.  Conger  is,  in  the  full  accejitation  of  the  term,  "  a  self- 
made  man."  He  began  his  successful  career  in  humble  cir- 
cumstances, and  b)'  his  own  unaided  efforts  he  has  secured  to 
himself  and  posterity  a  \'ery  handsome  competence.  He 
informs  the  writer  that  the  first  jnone)'  he  possessed  he  earned 
of  a  neighboring  farmer   by   chopping  by  the  month,  and  that 


in  his  early  years  he  made  it  a  rule  to  lay  up  something  each 
year  over  and  above  his  expenses. 

George  D.  Conger. 

Mr.  Conger  was  a  son  of  Abram  Conger,  who  was  one  of 
four  brothers  that  came  to  Collins  in  the  Spring  of  1817.  He 
(Abram  Conger)  was  married  in  June,  1830,  to  Anna  Hunt. 
Four  of  their  children  are  now  living,  viz.: 

Emily  married    Lyman  Clark ;    reside    at   Princetown.    Wis. 

Mary  Jane  married  Charles  Bartholomew  ;  reside  in  North 

Fidelia  married  John  Goodell ;  since  died. 

George  D.  Conger  was  born  Dec.  10,  1842,  in  Collins.  His 
time  until  eighteen  years  of  age  was  spent  on  the  farm  and 
attending  school.  On  the  8th  of  August,  1861,  he  enlisted  in 
the  Forty-Fourth  New  York  Volunteers,  Company  A ;  was 
corporal,  and  took  part  in  every  engagement  in  which  his  regi- 
ment was  engaged  in,  except  an  interval  of  six  weeks  in  July 
and  August,  1862,  when  he  was  confined  in  the  hospital.  He 
was  slightly  wounded  at  the  Battle  of  Gettj'sburg ;  was  mus- 
tered out  of  the  service  Oct.  12,  1864.  He  was  married  Feb. 
16,  1865,  to  Diantha  Sampson,  and  engaged  in  farming  in  Con- 
cord. He  has  at  present  upon  his  farm  fifty  acres  of  apple 
orchard.  In  the  Spring  of  1883,  he  moved  to  Springville,  N. 
Y.,  and  became  a  dealer  in  carriages,  wagons,  agricultural 
implements  and  farm  produce.  He  has  one  daughter.  Cora 
May,  born  Aug.  10,  1869. 

.Tames  Curtis. 

James  Curtis  was  originally  from  W'illington,  Conn.  He 
came  to  Concord  in  1832,  from  Onondaga  county,  and  located 
on  lot  forty-three,  township  seven,  range  six,  on  Sharp  street, 
buying  his  land  of  Jonathan  Mayo.  He  married  Mar}-  Marcy, 
a  cousin  of  Governor  Marcy  of  New  York.  They  had  four  chil- 
dren : 

Zebadiah  married  Lovice  Hall,  and  died  in  Concord,  about 
1 840. 

Nancy  Maria  married   Erastus  Mayo,  and  died    about    1849, 


leaving  seven  children,  viz.:     William,  Louisa,  James,  Miner\a, 
Rufus,  Cornelia  and  Delia. 

William  T.  married  Charlotte*  Williams  first,  and  Angeline 
Williams  second.  He  died  in  1882.  in  Aurora,  Krie  count)-; 
no  children. 

Origin  1).  Curtis. 

Origin  D.  Curtis  was  born  June  27,  18 1 8,  in  Onandaga 
county  and  came  to  Concord  in  1831  ;  \\as  married  the  Fall  of 
1839  t*^  Lucy  Ma)'().  He  li\'ed  in  Concord  till  the  Spring  of 
1850,  when  he  moved  to  Machias  ;  to  Otto,  N.  Y.,  in  1864,  and 
back  to  Springville  in  1872.  hi  the  Spring  of  1881,  he  went  to 
the  Red  Ri\'er  \alley,  Polk  county,  Minnesota,  and  purchased 
one  hundred  and  sixty  acres  of  land.  He  is  a  farmer  and  car- 
penter by  occupation.      He  has  eight  children,  viz.: 

Mar)-  C.  married   L.  B.  Churchill. 

Julia  L.  married  James  Jackson  ;  reside  in  Waupaca,  Wis. 

Dora  married  William  H.  Jackett ;  reside  in  Mansfield,  Cat- 
taraugus count)-. 

Jonathan  V.  married  Adda  Chase  ;  reside  in  Salamanca,  N.  V. 

Henr\'  married  Estelle  Stanbro  ;  reside  in  Concord. 

Edwin  married  Ida  W^idrig;  reside  in  Springville. 

Willis  H.  married   Rosa  Barse  ;  reside  in  Polk  county,  Minn. 

George  married  Etta  Widrig ;  reside  in   Springville. 

Mr.  Curtis'  father,  James  Curtis,  died  in  Machias,,  Cattarau- 
gus county,  in  1863.      His  wife  died  in  Concord  about  1878. 

Robert  Currau. 

Mr.  Curran  was  born  in  Dundalf,  Ireland,  in  1780:  came  to 
Ulster  count)',  N.  V.,  wlieti  thirteen  years  of  age  ;  from  there 
to  Tioga  county,  N.  Y.,  and  to  the  nortii  part  of  Concord  in 
182 1,  where  he  resided  until  his  death,  in  1865.  Mr.  Curran 
Avas  one  of  a  famil)-  of  seven.  When  he  came  to  Concord,  Bos- 
ton corners  was  called  Torrey's  corners,  and  there  were  but 
three  frame  houses  on  the  Boston  road  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
corners.     Mr.  Curran  had  five  children  : 

Mrs.  A.  P.  Ellis  of  East  Concord. 

Caroline,  who  died  in  1861. 

William  Curran,  Esq.,  of  Boston. 

Hiram  and  Mar)-  Curran,  also  of  Boston. 


James  F.  Craiidall. 

James  F.  Crandall  was  born  March  20,  1797,  in  Newport^ 
Rhode  Island.  His  father,  WilHam  Crandall,  followed  the 
ocean,  and  was  captain  of  a  merchant  vessel  that  sailed  from 
Newport.  James  F.  married  Maria  W.  Edwards,  who  was  born 
in  Newport,  R.  I.,  also.  They  came  to  Concord  in  1821.  Mr. 
Crandall  was  a  weaver  by  trade  and  worked  in  a  factor}-  in 
Rhode  Island.  He  worked  in  a  factory  after  he  came  here, 
and  also  kept  hotel  several  years,  and  was  engaged  in  trade  in 
this  town  and  Aurora.  He  died  in  Spingville,  April  20,  1873, 
aged  seventy-six  years.  His  wife,  Maria  W.  Edwards,  died  May 
20,  1855. 

Their  children  were  : 

George  E. 

Sarah  G.,  born  Jul)'  16,  18 19,  in  Rhode  Island  ;  married 
Major  Wells  and  died  here  about  1844. 

Abajail  P.,  born  Feb.  13,  1822,  here;  married  A.  H.  N\  ing, 
lives  in  Chicago. 

Emeline,  born  May  15,  1824,  here.;  married  D.  G.  Vorce  ; 
died  in  Chicago  about  1877. 

Augustus,  born  June  2,  1831,  here. 

Augusta,  born  June  2.  1S31,  here;  married  William  Murray; 
died  in  California  about  1865. 

George  E.  Crainlall. 

George  E.  Crandall  ^\'as  born  in  Providence,  R.  I.,  Jul}-  16, 
1 8 16.  Came  to  this  town  with  his  parents  in  1821.  He  was 
married  to  Polly  M.  Harvey  in  Springville,  Dec.  22,  1836.  He 
has  resided  in  Spring\Mlle  about  sixt\--two  years.  He  is  a  prac- 
tical jeweler,  and  has  carried  on  the  business  many  years.  He 
has  also  carried  on  the  gunsmith  business,  and  has  sometimes 
been  engaged  in  farming. 

His  children  are  : 

James  F.,  born  Oct.  25,  1837;  married  Clara  Tillotson  ; 
resides  in  New  York  city,  is  a  jeweler. 

Norman  E.,  May  24,  1849;  married  Ursula  Hammond; 
resides  in  Ashford,  is  a  farmer. 

L.emuel  G.,  born  July  30,  1843  ;  married  Loretta  Hunt  ;  she 
died  in  1877  ;   is  a  jeweler. 


Nelson  H.,  born  May  29,  1845  I  married  Antoinette  Casey; 
they  have  one  child,  Rianca  ;  resides  in  Sprin^ville  and  is  a 

Ellen  M.,  born  June  12,  1847  ;  married  Wilh'am  R.  l)e  Pli}- : 
resides  at  Sea  Cliff,  L.  I. ;   he  is  a  la\\\xM-. 

George  A.,  born  Sept.  17,  1847;  married  Sarah  Dorse)-; 
resides  at  Holland  ;  he  is  a  jeweler. 

William  C,  May  20,  1853. 

Ebeiiezer  S.  (*a<ly,  Statoinoiit. 

Ebenezer  S.  Cady  was  born  in  the  town  of  Chatham,  Colum- 
bia county,  N.  Y.  Came  to  the  village  of  Springville  in  1858  ; 
is  a  carpenter  and  joiner  ;  was  married  at  Schu}-ler,  Herkimer 
county,  N.  Y.,  in  1840,  to  Miss  Mary  Oyer,  who  was  born  in 
1817  at  Schuyler,  Herkimer  county,  N.  Y.  My  father,  Arnold 
Cad)',  was  born  at  Chatham,  Columbia  county,  and  serx^ed  as 
volunteer  of  marines  in  defence  of  the  New  York  harbor  in 
the  war  of  1812.  My  mother's  maiden  name  was  Sarah  Hunt. 
She  was  born  in  Washington,  Vt.  Grandfather's  name  was 
Ebenezer  Cady  ;  he  was  a  Captain  in  the  war  of  the  Revolu- 
tion. Grandmother's  maiden  name  was  Chloe  Beebe.  She 
was  born  in  Connecticut.  The  house  my  grandfather  built  in 
Chatham  in  1761  and  '62,  was  built  of  pine  timber,  was  taken 
down  in  1824  and  the  timber  used  in  building  the  Presbyterian 
meeting  house  in  the  village  of  Spencertown,  Columbia  county, 
N.  Y.  In  this  house  my  grandfather's  two  sons  and  fi\'e  daugh- 
ters were  born.  The  outside  doors  were  made  of  pine  boards, 
two  thicknesses,  cut  into  horizontalh'  about  half-way  of  their 
height,  and  at  night  barred  on  the  inside  with  a  stick.  On  the 
farm  was  an  oak  grove  where  the  people  assembled  on  the  Sab- 
bath to  worshi})  (they  were  Presbyterians),  until  the)'  built  a 
church  on  his  farm,  the  first  church  in  Chatham.  This  building 
was  moved  to  Chatham  four  corners,  a  distance  of  one  and  one- 
half  miles.  The  building  was  put  on  runners  and  under  the 
runners  small  sticks  were  placed  for  rollers,  and  many  ox  teams 
were  hitched  to  each  of  the  runners  and  in  that  way  the  build- 
ing was  drawn  to  the  spot  and  for  many  years  the  followers  of 
the  lowly  Nazarene  met  at  this  humble  church  and  offered 
their  devotions  to   the  God    of  Abraham,  till    finally  later   gen- 


erations  have  sold   the  old  church   for  a  sheepfold.   and  built 
another  church  exhibiting  more  pride  than  piety. 

They  had  six  children  : 

Lucy  A.,  born  in  1840  and  died  in  1872. 

Sarah  J.,  born  in  1844;  married  Newela  French. 

Maryette,  born  in  1847  -^^^^  died  in  1850. 

Cassius  M.,  born  in  1850  and  died  in  1871. 

Ellen  G.,  born  in  1853;  married  Gardner  Berry. 

William  S.,  born  in  1856  and  li\-es  in  Kalkaska,  Mich. 

James  A.  Cranston. 

Arnold  C.  Cranston,  father  of  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  was 
born  in  Rhode  Island  March  17,  1799,  and  was  married  about 
1 82 1  to  Miss  Selinda,  who  was  born  in  Massachusetts  July  20, 
1804.  They  came  here  from  Madison  county,  N.  Y.,  in  1834, 
and  settled  a  few  miles  north  of  Springville  on  the  farm  now 
owned  by  his  son,  James  A.,  where  he  lived  until  his  death  in 
1869.  which  was  caused  by  the  falling  of  a  limb  of  a  tree  which 
he  was  felling.  His  wife  died  Aug.  2,  1877.  They  had  four 
children,  all  but  one  of  whom  were  born  in  Massachusetts: 

Monroe,  born  April  i,  1822;  died  in  1822. 

Almeda  G.,  born  Feb.  17,  1825  ;   married  Lysander  Needham. 

Harriet  L.,  born   Nov.  22.  1833;  married  Wilbur  Stanbro. 

James  A.  Cranston  was  born  Aug.  27.  1828,  in  Massachu- 
setts, and  came  with  his  parents  to  Concord  in  1834.  He  is  a 
carpenter  and  joiner  and  worked  at  his  trade  a  great  many 
years,  but  at  the  present  time  confines  himself  exclusively  to 
farming.  He  was  married  in  1857  to  Miss  Polly  M.  Wilcox, 
They  have  four  children  : 

Fred.  A.,  born  in  1859;  married  Jennie  Widrig,  and  lives  in 
East  Concord. 

Mar\',  born  in  1865. 

Nellie,  born  in  1867. 

Lemuel,  born  in  1869. 

Calkins  Family. 

Elisha  Calkins  and  wife  (Elizabeth  Cross)  came  from  Ver- 
mont and  settled  in  Clinton  county,  N.  V.  In  the  Fall  of  1828 
thev  moved  to  Buffalo  ;   not  liking  the  low  lands  in  the  vicinity 


they  only  .sta)'ed  through  the  Winter,  and  in  the  Sprin*;'  of 
1829  came  to  the  town  of  Golden  and  settled  on  a  farm  on 
South  hill.  Their  family  consisted  of  eight  children,  01i\'e, 
Polly,  William,  Moses,  Sally,  Harrison,  John  and  Hetse)-.  The 
girls  married  and  settled  in  Golden  ;  two  of  them  are  still  living 
there,  Mrs.  Thomas  BufTum  and  Mrs.  Jesse  Hedges. 

Moses  married  Elizabeth  Abbott,  and  settled  on  the  hill :  he 
is  now  living  at  Golden  village,  but  very  feeble  ;  he  has  one 
son,  A.  G.  Galkins,  living  in  Buffalo. 

John  married  Susan  Southworth,  of  Boston,  and  li\ed  on  a 
farm  on  the  hill.  In  the  Fall  of  1856  was  kicked  by  a  horse 
and  died  of  injuries  received,  leaving  two  sons,  John  D.  and 
Earl,  who  are  now  living  at  South  Bend,  Ind. 

Harrison  married  Elizabeth  Gunningham,  of  Goncord,  and 
lived  on  the  hill  near  Glenwood  ;  he  died  of  consumption  in 
1853,  ^^^  1^'ft  one  son,  Hon.  Elisha  G.  Galkins,  now  li\'ing  at 
Kearney  Gity,  Nebraska. 

William  A.  cleared  a  farm  in  the  town  of  Goncord,  attending 
the  Springville  academy  in  1833,  when  Parsons  was  Principal 
His  health  failing,  he  went  down  to  Staten  Island  and  taught 
school  one  year,  and  married  Eliza  Randolph  Rollo,  of  Staten 
Island  ;  he  came  back  and  went  to  farming  on  his  farm  in  Gon- 
cord and  lived  there  about  five  years,  sold  out  and  moved  into 
the  town  of  Golden,  where  he  is  still  living.  He  had  fi\e  chil- 
dren, two  sons  (dying  in  infancy)  and  three  daughters  : 

Jane  Rollo  married  Harry  Foote. 

Maria  married  A.  G.  Galkins,  and  Ii\'es  in  Buffalo. 

Julia  married  A.  J.  Swcetapple  and  li\es  in  Elma. 

Frederick  Crary. 

Mr.  Grary  was  born  in  Wallingford,  Rutland  count)-,  Vt.,  in 
1802.  His  grandfathers,  William  Grary  and  John  Sweetland, 
were  both  soldiers  of  the  Revolution,  the  latter  taking  part  in 
the  battle  of  Bunker  Hill.  Mr.  G.  first  came  to  the  region 
then  called  Concord  about  1819;  subsequently,  about  1820,  in 
the  capacity  of  a  showman,  he  accompanied  the  first  elephant 
that  was  ever  exhibited  in  Springville.  He  was  first  mar- 
ried in  Scipio,  Gayuga  county,  N.  Y.,  to  Wealthy  Ann  Durkee. 


She  dying,  he  was  married  a  second  time  to  Louisa  Richmond, 
by  whom  he  had  children  as  follows: 

Marion,  who  died  at  six  years  of  age. 

Charles  S.,  who  served  as  Captain  of  Compan)'  F,  One  Hun- 
dred and  Sixteenth  regiment  New  York  State  volunteers  during 
the  Rebebellion    he  died  in  Springville  in  March,  1865. 

Ann,  married  Andrew  Neff;   resides  in  Ashford,  N.  Y. 

Charlotte,  married  Eugene  Mills,  and  afterwards  died,  leav- 
ing two  daughters. 

While  a  resident  of  Sardinia  Mr.  Crary  served  three  terms  as 
Justice  of  the  Peace,  and  one  term  in   Springville. 

Cyrus  Cheney. 

Cyrus  Cheney  came  here  from  Massachusetts  about  1816. 
He  married  Rebecca  Sawyer  and  lived  here  a  number  of  years 
and  then  went  back  to  Massachusetts.  When  gold  was  dis- 
covered in  California  he  went  there  and  remained  a  few  years 
and  died  soon  after  he  returned.  The\'  had  three  children, 
Abigail,  Sally  and  .Vugustus. 

Isaac  B.  Cliilds. 

Isaac  B.  Childs  was  born  Oct.  13,  1823,  in  the  town  of  Con- 
cord, and  has  always  resided  in  this  town,  and  b)'  occupation  a 
cooper  and  farmer.  Was  married  to  Marsha  A.  Brown,  who 
was  the  mother  of  his  two  children  :  Ellen  M.,  wife  of"  George 
B.  Baker  and  Charles  F.  Childs.  She  died  Nov.  22,  1861.  His 
second  wife,  Mary  Ann  Jones,  died  March  12,  1866,  leaving  no 
children.  His  third  wife,  PLmily  Pratt,  mother  of  Lowell 
Childs,  died  Feb.  10,  1873.  He  was  married  to  his  present 
wife,  Catherine  Oyer,  March  10,  1875.  His  father's  name  was 
Lewis  Childs;  his  mother's  maiden  name  was  Deborah  Starks, 
daughter  of  Jedediah  Starks.  His  father  removed  from  Deerfield, 
Mass.,  in  1832,  and  settled  on  the  farm  now  owned  by  George 
Weeden,  one  and  one-half  miles  north-west  from  Springville 
and  worked  at  coopering.  Her  also  opened  and  worked  a  stone 
cjuarry  on  his  farm  and  for  many  years  furnished  stone  for  a 
large  number  of  the  buildings  in  Springville  and  surrounding- 
country.       He    subsequentl}'    sold     his  farm   and     removed    to 

liiOdRAiMiicAi,   sKKrciii<:s.  337 

SprinL;"\'ilIc,  where  he  continued   to   reside  until  the  time  of  his 
death,  in  1853.      His  mother  died  July  5,  1873. 

Ellen  M.  Childs  was  born   March  2t,  1850. 

Charles  F.  Childs  was  born  June  18,  1854. 

Lowell  Childs  was  born  Feb.  3,  1873. 

Colburii  Family. 

Orlin  Colburn  was  born  at  Charlestown,  Montgomery  county, 
N.  Y.,  June  13,  18 16.  When  a  boy  six  years  of  age,  he  came 
with  his  parents  to  Collins,  May  20,  1822.  The  family  moved 
into  an  old  log  school-house,  situated  on  what  is  now  called 
"Scrabble  Hill;"  In  1837  he  was  married  to  Miss  Jane  Pea- 
body,  who  died  in  1847,  leaving  a  family  of  five  children,  all  of 
whom  are  dead  except  one.  Erastus  Colburn  was  born  Dec. 
25,  1841.  He  enlisted  at  the  commencement  of  the  war,  served 
four  years  and  came  home  unhurt.  In  1867  he  married  the 
daughter  of  Captain  Davis,  of  Erie,  Pennsylvania,  and  in  1868, 
emigrated  to  Marysville,  Kansas,  where  he  has  since  been 
engaged  in   farming. 

Ezra  Colburn,  the  second  son  of  the  family,  enlisted  in  1 861, 
was  taken  prisoner  at  the  battle  of  the  Wilderness  and  died 
from  starvation  at  Libby  prison. 

Orlin  Colburn  married  his  second  wife,  Sarah  Ackley,  of  the 
town  of  Persia,  Cattaraugus  county.  Farming  has  been  the 
principal  occupation  of  his  life.  Has  five  children  by  his  sec- 
ond wife,  viz  :  John  C,  born  May  2,  1850,  married  Mar)^  A. 
Hawks  in  1874.     They  have  three  children. 

Caswell  C.  resides  at  Wheeler  Hollow,  N.  Y. 

O.  J.  Colburn  was  born  May  6,  1852,  in  Concord,  N.  Y.,  was 
married  in  1:^79.  ^^^  Mary  E.  Morton,  who  was  born  Sept.  3, 

Peter  Colburn  was  born  April  29,  1854;  married  Mary  A. 
Sutherland,  in  1868. 

Lowell  M.  Ciiiiiniiiig's. 

Lowell  M.  Cummings  was  born  in  1847,  ''^  the  town  of  War- 
ren, Mass.  Came  to  Springville  in  1870,  where  he  was  married 
in  1870,  to  Miss  Kate  Emmons,  daughter  of  Dr.  Carlos  Em- 



His  father's  name  was  John  F.  Cummings ;  his  mother's 
maiden  name  was  JuHa  Graves.  His  ^grandfather's  name  was 
John  G.  Cummings ;  his  grandmother's  maiden  name  was 
Sarah  Burroughs.  , 

Until  the  age  of  fifteen  years  he  remained  at  home  with  his 
father's  family  and  attended  the  Alfred  University.  Then,  in 
the  years  1863  and  1864,  went  to  New  Hampshire  and  attended 
Phillips  Academy  at  Exeter,  during  the  years  1865  and  1866, 
then  came  to  Springville  and  engaged  in  mercantile  business. 
Subsequently  read  law  and  was  admitted  as  an  attorney  and 
counselor-at-law  in  1877,  leaving  since  practiced  his  profession 
at  Springville,  N.  Y.     His  children  are: 

Caroline  J.  Cummings,  born  April  29,  1878. 

Carlos  Emmons  Cummings,  born  Aug.  7,  18/8. 

Charles  D.  Cummings,  born  July  5,  1880. 

Giles  Clmrchill. 

Giles  Churchill  was  born  at  Cherry  Valley,  N.  Y.,  March  12, 
1786.  His  father  Stephen  Churchill  was  at  the  burning  of 
Cherry  Valley  by  the  Indians  and  Tories  in  1778.  His  moth- 
er's maiden  name  was  Esther  Loyd. 

At  twenty-one  Mr.  Churchill  began  the  study  of  medicine  at 
Penfield,  N.  Y.  He  studied  and  practiced  there  until  18 12, 
when  he  came  to  this  town  and  bought  land  of  the  Holland 
Company,  where  the  late  Calvin  Smith  lived  at  the  time  of  his 
death.  He  served  as  a  soldier  on  the  Niagara  frontier  in  1812. 
He  practiced  medicine  some  in  Springville,  and  taught  school 
twelve  terms  in  the  vicinity.  But  his  principal  occupation  was 
farming  to  which  he  gave  his  attention  until  his  death  in  1872. 
He  was  married  in  18 1 3  to  Abigail  Toocker.  Their  children 
were  : 

Eliza  Ann  married  Prentice  Stanbro  ;  died  in  1869. 

Emeline  died  when  young. 

Stephen   G.  married    Margaret  W'idrig;   reside  in  Wisconsin. 

Marcus  B. 

Marons  B.  Churoliill. 

Marcus  B.  Churchill  was  born  in  this  to^\•n  in  1825.  He  is  a 
farmer,    and   has  always  resided    in  town.      He   has   filled   the 

liKKiKAi'iiicAi.   ski:  r(  I  IKS.  339 

office  of   1  Ii<;"h\\a\'  Commissioner  two    terms.      Mr.    Churchill 
married   Arminda    VanCamp   in    1849.       Their  children  are  : 

Libbie,  married  Javan  Clark,  reside  in  tow  n. 

Charles  W.,  married  Jennie  Adams,  reside  in   tow  n. 

I'^mma,  marrietl  Spencer  \\'idri<4\  reside  in  town. 

Benjamin  Criiinp. 

Mr.  Crump  was  born  in  Hereford  count}.  En^^land,  May  28. 
1800.  He  was  married  in  1830  to  t{,lizabeth  Lewis,  in  1835, 
Mr.  C.  and  his  wife  .sailed  from  Liverpool,  FLngland  ;  after  a 
voyage  of  thirt\"  fi\e  days,  the}'  landed  June  i6th,  at  Amboy, 
N.  J.  They  resided  about  four  years  at  New  Brunswick,  N. 
J.,  then  about  two  years  in  Buffalo  and  Canada.  In  1838,  came 
to  the  nortli  part  of  Concord,  where  he  located.  He  afterwards 
moved  onto  the  premises  where  he  now  resides,  which  is  situ- 
ated parti}'  in  Concord  and  partly  in  Colden ;  the  dwelling 
house  standing  on  the  town  line.  He,  and  his  son,  Robert, 
who  resides  with  him,  consider  themselves  residents  of  Colden. 
They  had  a  family  of  four  boys  and  five  girls  : 

John  L.,  born  in  England  in  1831  ;  married  Anna  Johnson  ; 
resides  in  Concord. 

Benjamin  F.,  born  in  1833  ;  married  Alanth}-  Youngs  ;  resides 
in  Minnesota. 

Samuel,  born  in  1835  :  died  in  June,  1854. 

Harriet,  born  in  1837;  married  William  Brink;  resides  in 

Elizabeth,  born  in  1839;  niarried  John  Corning;  resides  in 

Susan,  born  in  1841  ;  married  Charles  Chandler  ;  resides  in 

Kate,  born  in  1843;  married  Charles  Cross;  resides  in 

Sarah,  born  in  1845  -  niarried  James  E.  King;  resides  in  Iowa. 

Robert,  born  in  1847;  niarried  Irene  Williams;  resides  in 

Vi<-t<>r  ('(>ll:ii'<l. 

Victor  Collard  was  born  in  Rambruck,  Luxemburg,  German}', 
in  1832  ;  came  to  this  country  in  1857  ;  was  fort}'-eight  da}'s  cross- 
ing from  Antwerp  to  New  York.     He  came  from  New  York  to 


Springville  and  went  to  work  for  Stowel  Collins  in  a  carriage 
shop  for  one  year.  He  had  learned  his  trade  and  worked  at  the 
business  in  the  old  country;  he  then  went  to  Sardinia  and 
worked  at  the  carriage  business  since  that  time  ;  he  was  drafted 
into  the  army  in  1862.  but  hired  a  substitute  for  three  hundred 
dollars  to  take  his  place;  he  Avas  married  Mayi  i,  1865,  to  Miss 
Barbara  Hery,  of  North  Collins  (in  which  town  she  was  born.) 
Their  children  are  :  Carl  Collard,  Lizzie  Collard,  Victor  Col- 
lard,  jr.,  and  John  Collard. 

J.  Li.  Cohen. 

J.  L.  Cohen  was  born  in  1854,  in  Russia,  Poland,  near  War- 
saw ;  came  to  Buffalo  in  1861  ;  is  a  merchant;  was  married  in 
1875,  and  came  to  live  at  Springville,  August.  1871  ;  his  wife's 
maiden  name  was  Rebecca  Gumbinsky ;  he  was  naturalized  in 
1879.  H^s  brother,  A.  S.  Cohen,  was  a  soldier  in  the  Russian 
service  for  eight  years ;  was  on  duty  most  of  the  time  in  the 
Calcassia  mountains  and  now  resides  in  Buffalo.  His  mother's 
brother,  Moses  Vortensky,  was  taken  by  the  Russian  military 
authorities,  at  the  age  of  ten  years,  and  kept  in  the  military 
service  for  twenty-five  years.  Mr.  Cohen  came  direct  from 
Hamburg  to  New  York,  in  the  German  steamship  '•  Cimbria." 
His  children  are  : 

Betsey  Cohen,  born  Oct.  14,  1876,  at  Springville. 

Abe  Cohen,  born  Jan.  16,  1879,  ^^  Springville. 

Anna  Cohen,  born  Aug.  3,  1 881,  at  Springville. 

Cliapiu   Family. 

William  Chapin  came  here  and  took  up  land  on  lot  45  on 
Sharp  street,  at  an  early  date,  and  his  father  and  mother's 
sisters  and  brothers  came  to  reside  with  him.  William  was  a 
carpenter  and  joiner  by  trade.  His  brother,  Roswell  Chapin, 
was  Surrogate  of  this  county  for  several  years,  and  his  sisters, 
Mary  and  Lucy,  were  early  school  teachers  in  this  town,  teach- 
ing on  Townsend  hill  and  several  other  places.  Thc\-  lived 
here  fifteen  or  twenty  years  and  then  moved  away. 

W.    H.    (lose. 

W.  H.  Close  was  born  Nov.  ij,,  1835.  His  father's  name  was 
Clark  Close ;  his  mother's  maiden  name  was  Jane  Powell ;  he 

HiodRAniUAr.  sKi-yrciiES. 


was  married  Jul\'  9,  1S57,  to   I. aura  A.  Burnai).     Thc\-  had  six- 
children  : 

JuHa  .\.,  born  June  14,  185S;   married   Nathan  llilh 

Lillie  M.,  born  Feb.  7,  i  ^6o. 

Tracey  B.,  born  Dec.  11,  i!^63. 

Minnie  B.,  born  Sept.  12,  1S67. 

Ada  D.,  born  Oct.  4,  1 870. 

Emma  A.,  born  Au<;-.  3,  1^77;  died  Oct.  16,  1S77. 

Ash  Cary. 

Asa  Cary  came  to  this  town  in  the  .Spring  of  1 809.  He 
bought  land  on  lot  four,  township  six,  range  six,  where  Harri- 
son Pingrcy  now  lives.  He  built  a  house  and  lived  there  with 
his  family  that  Summer.  In  the  following  Autumn  he  traded 
lands  with  a  man  by  the  name  of  Calvin  Doolittle  and  moved 
to  Boston,  where  he  afterwards  lived  and  died. 

Truman,  the  eldest  of  his  large  family  of  children,  Avas  elected 
Member  of  Assembly  in  1839,  besides  holding  many  other 
ofifices  of  trust  during  his  life.  He  died  at  his  home  in  Boston 
in  1880. 


COAT    OK    ARMS    OF    THK    AMIKNT    FAMU.Y    OF    DRAKE. 

Motto: — Aquila  Xo)i  Capit  Miiscas. 

The  Drakes  are  of  English  origin,  and.  according  to  the  old 
English  genealogists,  the  famil)-  is  one  of  great  antiquit)-.  As 
early  as  the  Norman  conquest  (1066)  several  families  of  the 
name  were  possessors  of  large  estates  in  the  County  of  Devon, 


England.  The  coat  of  arms  at  the  head  of  this  sketch  and 
accompanying  motto,  would  indicate  an  origin  perhaps  dating 
back  to  the  Roman  invasion  of  Britain. 

Of  the  EngHsh  Drakes,  Sir  Francis,  the  distinguished  naviga- 
tor, was  the  most  eminent.  Of  his  descendants,  two  brothers, 
R.obert  and  John  Drake,  came  to  America  in  1630.  From  these 
two  brothers  descended  the  Drakes  of  America.  The)'  were 
members  of  the  council  of  Plymouth,  and  came  at  first  to  Bo.s- 
ton,  Mass.  John  finall)^  settled  at  Windsor,  Conn.  Of  his 
numerous  descendants  in  Connecticut  was  Ebenezer  Drake,  a 
soldier  of  the  old  French  and  Indian  war.  He  was  born  in 
Windsor,  Conn.,  and  died  there  in  .'776.  He  had  a  family  of 
eight  children,  as  follows:  Mehitable,  Ebenezer,  Hezekiah, 
James,  Lyman  and  Clarrissa  (twins),  Ira  and  Reuben.  Of  these 
Hezekiah,  Lyman  and  Reuben  e\'entually  settled  in  Concoid, 
N.  Y.,  and  from  them  ha\'e  descended  all  the  Drakes  now  liv- 
ing there. 

The  family  of  Drakes  which  lived  in  the  earlier  histor}'  of  Con- 
cord, a  short  distance  north  of  Springville,  belonged  to  a  dis- 
tinct branch  of  the  famil}'. 

Lyman  Drake  came  from  Otsego  county,  N.  Y.,  in  18 10,  and 
purchased  two  hundred  acres  of  land  near  the  Eighteen-mile 
creek,  in  the  north  part  of  Concord.  The  to\\n  line  subse- 
quently run  left  half  of  his  purchase  in  the  town  of  Boston- 
He  was  an  industrious  and  energetic  pioneer  ;  he  planted  the 
first  orchard  in  that  part  of  the  town  ;  but  his  pioneer  labors 
Mere  brought  to  a  close  in  18 18.  He  was  born  in  1772.  His 
widow  whose  maiden  name  was  Irena  Cole,  survived  him 
many  years.     Their  children's  names  were  as  follows : 

Lyman,  Jr.,  Isaac,  Wheeler,  Polly,  Cordelia,  Ebin,  Daniel, 
George  and  Eliza.  Of  these,  Cordelia,  Daniel,  George  and 
Eliza,  are  the  onh"  surviving  ones 

Wheeler  Drake  was  born  Dec.  4,  1799.  and  came  to  Concord 
with  his  father's  family  in  1810.  For  ten  or  fifteen  }'ears  pre- 
x'ious  to  his  death,  which  occurred  in  1869,  he  resided  on  a  por- 
tion of  his  original  homestead  farm.  He  was  married  about 
1833,  to  Mrs.  Sarah  Humphrey,  daughter  of  Edward  Church- 
ill, Sen.  They  had  three  sons,  Lyman,  Edward  C.  and  Mar- 
.shall  C,  who  reside  near  the  old  homestead. 

]U()C;RAriIKAI,    SKKTCIIKS.  343 

(ieor^c  W.  Drake  was  born  March  22,  1S15.  in  Concord, 
where  he  resided  many  years  as  a  farmer.  lie  now  resides  at 
{lambur<^,  N.  V.  He  married  Jane  Humphrey,  wlio  is  now 
dead.  They  had  six  children,  \iz  :  Austin,  married  Margaret 
Murrax';  IIumj)hre}',  married  Alice  Mawle\';  Sarah,  married 
Walter  Chubbuck  ;  Jennie,  married  William  Olin  ;  George  VV. 
Jr.,  a  talented  young  man,  who  died  at  Fargo,  Dakota,  in  1883, 
and  Ida. 

Hezekiah  Drake  was  born  in  1767.  Became  from  Oneida 
count)',  N.  v.,  in  1821,  to  Concord,  and  located  near  the  Eigh- 
teen-mile creek,  in  the  north  part  of  the  town,  where  he  lived 
until  his  death,  in  1848.  He  was  married  in  Vermont,  in  1802, 
to  Judeth  Prescott,  b\-  whom  he  had  children  as  follows: 

Freeman,  L\'dia,  John,  Isaac,  Rhoda,  Ebenezer  H.,  Ira  E., 
and  Mar\'.  All  but  the  two  youngest  were  born  in  Vermont. 
Freeman,  Isaac  and  Rhoda  are  dead. 

Plbenezer  H.  Drake  was  born  in  Vermont,  in  1812.  When 
a  \-oung  man  he  taught  school  successful!}'  in  the  south  towns 
of  Erie  county,  for  a  number  of  years  and  subsequently  was 
jailor  at  the  county  jail  and  an  overseer  in  the  Buffalo  peniten- 
tiar)-.  He  was  married  in  1843  to  Marj- Goodrich.  They  have 
two  daughters  :  Amelia,  married  to  Delos  H.  Townsend,  resides 
in  Seneca  county,  N.  Y.,  and  Melinda. 

Ira  E.  Drake  was  born  in  Oneida  count}',  N.  Y.,  March. 
1817,  and  was  consequently  four  years  of  age  when  his  parents 
removed  to  Concord,  where  he  has  since  lived.  He  was  mar- 
ried in  1840  to  Maria  Agard,  daughter  of  Joshua  Agard,  of 
Concord.  They  have  a  family  of  four  sons  and  one  daughter, 
as  follows;  Lauren  J.,  born  in  1842,  married  Mary  Anthony; 
was  for  ten  years  a  railroad  conductor  in  Pennsylvania  ;  now 
extensively  engaged  in  business  at  Keokuk,  Iowa.  Emery  A., 
born  in  1844,  married  P'rank  Warrington;  Walter,  born  1846, 
married  Sarah  Hlakeley  ;  Lucy,  born  in  1854,  and  John,  born 
1856,  married  Anna  Williams. 

Reuben  Drake  was  born  in  1776.  He  was  married  to  Nabb}- 
Coole}-,  in  Vermont,  where  he  was  for  several  years  a  Captain 
in  the  Vermont  state  militia.  He  removed  from  Connecticut 
to  Jefferson  county,  N.  Y.,  and  from  there  to  the  north  part  of 
Concord,  in  1834,  where  he  lived  until  his  death,  in  1865.     He 


had  a  family  of  three  sons  and  four  daughters,  as  follows :  Cy- 
rena,  Julia,  Reuben  Cooley,  Jennet,  Leonard,  Orimul  and 
Chloe,  all  born  in  Connecticut  but  the  two  last.  Cyrena  and 
Orimul  are  dead. 

Reuben  Coole}'  Drake  was  born  in  the  parish  of  W'inton- 
bury,  near  Hartford,  Conn.,  Oct.  lo,  1814.  When  fifteen  years 
of  age  he  removed  with  his  father's  famil)-  to  Jefferson  county, 
N.  Y.,  and  to  Concord  in  the  Spring  of  1834.  In  1838  he 
bought  wild  lands  of  the  Holland  Company,  on  lot  five,  town- 
ship seven,  range  seven,  which  be  cleared  up,  improved  and 
built  upon  and  where  he  now  resides. 

He  was  married  in  1850,  to  Mary  Wood,  daughter  of  Robert 
Wood  (a  native  of  W^eschester  county,  N.  Y.),  and  grand- 
daughter of  Jesse  How,  a  Corporal  in  the  Revolution.  They 
have  one  son  and  one  daughter,  viz  :  Jay  Drake,  born  June 
30,  1854,  is  a  teacher  and  devotes  some  attention  to  literary 

May  Drake,  born  March  29,  1863,  is  a  teacher. 

Granted  to  Reuben  Drake,  by  the  Governor  of  Vermont. 
By  his  Excellenc}',  Isaac  Tichenor,  Esq.,  Captain-General,  Gov- 
ernor,  and  Commander-in-Chief    in    and    over  the  State  of 
Vermont — 
To  Reuben  Drake,  Greeting. 

You  being  elected  Ensign  of  the  first  company  of  light  infan- 
tr)',  in  the  second  regiment,  second  brigade,  and  fourth  division 
of  the  militia  of  this  state,  and  reposing  special  trust  and  con- 
fidence in  your  patriotism,  valor  and  good  conduct,  /  do,  b}' 
\'irtue  of  these  presents,  in  the  name  and  by  the  authority  of 
the  freemen  of  the  State  of  Vermont,  full}-  authorize  and  em- 
power you,  the  said  Reuben  Drake,  to  take  charge  of  the  said 
company,  as  their  Captain. 

You  will,  therefore,  carefulh"  and  diligentl)-  discharge  the 
said  dut}%  by  doing  and  performing  ever}-  matter  and  thing 
thereunto  relating.  You  will  observe  and  follow  such  orders 
and  directions  as  you  shall,  from  time  to  time,  receive  from  the 
Governor  of  the  State,  for  the  time  being,  or  any  other  your 
superior  ofificer.  according  to  military  dicipline  and  the  laws  of 


the  state.     And    all   officers  and  soldiers  under  your  command 

are  to  take    notice    hereof    and    yield   due  obedience   to    your 

orders,  as  their  Captain,  in  pursuance  of  the  trust  in  you  reposed. 

///  Testimony  Whereof,  I  ha\'e  caused  the  Seal  of  this  State 

to  be  hereunto  affixed.    Given  under  my  hand  in  Council, 
[l.  s.|   this  fourteenth   day  of   September,  in    the   year   of  our 

Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  seven,  and  of  the 

Independence  of  the  United  States,  the  thirty  first. 

Isaac  Tichenor. 
By  His  Excellency's  command, 

William  Page,  Secretary. 

Cliristoplior  Douglass. 

The  subject  of  this  sketch  came  to  this  town  in  1809.  He 
settled  on  lot  twenty-three,  township  six,  range  six,  and  lived 
there  about  twenty  years.  He  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  man 
that  ever  held  the  office  of  justice  of  tlie  peace  in  this  town.  He 
was  the  first  captain  of  the  Springville  Rifle  company,  and  was 
also  a  side  judge  when  "The  Three  Thayers  "  w^ere  convicted 
of  the  murder  of  John  Love.  He  removed  from  this  town  to 
Wisconsin  about  1830.  The  last  knowledge  the  author  has  of 
his  whereabouts  he  was  running  a  hotel  in  Wisconsin,  in 

Beiijainiu  Douglass. 

Benjamin  Douglass  came  to  this  town  and  bought  hind  of 
the  Holland  Land  company  in  1809.  He  lived  here  two  or  three 
years  and  then  removed  to  Fredonia,  Chautauqua  count}-.  His 
son,  Daniel  W.  Douglass,  was  a  member  of  assembh-  from 
Chautauqua  count)'  in  the  \'eai"  1 85  I. 

F.  K.  Davis. 

Mr.  Davis'  father,  Zimri  Davis,  came  from  N.  H.,  about  181 5, 
to  where  the  city  of  Rochester  now  stands.  At  that  time, 
scarcely  a  vestige  of  the  city  existed.  He  helped  to  clear  away 
the  oak  trees  standing  where  the  Powers  block  now  is.  and 
opened  the  first  meat  market.  He  died  in  Rochester  in  1828. 
The  next  year  the  mother,  ^hose  maiden  name  was  Joanna 
Johnson,  with  her  five  small  boys,   emigrated    to  Sardinia  and 


bought  a  small  farm  with  slight  improvements  on  the  Cattarau- 
gus creek. 

By  the  exercise  of  rigid  economy,  industry  and  perseverance, 
with  the  aid  of  her  little  boys,  she  cleared  up  and  paid  for  her 
land.  Mr.  Davis  relates  how  his  mother  would  stake  out  a 
daily  stint  of  chopping  and  clearing  for  each  one,  and  would 
frequently  take  her  sewing  work  and  sit  among  them  to  encour- 
age them  with  their  work.  She  died  in  Illinois,  Sept.  19,  1875, 
aged  seventy-eight  years;  her  sons'  names  were  Jerome,  David, 
Kidder,  Edwin  and  Clifton. 

Francis  Kidder  Davis  was  born  in  Rochester,  Oct.  22,  1822  ; 
came  to  Erie  county  when  seven  years  of  age,  and  has  been  a 
resident  of  the  county  most  of  the  time  since.  His  occupation 
has  been  farming  and  hotel-keeping. 

Mr.  Davis  attended  school  at  the  Springville  Academy  forty 
years  ago,  in  the  old  academy  building,  when  students  from  a 
distance  occupied  rooms  on  the  lower  floor  and  cooked  their 
own  provisions,  such  as  was  not  brought  from  home  alread)' 
cooked.  In  those  days  the  principal,  if  unmarried,  also  lodged 
and  occupied  rooms  in  the  academy  building.  At  that  time, 
money  to  pay  tuition  bills  was  not  as  easily  obtained  as  now. 
Mr.  Davis  speaks  of  cutting  cordwood  while  attending  school 
from  heaps  of  logs  drawn  up  to  the  door,  sled  length,  on  what 
is  now  Main  street,  to  get  money  to  pay  his  tuition. 

Mr.  Davis  was  master  of  the  first  boat  that  left  Rochester  for 
a  trip  over  the  Genesee  Valley  canal.  He  was  proprietor  of 
the  Globe  hotel  at  Yorkshire  ten  years,  and  is  now  proprietor 
of  the  Forest  house,  a  first-class  hotel  in  Springville. 

He  was  married  Dec.  31,  1846,  to  Mary  F.  Goodspeed,  who 
was  born  March  5.  1830.  They  have  six  children,  as  fol- 
lows : 

Byron  L.,  born  March  21,  1849;  married  in  1866  to  Dora 

Francis  K.,  born    Dec.  11,  1855,    married    in    1874   to   Aggie 
p^Fred  G.,  born  June  30,  1858. 

Willie  H.,  born  July  27,  i860. 

Nettie  and  Nellie  (^twins),  born  Nov.  14,  1862. 


H.  J.  Davis. 

H.J.  Davis  was  born  in  the  Town  of  Concord,  Feb.  i8,  1838; 
he  has  always  resided  in  this  town;  he  was  married  Aug.  13,' 
1863.  to  Frances  M.Wells;  they  have  one  child,  Archie  B.' 
Davis,  born  July  24.  1867  ;  the)'  own  and  occupy  a  part  of  the 
homestead  of  the  late  Archibald  GrifTfith,  situated  at  East  Con- 
cord, on  lot  35,  township  seven,  range  six.  Mr.  Davis,  in  com- 
pany with  A.  E.  Hardley,  during  the  year  1872,  rented  and  run 
the  American  hotel  in  Springville.  They  also  started  and  run  a 
daily  stage  line  between  Springville  and  Holland,  the  then  ter- 
minus of  the  Buffalo,  New  York  &  Philadelphia  Railroad. 
Mr.  Davis  is  at  present  Deputy  Sheriff  of  Erie  count}-. 

♦Taoob  Drake. 

Jacob  Drake  located  on  the  middle  part  of  lot  50.  township 
seven,  range  six,  where  D.  S.  Ingals  now  lives,  as  early  as 
1810  or  ■  1 1,  and  lived  there  over  twenty  years,  when  he  and 
his  son.  Freeman,  went  back  east  where  they  both  died. 

ffohii  Drake. 

John  Drake,  son  of  Jacob  Drake,  settled  on  the  south  part 
of  lot  50,  known  as  the  Tice  place  in  18 10,  and  died  of  a  fever 
in  1814;   his  widow  married   Daniel  Tice.     His  children  were : 

Allen,    who   married   May  Wheeler,  and  died   in  this  town. 

Angeline,  who  married  a  Mr.  Williams,  of  Chautauqua 

John,  who  went  to  Michigan  and  died  there. 

Sarah  Ann,  who  went  to  Micjiigan  and  died  there  also. 

Kli.jali  Diiiiliain. 

Elijah  Dunham  came  about  181  i,  and  settled  on  lot  50,  on 
the  place  Zimri  Ingals  so  long  li\ed  afterwards,  he  remained 
there  about  fifteen  years  and  then  went  west.  Those  of 
the  family  still  living,  reside  in  the  northern  part  of  Illinois,  I 
believe.  I  think  the  first  religious  meeting  that  I  ever  attended 
was  held  in  Mr.  Dunham's  new  frame  barn,  between  fiftv  and 
sixty  years  ago.  There  were  no  meeting  houses  in  those  days 
in  town,  and  the  school  houses  were  so  small  that  they  would 


not  accommodate  a  large  congregation.     The  barn  is  old  now, 
but  it  stands  there  yet. 

Mr.  Dunham's  children  were  Edward,  Elvira,  Laura,  Elmira, 
Artemas  and  Alva. 

Nicholas  ^.  I>einerly. 

Nicholas  R.  Demerly,  was  born  in  the  town  of  Collins,  Erie 
county,  May  I2th,  1853,  and  came  to  Concord  to  live  in  the 
year  1856.  His  father's  name  was  John  Demerly,  his  mother's 
maiden  name  was  Louisa  Root.  Is  a  farmer  by  occupation  ; 
was  married  February  22,  1876,  to  Miss  Mary  Emerling.  They 
have  no  chidren  of  their  own,  but  have  adopted  a  boy,  Frank 
Demerly,  who  is  eight  years  of  age. 

John    Deiiiutli. 

John  Demuth  was  born  in  Eschette,  Commune  of  Folschette, 
Canton  of  Redingen,  Grand  Duchy  of  Luxemburg,  July  14, 
1843.  Came  to  America  in  1867,  landing  at  New  York,  Decem- 
ber 1st,  of  that  year.  He  was  married  in  1879  ^^  Clara  Selzer, 
who  was  born  in  Baden,  Germany,  Aug,  11,  1855.  They  have 
two  children  : 

John,  born  Sept.  26,  1869. 

Henry  E.,  born  Sept.  25,  1881. 

Mr.  Demuth  is  now  a  resident  of  Springville,  where  he  is 
emplo}'ed  in  a  cabinet  maker's  shop. 

Dr.  Carlos  Eniinoiis. 

Dr.  Emmons  was  born  in  Hartland,  Windsor  county,  Ver- 
mont, June  17th,  1799.  He  studied  his  profession  in  his  native 
State,  and  commenced  practice  in  Washington  county  in  this 
State.  In  1823  he  came  to  this  county  and  settled  in  Spring- 
ville, and  soon  after  married  Harriet  Eaton,  daughter  of  Rufus 
Eaton,  Esq.,  one  of  the  founders  of  the  village  anci  for  over 
fifty  years,  and  to  the  time  of  his  death  he  continued  to  reside 
in  this  village,  and  was  one  of  its  most  respected,  influential 
and  honored  citizens.  Over  thirty-eight  years  of  his  life  were 
devoted  faithfully  and  laboriously  to  the  duties  of  his  profes- 
sion. His  reputation  as  a  physician  was  such  that  his  practice 
■extended  over  a  circuit  of  from  ten  to  fifteen  miles  around  the 


village.  No  amount  of  labor,  no  scverit)-  of  weather,  no  sacri- 
fice of  bodily  comfort  i)re\-ented  him  from  promptly  answer- 
ing the  calls  of  professional  dut)-.  During  the  long  time  he 
was  in  acti\e  business  no  patient  ever  looked  in  vain  for  the 
coming  of  Dr.  Emmons,  if  previously  promised. 

By  devoting  mind  and  body  to  the  welfare  of  his  patients  he 
secured  a  competency,  and  the  gratitude  of  those  he  attended 
— of  the  fathers  and  mothers  who  lived  and  died — and  their 
children  who  represented  them  in  the  homes  they  had  left. 

In  all  matters  of  public  improvement,  educational,  material 
or  moral,  he  was  among  the  most  active  and  influential,  con- 
tributing liberally  of  his  means  and  laboring  for  the  advance- 
ment of  all  the  interests  of  the  village.  The  Academy  found 
in  him  one  of  its  originators.  During  all  the  period  of  his 
acti\'e  life,  he  was  foremost  among  those  who  sustained  it 
and  labored  for  its  success. 

Dr.  Emmons  twice  represented  the  town  of  Concord  on  the 
board  of  Supervisors  of  Erie  count}'.  He  was  twice  elected 
member  of  the  State  Assembly  from  the  south  towns,  and  was 
once  elected  State  Senator  from  the  eighth  senatorial  district 
under  the  Constitution  of  1822.  He  was  also  postmaster  at 
Springville  for  several  years. 

Dr.  Emmons  was  twice  married.  By  his  first  wife  he  had 
three  daughters  who  are  residents  of  Nebraska.  By  his  second 
wife,  who  survives  him,  he  had  one  daughter  who  is  a  resident 
of  Springville.  All  his  daughters  are  married  and  have  child- 
ren. All  his  children  and  children's  children  were  a  blessing  to 
him  in  his  declining  years. 

Dr.  Emmons  died  at  his  home  in  Springville,  Dec.  12,  1875, 
aged  seventy-six  years,  five  months  and  twenty-five  days. 

Rufus  £ntoii. 

Rufus  Eaton  was  born  June  11,  1770.  He  came  from  Herk- 
imer county,  N.  Y.,  to  what  is  now  Springville  in  18 10,  and 
bought  of  Christopher  Stone  the  south  part  of  lot  three.  He 
built  the  first  saw  mill  in  town  and  started  other  industries. 
He  gave  the  land  for  educational  purposes  where  the  Academy 
now  stands,  and  was  one  of  the  first  Justices  of  the  Peace.    He 


was  married  in  1791  to  Sally  Potter,  who  died  Nov.  15,  1843, 
aged  seventy-six  years,     Mr.  Eaton  died  Feb.  7,  1845. 

They  had  eight  children  : 

Sylvester  married  Lydia  Gardner;  died,  June  4,  1863. 

Waitee  married  Frederick  Richmond. 

Sally  married  first  a  Mr.  Eddy,  second,  VVillard  Cornwell. 

Rufus  C.  married  Eliza  Butterworth. 

Mahala  married  Otis  Butterworth. 

Elisha  married  Betsy  Chafee  ;  died,  Feb.  25,  1881,  aged 
eighty  years. 

Harriet  married  Dr.  Carlos  Emmons. 

William  died  a  young  man. 

Sylvester  Eaton  was  born  at  Little  Falls,  N.  Y.,  June  17, 
1792.      He  had  three  children  by  his  first  wife,  viz: 

Peregrine,  Judson  G.,  now  residing  at  Smithport,  Pa.,  and 
Mary  L.,  who  died  young. 

Mr.  Eaton  was  married  a  second  time  to  Nancy  Wilkes,  by 
whom  he  had  three  daughters: 

Waitee  E.  and  Lucinda  who  are  dead  and  Rosalie,  who 
married  a  Mr.  Prime  and  resides  at  Osage,  Iowa. 

Peregrine  G.  Eaton  was  born  July  28,  18 18.  He  has  been 
twice  married;  first  to  Alice  S.  Taylor,  who  ciied  in  1849;  a 
second  time  to  Phoebe  ^^^  Starkweather.  Mr.  Eaton  has  an 
only  daughter,  Cornelia  L.,  b\'  his  first  wife  who  married  Ches- 
ter Newman. 

Henry  Eaton. 

Henry  Eaton  was  born  in  Springville  in  the  year  1844,  and 
was  married  to  Hattie  R.  Mason,  March  i,  1882.  His  father's 
name  was  Rufus  Eaton  ;  his  mother's  maiden  name  was  Eliza 
H.  Butterworth  ;  his  grandfather's  name  was  Rufus  Eaton  ;  his 
grandmother's  maiden  name  was  Sally  Potter. 

The  Western  New  York  Preserving  and  Manufacturing  Com- 
pany, limited,  was  organized  in  1879,  under  the  laws  of  the 
State  of  New  York,  of  which  he  was  Secretary  for  the  first 
three  years  and  in  1 881  was  President.  ]-5usiness  was  successful  ; 
amount  paid  farmers  for  products  during  the  year  of  1881  was 
$36,504.09;  amount  paid  for  labor  in  1881  was  $21,675.10. 
Mr.  Eaton  is  also  proprietor  of  a  barrel  factory  in   Springville. 


Rufiis  C.  Eaton  died  Ali<^.  15,  1876,  aged  eighty  years. 
Mrs.  Eliza    H.  Eaton,  the   mother,  died   Aug.    i,  iS.So,   aged 
eight)-one  years,  six  months  and  twenty-one  days. 

Samuel  Eaton. 

Samuel  Eaton  was  a  ver)'  earl\'  settler  in  this  town.  He  set- 
tled on  the  north  side  of  the  Genesee  road  on  the  toj)  of  the 
hill  \\'est  of  Woodward's  Hollow.  Here  he  cleared  up  a  farm 
and  lived  in  the  neighborhood  until  his  death  which  occurred 
about  1838.  He  was  one  of  the  earliest  school  teachers  in  this 

He  had  four  children  : 

Fidelia  married  Stephen  Conger  and   lives  in   North  Collins. 

Samuel  W.,  lives  in  Rochester,  Minn.,  and  has  been  Judge 
of  the  Probate  Court  in  that  county. 

Dewitt  died  when  a  young  man,  and  Horace,  whose  where- 
abouts are  unknown. 

Williaiu  L.  Emerson. 

William  L.  Emerson  was  born  Feb.  16,  1809.  His  father, 
William  Emerson,  was  born  in  New  Ipswich,  Hillsborough 
count}',  N.  H.  He  served  as  a  soldier  at  Plattsburg  in  the  war 
of  1812  and  '15.  His  mother,  Lydia  Pratt,  was  born  in  New 
Hampshire.  His  grandfather's  name  was  James  Emerson.  He 
came  from  England  and  served  as  a  soldier  in  the  Revolution- 
ary war.  His  grandmother's  maiden  name  was  Lydia  Walker, 
born  in  New  Hampshire.  William  L.  Emerson  was  married  to 
Maria  Chase  Feb.  17,  1835.  She  was  born  in  Dummerston, 
Vt.,  July  12,  1809.  Her  father's  name  was  James  A.  Chase; 
he  was  born  in  Guilford,  Vt.,  June  11,  1786.  Her  grandfather, 
James  Chase,  was  born  in  Warren,  R.  I.,  Nov.  10,  I75i»  and 
served  as  a  soldier  in  the  Revolution.  William  L.  Emerson 
came  from  Vermont  to  Ashford,  Cattaraugus  county,  in  1842, 
and  bought  of  Jeremiah  Wilcox,  a  farm  adjoining  the  Sher- 
man place.  In  1850,  he  bought  the  Searls  place  or  David 
Goodemote  place  in  the  north  part  of  Ashford  near  the  Cat- 
taraugus creek.  In  1868,  he  sold  out  in  Ashford  and  removed 
to  Concord.  He  has  always  been  a  farmer  and  has  followed 
the  business  successfully.     Mrs.  Emerson  died  July  18,  1879. 

Their  children  are  : 


William  F.,  born  April  14,  1836;  married  July  4,  1856, 
Maryette  Wiley  ;  second  wife,  Sarah  Crawford  ;  lives  in  Ash- 
ford  and  is  a  farmer. 

Edward,  born  Aug.  3,  183 1  ;  married  Ellen  M.  Carman.  Aug. 
27,  1871  ;  lives  in  Sardinia  and  is  a  farmer. 

Hiram,  born  May  22,  1840;  married  Louisa  M.  Re}-nolds, 
Sept.  21,  1864;  second  wife.  Laura  Wells;  third  wife,  Alice  D. 
Marsh  ;  lives  in  Concord  and  is  a  farmer. 

Mary  E.,  born  April  14,  1842,  lives  in  Springville. 

Sylvia  A.,  born  Sept.  15,  1845  ;  married  Levi  M.  Bond,  Sept. 
17,  1863  ;  lives  in  Porterville,  Cal. 

Clara  J.,  born  March  24,  1841  ;  married  Origen  A.  Wilcox, 
Aug.  23,  i860;  lives  in  Porterville,  Cal. 

Arnold  J.,  born  Feb.  4,  185 1  ;  married  Julia  P.  Carman.  June 
10,  1879  '   lives  in  Sardinia  and  is  a  hardware  merchant. 

Amos  P.  Ellis. 

Mr.  Ellis  was  born  in  Tioga  county,  N.  Y.,  in  August,  1814. 
In  1835  he  came  from  his  native  place  to  Gowanda  and  worked 
one  year  at  his  trade  (carpenter  and  joiner).  He  then  came  to 
Concord,  where  he  has  since  resided.  For  the  last  twenty-five 
years  his  occupation  has  been  farming.  He  was  married  in 
1837  to  Betsey  Curran,  who  was  born  Nov.  4,  1 808. 

They  have  had  five  children  : 

Louisa,  born  Feb.  5,  1839;  married  George  Priel  in  1867. 

Elizabeth,  born  June  30,  1840;  died  Jan.  13,  1858. 

Eugene  P.,  born  April  2,  1842;  married  Lizzie  Bassett  in 
1864;  was  killed  April  2,  1881,  in  a  railroad  tunnel  at  St.  Louis. 

Edwin  (twin),  born  April  15,  i844,married  Irene  Wheelock  in 

Edward  (twin),  born  April  15,  1844. 

Augustus   G.  Elliott. 

Augustus  G.  Elliott  was  an  early  settler,  and  had  a  store  on 
the  Weismantel  lot  near  the  race  ;  he  also  at  one  time  managed 
a  distillery  and  ashery  ;  the  ashery  stood  on  the  north  side  of 
Franklin  street,  on  Stephen  Smith's  lot,  and  the  distillery  stood 
on  the  opposite  side  of  the  street ;  he  also  bought  cattle  and 
drove  them  to  the  eastern  markets;  he  took  an  active  part  also 

hkh;raphkai.  skhtciiks.  353 

ill  l)uil(linL;"  the  SpriiiL;\illc  Academy.  He  was  born  in  Kent, 
Conn.,  Oct.  20,  I77<S,  and  died  Au^-.  26,  1834,  at^ed  fift)--six 

Cliarh's  Kiiierliiijjj. 

Charles  luiierling  was  born  July  31,  I(S46.  in  the  town  of 
Eden,  Erie  county.  N.  Y.;  came  to  Concord  in  the  v'ear  1(858. 
His  father's  name  was  Philip  Emerling ;  his  mother's  maiden 
name  was  Marian  Lamm;  he  was  married  May  15,  1877.  to 
Mary  Ann  Belcher  ;  he  owns  the  farm  of  220  acres  where  he 
lives.      He  has  two  daughters  : 

Caroline,  born   Feb.  14,  1879. 

Sarah,  born  July  2/,  1881. 

Jesse  Frye. 

Eben  Frye,  the  father  of  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  was  of 
Welsh  ancestry,  his  father  coming  here  at  an  early  da}',  and 
settled  in  what  was  then  known  as  the  Province  of  Maine. 
Eben  P'rye  took  an  active  jiart  in  the  struggle  for  American 
independence  from  the  beginning  to  the  close,  serving  as  a 
Captain,  and  was  also  promoted  to  the  rank  of  a  Major.  After 
peace  was  declared  he  also  represented  the  Province  of  Maine 
in  the  legislature  when  it  was  a  dependency  of   Massachusetts. 

Jesse  P"rye,  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  was  born  at  Fryeburg, 
Maine,  in  the  year  1772.  Some  time  in  the  year  17S0  his 
father  moved  to  Andover,  N.  H.,  where  he  died  four  years 
after.  Jesse,  then  twelve  years  old,  was  ajiprcnticed  to  a 
clothier  and  learned  this  trade,  but  he  did  not  follow  the  call- 
ing long.  In  1794  he  moved  with  his  mother's  family  from 
Andover  to  Bath,  in  the  same  State,  and  engaged  in  the  manu- 
facture of  brick  with  a  man  b}-  the  name  of  Haddock.  In  1797 
he  was  married  to  Betsey  Noyes.  Six  children  were  born  to 
this  union,  viz.: 

Enoch  Noyes,  born  March  30,  1800. 

James  Sanders,  born  June  10,  1802. 

Moses  McKinster,  born  Sept.  26,  1804. 

Betsey,  born  Jan.  4,  1807. 

Sarah,  born  December,  1809. 

Jesse,  born  Feb.  18,  18 18. 

354  bioc;raphical  skp:tches. 

Of  these  children  three  are  Hving,  Enoch,  Moses  and  Jesse. 
Here  he  remained  in  business  with  Haddock  until  the  year 
1810,  when  he  was  compelled  to  sacrifice  his  business  to  satisfy 
an  obligation  incurred  by  lending  his  name  to  a  friend.  This 
left  him  but  a  meagre  sum  to  start  out  again  in  life,  but  he  was 
young  and  full  of  energy.  The  Holland  Purchase  was  attract- 
ing much  attention,  and  flattering  intlucements  were  offered  to 
settlers.  He  purchased  a  span  of  horses  and  fitted  up  a  lum- 
ber wagon  ;  into  this  he  placed  his  famih',  consisting  of  a  wife 
and  fi\'e  children,  and  all  the  worldl}-  goods  he  possessed,  and 
set  out  for  the  new  Mecca,  where  he  arrived  some  time  in  the 
Fall  of  1810.  Buffalo  was  his  first  stopping  place.  Here  he 
began  business  as  a  green-grocer,  occup}'ing  a  lot  and  house 
rieht  where  Pratt  &  Letchworth's  immense  retail  trade  in  the 
hardware  business  on  the  terrace  is  carried  on  to-day.  He 
owned  a  sail-boat  and  the  most  of  his  stock  in  trade  was  pro- 
cured in  Canada,  and  much  of  his  profit  came  from  the  Indians, 
who  were  at  that  time  largely  in  the  ascendant.  Here  he 
remained  until  the  Spring  of  18 12,  although  he  had  traded  his 
house  and  lot  the  Fall  previous  to  John  Pollc\-  for  an  articled 
claim  of  lots  thirty  and  thirty-one,  in  Zoar.  In  July,  the  same 
year,  he  moved  his  family  to  Zoar,  having  pre\'iously  built  a  log 
house  for  their  reception.  Here  he  remained  some  four}'ears, 
when  this  claim  was  traded  off  to  Luther  Pratt  for  a  similar 
one  on  "  Poverty  Hill,"  in  the  Town  of  Collins.  The  soil  did 
not  suit  him,  and  this  claim  was  sold  to  Phineas  Orr,  and  he 
made  another  and  his  last  claim,  that  of  P"rye  Hill. 

In  August,  1 8 16,  Enoch  and  Mack,  then  boys  of  twelve  and 
sixteen,  began  chopping  just  north  of  the  great  orchard;  some 
four  acres  were  cleared  and  got  into  winter  wheat  that  Fall ; 
the  )-ield  was  abundant,  and  ever  since  that  time  until  the  pres- 
ent Frye  Hill  has  dispensed  that  old-fashioned,  open-hearted 
hospitality  that  was  proverbial  among  the  early  pioneers.  They 
lived  to  a  ripe  age,  the  wife  dying  Feb.  4,  1848,  aged  seventy- 
six  years,  one  month  and  twenty-one  days;  he  surviving  her 
but  a  few  months,  and  followed  her  March  27,  1849,  aged 
seventy-five  years,  four  months  and  twelve  days.  They  lie 
buried  side  by  side  in  the  family  burying-ground  on  PVye  Hill. 

Enoch  N.  P'rN'e,   now  over    eight)'-three   years   old    and    still 

BKxjRAi'incAi,   sKi-:r(  MEs.  355 

hale  and  hearty,  occupies  the  old  homestead,  with  some  six 
or  seven  hundred  acres  besides.  He  was  married  in  i<S2i  to 
Margaret  Wells  ;  she  died  Dec.  12,  1882.  Ten  children  were 
born  to  them,  viz.: 

James,  born  Dec.  17,  1822. 

Ebenezer,  born  Nov.  27,  1824. 

Louisa,  born  in  1826. 

Abbott,  born  in  1828. 

Jesse,  born  Aug.  20,  1830. 

William,  born,  June  18,  1832. 

Mar\'  and  Betse\-,  born   May  26,  1834. 

John  H.,  born  Dec.  13,  1837. 

Helen  S.,  born  Jul\-4,  1840. 

Three  of  these  children  are  dead :  Betsey  died  Feb.  26, 
1847;  Abbott  died  Oct.  27,  1853,  and  Ebenezer  Sept.  21.  1857. 
Louisa  married  L.  J.  Vaughn,  and  now  lives  in  Ashford. 
Jesse  married  Miss  Maria  Davidson.  William  married  Miss 
Josephine  L.  Burgess  ;  she  dying  in  1870,  in  1874  he  was  married 
to  Mrs.  Amy  C.  Titus.  Mary  married  John  Murdock.  John 
married  Miss  Helen  Fowler,  and  Helen,   Daniel    D.  Nash. 

E.  N.  Frye  is  a  man  of  sterling  character,  and  in  his  younger 
days  he  took  an  active  part  in  all  that  tended  to  advance  the 
.prosperity  of  the  new  settlement.  At  the  age  of  sixteen  years 
he  began  teaching,  which  he  followed  more  or  less  until  other 
cares  absorbeci  his  attention.  He  also  occupied  the  office  of 
Supervisor,  and  Assessor  of  the  town  for  a  term  of  years. 

It  is  nearh'  or  quite  sixt\'-seven  years  ago  since  he  began 
with  an  axe  to  let  the  sun-light  fall  upon  that  soil  which  has 
ever  since  been  his  home.  Hopefully  toiling  on,  at  first  upon 
the  articled  claim  obtained  in  boyhood  years,  until  he  had 
touched  the  meridian  and  found  himself  the  possessor  of  many 
broad  acres,  but  still  onward  and  upward,  and  now  his  years 
are  verging  upon  four-score  and  ten.  and  \'et  each  of  these 
many  active,  useful  years  have  w  itnessed  some  improvement  in 
his  surroundings. 

F<»s<lH'k   Family. 

Stephen  Fosdick,  the  great  progenitor  of  the  family,  was  first 
known  in  Charlestown,  Conn.,  in    1635.      His  name  appears  on 


church  records  as  one  of  the  first  to  organize  Harvard  church. 
He  was  one  of  forty  to  found  New  London,  was  proprietor  of 
Fosdick's  Neck  and  Inlet,  and  participated  in  the  sale  of  Bos- 
ton Commons,  with  other  privileges  granted  at  that  age  to 
noted  men.  History  also  says  he  was  expelled  from  the  church 
and  fined  i,"20  for  reading  Ana-Baptist  papers ;  was  afterwards 
restored  to  the  church  by  paying  the  fine. 

Solomon  Fosdick,  a  descendant  of  Stephen,  was  born  in  the 
town  of  Oyster  Bay,  Queens  county,  L.  L,  April  8,  1776;  was 
married  to  Anna  Thorn,  a  member  of  the  Society  of  Friends, 
at  Coeyman's  landing;  after  that  resided  at  Rockaway,  L.  I., 
\\here  three  of  their  children,  viz.,  Samuel,  Angeline  and  Pru- 
dence, were  born.  He  then  removed  to  Amsterdam,  where 
two  children,  Alice  and  Elizabeth,  were  born.  He  then 
removed  to  Rensselaerville,  Albany  county,  where  three  chil- 
dren, Mary  T.,  John  S.  and  Jesse  T.  were  born.  Morris  was 
born  at  Oyster  Bay,  L.  1.  In  November,  18 19,  Mr.  Fosdick 
removed  with  his  family  to  Boston,  Erie  county,  renting  and 
living  on  a  place  owned  by  Aaron  Adams,  after  by  purchase,  a 
place  on  West  hill,  and  in  I^22  the  place  lately  owned  by  Am- 
brose Torr}',  adjoining  the  town  line  of  Boston,  in  the  town  of 
Concord,  where  he  lived  until  his  death,  Feb.  11,  1838.  His 
wife,  Anna  Fosdick,  died  in  Springville,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  8,  1858  ; 
both  were  buried  at  Boston,  where  a  suitable  monument  was 
erected  by  their  son  Morris  to  their  memory. 

Of  their  children.  Prudence  married  Joseph  Alger;  she  died 
in  Boston  in  1848;  her  children,  Rollin  Alger,  Mrs.  Mortimer 
Adams,  Mrs.  A.  Oatman  and  Mrs.  Miranda  Steele,  still  reside  in 
Boston,  where  they  were  born. 

Samuel  Fosdick  died  in  11^64,  and  was  buried  in  Youngstown, 
N.  Y.;  his  son  Hiram  resides  in  Salamanca  and  is  cashier  of  the 
Salamanca  National  bank ;  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Sarah  A.  Ells- 
worth, resides  in  Buffalo,  and  his  daughter  by  a  second  mar-; 
riage.  Miss  Dora  Fosdick,  resides  \\ith  her  uncle,  John  S.  Fos- 
dick, at  Westfield,  N.  Y. 

Morris  Fosdick  died  in  Springxille  in  1^72. 

Angeline  married  Nicholas  Bonsteel  and  li\ed  and  died  at 
■Great  Valley,  N.  Y.,  leaving  four  children. 


One  of  them,  Dr.  A.  S.  Honsteel,  of  Cony,  Pa.,  is  w  ell  known 
as  a  physician  and  surgeon. 

Alice  married  Stillman  Andrews,  and  li\'es  in  Jamestown. 

Ehzabe'h  married  Camden  Lake  and  lived  and  died  in 
Springville,  N.  Y.,  leaving  one  daughter,  Mrs.  Laurette  Tabor, 
who  still  resides  there. 

Mar\-  T.  married  James  Getty,  and  resides  in  East  Ham- 
burg, X.  V. 

John  S.  Fosdick  was  a  teacher  for  forty-five  )'ears,  is  now  a 
farmer  and  resides  at  Westfield,  Chautauqua  county,  N.  \'.;  he 
was  at  one  time  Superintendent  of  Education  in  Ikiffalo,  and 
for  a  number  of  years  was  Principal  of  Westfield  academy. 

Jesse  T.  Fosdick,  the  youngest,  now  sixt\--four  years  old, 
resides  at  Salamanca,  N.  Y.  He  has  been  in  the  New  York, 
Pennsylvania  and  Ohio  railway  compan}''s  employ  (formerly 
known  as  the  Atlantic  and  Great  Western  Railway)  for  twent}'- 
one  years,  and  has  been  successful  as  a  railroad  man.  He  has 
acquired  the  knowledge  of  controlling  a  large  force  of  men,  is 
conceded  honest  and  upright.  Jesse  T.  Fosdick,  in  speaking 
of  his  childhood,  always  brings  to  mind  the  fact  that  Louise 
Carr  (afterwards  Louise  Alger)  taught  him  his  letters,  and  he 
has  through  Hfe  cherished  a  friendly  feeling,  second  only  to 
that  of  his  mother,  towards  his  early  teacher.  At  their  last 
meeting,  a  few  years  since,  they  both  showed  this  attachment, 
and  when  Jesse  became  a  lad  again,  and  she  almost  fancied 
herself  again  his  teacher,  it  was  with  the  utmost  difficulty  that 
the  pent  up  feelings  of  half  a  century  were  restrained. 

Morris  Fosdick,  Esq. 

Morris  P'osdick,  son  of  Solomon  and  Anna  (Thorne)  Fosdick, 
was  born  Dec.  9,  1804,  in  the  town  of  Oyster  Bay,  Queens 
county,  N.  Y.;  learned  the  trade  of  shoemaker,  tanner  and  cur- 
rier of  Hatch  &  Alger,  in  the  town  of  Boston ;  afterwards 
worked  as  a  journeyman  for  Mr.  Hoyt,  of  Buffalo,  and  Hall 
Brothers  (father  and  uncle  of  Judge  Hall),  of  Wales ;  later 
entered  into  partnership  with  Griffin  Swain,  of  Otto,  Cattarau- 
gus county  ;  the\-  carried  on  the  business  to  which  he  was  edu- 
cated several  j^ears,  sold  out  his  in  interest  the  tannery,  and 
became  a  student  at  Springville  Academy  under  Professor  Par- 


BIOGRAPHICAL  skp:tchf:s. 

sons,  teaching  school  several  Winters  of  his  student  life  ;  entered 
the  law  ofifice  of  Elisha  Mack  ;  admitted  an  attorney  in  the 
Supreme  Court  of  New  York  July  13,  1838;  commissioned  by 
Gov.  William  L.  Marcy  Adjutant  of  the  Two  Hundred  and  Forty- 
eighth  regiment  of  Infantry  Nov.  9,  1838  ;  admitted  to  practice 
in  both  the  District  and  Circuit  Courts  of  the  United  States  Oct. 
II,  1842;  appointed  Judge-Advocate  with  the  rank  of  Colonel 
in  the  Twenty-sixth  Division  of  New  York  State  Infantry  Feb. 
28,  1843;  admitted  counsellor  in  the  Supreme  Court  of  New 
York  July  14,  1843  ;  admitted  as  solicitor  and  counselor  in  the 
Court  of  Chancery  of  New  York,  July   19,  1843;  became  a  law 


partner  with  Wales  Emmons  for  a  time,  and  continued  to  prac- 
tice his  profession  in  Springville  up  to  the  time  of  his  death, 
which  occurred  Feb.  3,  1872,  aged  sixty-seven  years. 

Although  a  Democrat  and  living  in  a  town  o\-er\\helmingly 
opposed  to  him  politically,  he,  on  several  occasions,  was  elected 
to  offices  of  trust  and  honor.  Elected  Justice  of  the  Peace, 
and  in  1857,  elected  Super\-isor  and  served  as  Chairman  of  the 
Board.     Served  one  term  as  justice  of  the  Sessions. 

With  peculiarities  and  eccentricities,  which  oftentimes  proved 
almost  offensive,  he,  nevertheless,  by  reason  of  regard  for  truth 



and  his  strict  intci;rit\',  hardl)'  ever  failed  in  retainin<^  the  re- 
spect and  confidence  of  those  with  whom  he  had  business 

In  all  official  positions  he  was  strictly  and  tenaciously  obser- 
vant of  his  own  duties,  and  was  equall)'  tenacious  in  requirin<^ 
from  others  a  due  and  proper  obserx^ance  of  relations  and  duties 
toward  himself.  His  fidelity  to  official  trusts  was  proverbial, 
but  was  not  less  so  than  was  his  faithfulness  to  priwate  interests, 
entrusted  to  his  care. 

A  bachelor  throuf;h  life  he  was  most  eminenth' endowed  with 
the  most  peculiar  characteristics  of  that  honorable  fraternit)-. 
A  good  counsellor,  an  honest  man. 

Beii.jaiiiiii  Fryo. 

Benjamin  Fa\'  was  born  in  Athol,  Worcester  county,, 
Sept  14,  1783.  He  came  here  in  the  Fall  of  181 1,  to  "see  the 
country,"  and  settled  here  in  181 2.  His  brother,  Josiah.  had 
been  here  before  he  came  and  selected  land,  and  went  back  to 
Massachusetts  and  nev^er  returned.  Mr.  Fay  settled  on  Town- 
send  Hill,  on  lot  59,  township  se\en,  range  six,  and  li\ed 
there  till  the  time  of  his  death,  when  he  owned  the  whole 
quarter  section.  When,  in  his  prime,  he  was  an  energetic  and 
successful  farmer  ;  he  served  as  a  soldier  on  the  Niagara  frontier 
in  the  war  of  i8i2-'i5;  he  was  in  several  skirmishes  and 
engagements  on  each  side  of  the  river,  on  one  occasion  a  can- 
non ball  killed  his  right  hand  man.  On  another  occasion  at 
Fort  Erie,  where  he  and  Isaac  Knox,  of  this  town,  were  not  far 
apart,  a  cannon  ball  passed  between  them  and  whirled  them 
both  around  ;  he  was  at  the  burning  of  Buffalo,  and  was  com- 
pelled to  flee  with  the  others.  After  the  close  of  the  war  he 
held  several  high  offices  in  the  militia,  was  elected  Colonel,  but 
did  not  ser\e.  He  also  held  several  town  offices,  such  as 
School  Inspector,  Assessor,  Commissioner  and  Justice  of  the 
Peace.  In  early  days  he  was  one  of  the  leading  men  of  the 
town.  June  lo,  1819,  he  was  married  to  Polly  Bowler,  who 
was  born  in  Guilford,  Vt.  Mr.  Fay  died  in  this  town  Sept.  17. 
1863,  aged  eighty  years.  Mrs.  F'ay  died  in  this  town  Jan.  2, 
1870,  aged  seventy-one  years.     There  children  were: 

Benjamin  Albert,  born  1820,  died  in  1822. 


Amos  F.,  born  Jan  2,  1822,  resides  in  Indianapolis,  Ind. 
B.  A.,  born  Sept.  29,  1823,   resides  in  Springville. 
Charles,  born  April  12,  1826,  died  Feb.  6,  1863,  in  this  town. 
Ward,  born  July  28,  1829,  is  in  California. 
Polly  D  ,  born  Aug.  3,  1836,  died  June,  1837. 

Neheniiah  Frye. 

Nehemiah  Fay  settled  on  Townsend  Hill  in  1816,  where  he 
lived  about  twenty-five  years,  and  then  removed  to  Little  Val- 
ley, Cattaraugus  county,  where  he  and  his  wife  both  died,  hav- 
ing lived  to  a  good  old  age.     Their  children  were : 

Nabby,  who  married  Obadiah  Russell,  and  moved  to  Little 
Valley,  where  they  both  died. 

Fannie  married  Asahel  Field,  and  lives  in  Little  Valle}'. 

James  lives  in  Cattaraugus  county. 

Alcander  lives  in  Great  Valley,  Cattaraugus  count}\ 

Solomon  Field. 

Solomon  Field  was  born  in  Uurfield,  Mass.,  on  the  Connecti- 
cut river,  and  came  from  there  to  Madison  count}'.  N.  Y., 
where  he  remained  a  few  years.  He  took  up  lot  three,  town- 
ship seven,  range  seven,  in  1809,  and  located  there  in  the  Fall 
of  1 8 10,  where  he  resided  until  the  time  of  his  death.  His 
children  were  : 

Ruth  married  Royal  Twichell,  and  died  several  years  ago. 

Asahel  married  Fanny  Fay,  and  died  in  Little  Valle\',  Cat- 
taraugus county. 

William  married  Mary  E.  Briggs,  and  died  in  this  town  in 

Huldah  married  Isbon  Treat,  and  died  in  Colden. 

Porter  married  in  this  town  and  removed  East. 

James  Flemmings. 

James  Flemmings  was  born  in  Massachusetts  in  1786,  and  his 
wife,  Sally  Loomis  Flemmings,  was  born  there  in  1789.  They 
came  to  this  country  and  settled  first  in  Boston,  in  181S,  and 
afterward  came  to  Concord  in  1822.  Mr.  Flemmings  was  a 
farmer  and  carpenter  and  joiner,  and  built  houses  and  barns, 
many  of  which  are  still  standing.      He  lived  for  a  while  on  the 


Genesee  road,  \vi;st  of  Townsend  Hill,  and  afteward  bought  a 
farm  on  the  south  part  of  lot  fifty-one,  townsjiip  seven,  range 
six.  His  house  stood  near  the  foot  of  the  hill  which  was  for  a 
long  time  called  h'lemmings  Hill.  The  old  house  still  stands. 
After  a  while  he  sold  his  farm  and  removed  to  Springville, 
where  he  was  engaged  in  trade  for  some  time,  and  then  removed, 
to  Ashford,  Cattaraugus  county,  where  he  died  Dec.  19,  1866, 
aged  seventy-nine  yeans  and  eight  months  ;  his  wife  died  March 
14,  1854,  aged  sixty-five  years. 

Their  children  were: 

Jane,  James,  Hannah,  Sally,  Joseph,  Parker  and  Margaret. 

Jane  married  E.  T.  Briggs  ;  after  his  death  she  married  Will- 
iam Field,  who  is  also  dead.     She  is  living  in  Springville. 

James  married  Nancy  Norcott  and  died  in  Springville,  Sept. 
6.  1867,  aged  fifty-four  years  and  eight  months. 

Hannah  married  Samuel  Wheeler  and  died  Sept.  24,  1841, 
aged  twenty-five  )'ears. 

Sally  married  first,  Adoniram  Blake;  second,  Elam  Chandler 
and  died  Feb.  25,  1880. 

Joseph  li\'es  in  Springville. 

Parker  married  Susan  Babbett  and  died  in  Ashford  in  1873, 
aged  forty-seven. 

Margaret  married  Horace  B.  Harrington  and  died  in  Ellicott- 
ville  in  186 1,  aged  31  years. 

.Tosepli  B.  Floiiiiiiiiigs. 

Mr.  Flemmings  was  born  in  Concord  on  Towsend  Hill,  March 
1 1,  1822.  He  was  a  son  of  James  Flemmings,  one  of  the  early 
pioneers  of  the  town.  His  mother's  maiden  name  was  Sally 
Loomis.  He  attended  school  at  the  Springville  Academy  dur- 
ing the  year  1840.  He  was  married  in  1842  to  Harriet  Bisby. 
They  have  one  daughter,  Mrs.  Calvin  C.  Smith,  born  Aug.  4, 
1844,  and  one  son  Ernest,  born  Feb.  27,  1856.  Mr.  Plem- 
mings  has  resided  principally  at  Springville  and  Salamanca. 
His  occupation  is  that  of  architect  and  builder,  in  which  he  is 
ver\-  skilled  and  proficient.  Man}-  of  the  finest  residences  and 
structures  in  Cattaraugus  county  and  Springville  are  of  his 
planning  and  building.  Of  those  of  which  he  was  either  the 
architect    or  builder   or   both,  ma}'  be   mentioned    the    Leland 


House  and  the  residence  of  J.  P.  Meyers,  in  Springville  ;  the 
residences  of  Hon.  Commodore  Vedder,  EHicottville,  and  Syd- 
ney N.  Delap,  Mansfield,  and  the  large  lumber  mill  of  James 
Fitts  at  Salamanca. 

Abraiii  Fisher. 

Abram  Fisher  came  from  V'ermont  to  this  town  (Concord) in 
1829,  and  bought  of  Peter  Tice,  brother  of  Daniel  Tice,  fifty 
acres  of  land  on  the  south  part  of  lot  fifty,  township  seven, 
range  six.  About  1836,  he  moved  from  this  town  to  Boston, 
and  from  there  he  moved  to  the  West  Branch  in  the  town  of 
North  Collins,  from  there  he  moved  to  Pennsylvania,  where  he 
died  in  i860.     He  was  a  farmer. 

His  children  were  : 

Acsah,  who  died  about  1850  in  Vermont. 

William,  the  stage  driver  and  violinist,  w  ho  died  in  Pennsyl- 
vania about   1875. 

Richmond  died  in  North  Collins  about  1840. 

Sarah  Ann  died  in  Buffalo  about  1865. 

Nelson  died  in  North  Collins  about  1840. 

Perry  died  in  North  Collins  about  1840. 

Roswell  lives  in  Pennsylvania. 

Erasmus  lives  in  Springville.  He  was  born  in  Concord,  the 
other  children  were  born  in  Vermont. 

Philip  Forriii. 

Mr.  P"errin's  father,  Ebenezer  Ferrin,  came  from  Hebron, 
Grafton  county,  N.  H.,  to  Concord  (  Horton  Hill),  in  the  Fall  of 
181 5,  with  his  family.  The  next  Spring  he  located  land  in 
Concord,  where  the  Warner  place  now  is,  lot  fift\'-two,  range 
six,  township  seven,  where  he  lix'ed  until  his  death,  March  9, 
1852.  He  was  born  in  Hebron,  N.  H.,  Sept.  4,  1777,  where  he 
was  married  Nov.  26,  1801,  to  Lydia  Phelps,  who  was  born 
March  9,  1782.     She  died  about  1855. 

Fourteen  children  were  born  to  them,  all  but  one  li\"ing  to 
mature  years  as  follows  : 

Francis,  born  May  16,  1803;  resides  in  Minnesota. 

Samuel,  born  Nov.  12,  1804;   resides  in  Utah. 

Jesse,  born   Ma}-  I,  1806;   resides  in  Allegan}'   county,  N.  Y. 


Mary,  born  Aul;".   i,  uSoj;  resides  in  Iowa. 

Alice,  born  March  1<S,  i<So<S  ;  died  about  i^S^q. 

Unice,  born  Aug.  9,  i.Sio;   died  about  1857. 

Harvc}',  born  Aui;-.  iS,  i.Sii  ;  died  Ma}-  lO,  1840. 

Lydia,  born  Jul\'  19,  1813  ;  died  about  1863. 

Philip,  born  June  29.  181  5;   resides  in  Sprin<^ville,  N.  Y. 

Nathan,  born  Ju!_\-   12,  1818;    resides  in  Indiana. 

Adna  P.,  born  Jul\-  12.  1820.  died  about  1858. 

Achsa,  born  Feb.  i,  1822:  died  April  5,  1822. 

Luc}".  born  l^\'b.  16,   1823  ;  died  March  7,  1849. 

Lodica  M.,  born  jul\'  ij ,  1825  ;  resides  in  Allegan}'  county 

Mr.  Philip  hV'rrin  has  al\\a}'s  been  a  resident  of  Concord,  and 
a  successful  and  \er\-  industrious  farmer.  He  was  married 
Feb.  II,  1841,  to  Kmeline  Stanbro. 

Ten  children  haxe  been  born  to  them,  \i/,. : 

Charles  A.,  born  March  21,  1842;   married   P^lizabeth  Reed. 

Andre\\-  Clark,  born  Nov.  13,  1843;  married.  I  1st),  Georgie 
Long,  (2d).  Josephine   Long. 

Ann,  born  Dec.  i  i.  1845  ;   died  Jan.  30,  1846. 

Ward,  born  Dec.  21.  1847;  niarried.  (ist).  Lmeline  Reed, 
■(2d),  Mrs.  Amelia  Horton. 

Alice  L.,  born  Ma}-  19,  1849;  ^""^^  Sept.  28.  1850. 

Ella  L..  born  Aug.  28,  1852  ;  married  Clark  Churchill. 

Horace  Lee,  born  Aug.  21,  1854;  married  Kate  Hurd. 

Nelson  A.,  born  Jvd}-  2^^,  1857;   married  Ella  Long-. 

Carrie  E.,  born  June  20,  1859;  died,  1863. 

Herbert  \V.,  born  June  29,  1862  ;  married  kla  J^lackmar. 

.loliii  Fe<l<li<*k. 

John  h'eddick  was  born  in  1837,  in  Paris,  P" ranee,  and  is  a 
farmer.  His  wife's  maiden  name  was  Margaret  Her}-,  born 
also  in  Paris.     Came  to  Buffalo  in    1852;  was  married  in  1858. 

His  father,  Nicholas  Feddick,  settled  in  the  town  of  Collins, 
on  a  farm  and  lived  there  until  the  time  of  his  death,  in  1879. 
His  family  consisted  of  t\\el\e  children,  si.\  (^f  whom  died  at 
an  early  age  and  a  daughter  died  in    1878;   five  are  now  living. 

John  Feddick  sa}-s :  "  My  two  surviving  brothers  live  in  the 
town  of  Collins.      One  of  \\\\  sisters  li\es  in  the  town  of  Flden 


and  the  other  in  Sauk  count\%  Wisconsin.  I  left  Collins  in 
1859,  ^^'ent  to  Iowa,  from  Iowa  to  Missouri,  from  Missouri  to 
Kansas,  from  Kansas  to  Omaha,  Nebraska,  thence  back  to 
Davenport,  Iowa.  I  enlisted  in  the  2d  Iowa  Ca\alr}-,  Company 
'  E,'  Captain  Kendrick,  attached  to  Colonel  Elliott's  Regiment. 
Continued  in  the  service  from  1862  to  the  close  of  the  war. 
Was  in  the  battles  of  Shiloh,  Corinth,  Juka,  Port  Hudson  and 
others  of  lesser  note,  including  the  Siege  of  Vicksburg.  Was 
discharged  at  Eastport,  Mississippi ;  returned  to  Gowanda,  and 
soon  after  came  and  settled  in  Concord."      His  children  are  : 

George,  born  Dec.  10,  1859. 

Nettie,  born  Nov.  19,  1861. 

Mary,  born  Oct.  19,  1862;  died  April  24,  1876. 

Emma,  born  Jan.  10,  1866. 

John,  born  Aug.  2,  1868. 

Peter,  born  July  5,  1870. 

Victor,  born  June  16,  1873. 

Helen,  born  June  21,  1878. 

Lettie,  born  Jan.  8,  1881. 

The  Foote  Family. 

Ransford  T.  F"oote  was  born  in  Litchfield  count}',  Connecti- 
cut, Jan.  6,  1806.  Susan  Foote,  his  wife,  was  born  in  the  same 
count}-,  Dec.  2,  1805.  They  came  to  Otto,  Cattaraugus  county, 
in  1826,  and  to  Concord  in  1838.  In  his  younger  days  Mr. 
Foote  worked  at  shoe  making  as  well  as  farming.  He  now 
owns,  occupies  and  conducts  a  large  dair}--farm  in  the  north- 
east part  of  Concord. 

They  have  one  son,  Harr}-  Foote,  who  was  born  in  Cattar- 
augus county,  March  22,  1832.  He  was  married  Feb.  11,  1864, 
to  Jane  Rollo  Calkins,  who  was  born  Aug.  23.  1838.  They 
have  no  children.  He  resides  near  his  father.  They  are  indus- 
trious and  prosperous  farmers  and  are  highh-  esteemed  in  the 

Mrs.  R.  T.  Foote's  father's  name  was  Wheeler  Atwood  and 
her  mother's  maiden  name  was  Susannah  Stoddard.  I  learn 
from  the  history  or  her  nati\e  town  in  Connecticut,  that  her 
ancestors  on  both  sides,  were  among  the  earliest  settlers  in 
Massachusetts  and  Connecticut.     Some  of  them  cominu"  over 


as  early  as  1639  ;  and  I  also  learn  from  the  same  book  that 
they  were  among  the  first  families  in  the  communities  in  which 
they  lived.  Several  of  them  were  graduates  of  Harvard  Col- 
lege and  some  of  them  were  ciergN'nicn,  and  some  were  doctors. 


We  came  to  Otto,  Cattaraugus  count}-,  from  Connecticut,  in 
November,  1826.  It  took  us  four  days  to  go  from  Buffalo  to 
Otto.  Mr.  F'oote  went  to  Otto  because  he  had  relatives  there. 
The  first  winter  we  lived  in  a  log-house  with  another  family, 
named  Buttcrfield.  The  house  was  eighteen  by  twent)-  feet. 
The  floor  was  split  out  of  bass-wood  logs,  and  there  was  but 
one  six-lighted  window.  The  sash  were  small  slats  nailed 
together  and  paper  was  pasted  over  the  sash  and  then  greased 
and  used  as  a  substitute  for  glass  ;  and  in  the  center  there  was 
a  small  piece  of  glass,  as  large  as  the  palm  of  your  hand,  fitted 
so  that  we  could  look  out.  The  chimney  had  a  stone  back 
up  a  few  feet  but  no  jambs ;  the  top  was  finished  out  with 
sticks.  Some  time  during  the  first  winter,  about  ten  o'clock 
one  night  I  was  up  and  at  work  hetcheling  flax,  all  the  others 
in  the  house  having  gone  to  bed,  when  I  heard  my  geese 
squall  fearfully  outside,  near  the  house.  I  went  out  and  saw  a 
long,  low  animal  near  the  geese.  I  tried  to  scare  him  awa}-but 
he  stood  there  some  time,  and  when  he  turned  up  his  head  to 
look  at  me,  his  eyes  shown  like  two  balls  of  fire  ;  he  finall\- went 
away.  I  told  Mr.  Butterfield  what  I  had  seen  and  he  went  the 
next  morning  and  examined  the  tracks  and  said  it  was  a  cata- 
mount. The  wolves  then  were  \ery  numerous.  I  ha\'e  often 
listened  to  their  bowlings  in  the  night  and  the}-  \-er}-  often 
killed  sheep  in  the  neighborhood  and  in  difl"erent  parts  of  the 
town,  and  the  inhabitants  generally  turned  out  at  different 
times  to  hunt  and  destro}-  or  dri\'e  them  out  of  town. 

Deer  were  very  thick  then.  I  have  frequently  seen  them  in 
the  fields  and  near  the  house.  One  morning  I  looked  out  and 
saw    five    fine    looking    deer    feeding  beside  the  garden  fence. 

The  second  year  after  we  came  to  Otto,  we  had  managed  to 
get  two  cows,  and  I  made  butter  and  had  saved  up  a  consider- 
able quantit}-.  I  wanted  some  groceries  and  Mr.  Foote  took 
his  oxen  and  carried  me  and  several  of  the  neighboring  women 

366  bioc;raphicai.  sketches. 

to  Lodi,  ten  miles,  to  trade.  We  started  before  daylight  and 
forded  the  Cattaraugus,  and  when  we  arrived  at  Mr.  Plumb's 
store  he  asked  us  what  \\e  wanted  to  get  for  our  butter.  I  told 
him  I  would  like  to  get  some  groceries  ;  he  said  he  could  not 
sell  groceries  for  butter,  but  would  let  me  ha\'c  shelf  goods; 
hs  said  he  was  then  paying  six  cents  for  butter  (just  previous 
he  had  paid  but  five  cents).  So  I  had  to  sell  my  butter  for 
shelf  goods  and  go  home  without  an}'  groceries.  Since  that 
time  we  have  sold  butter  for  fifty  cents  per  pound  cash,  and 
have  kept  and  milked  between  thirty-fixe  and  fort)'  cows  at  a 

The  second  year  after  we  came  to  Otto  our  tax  was  one  dol- 
lar and  fifty  cents,  and  when  Mr.  Allen,  the  collector,  came  for 
it  Mr.  Foote  told  him  he  had  no  money  and  he  knew  of  no 
way  that  he  could  get  any.  Mr.  Allen  said  to  him  that  he  had 
some  money  that  he  had  received  from  the  town,  and  that  he 
would  pay  the  tax,  and  Mr.  Foote,  who  was  a  shoemaker, 
might  come  over  to  his  house  and  make  up  some  shoes  for 
his  family,  which  he  did.  One  year  in  the  time  of  the  Rebel- 
lion, Mr.  Foote  paid  as  much  as  $140  tax,  and  he  said  he 
could  pay  that  tax  easier  than  he  could  raise  that  one  dollar 
and  fifty  cents  in  money  at  that  time. 

W.   Wallace  Fieiioli. 

W.  \\\  P^rench  was  born  in  the  year  1828,  in  the  Town  of 
Bennington,  Vt.;  came  to  Concord  in  1831  ;  is  railroad  agent; 
was  married  to  Celestia  Pratt,  who  was  born  in  Willink,  Erie 
county,  N.  Y.,  September,  1837.  ^^'^  father's  name  was  Rus- 
sell French  ;  his  mother's  maiden  name  was  Julia  Catlin  ;  both 
living  at  Waverly,  Cattaraugus  county,  N.  Y.  His  grand- 
father's name  was  William  French  :  his  grandmother's  maiden 
name  was  Lydia  Esterbrook :  both  buried  in  Springville  ceme- 
tery: grandfather  died  Jan.  27,  1840,  aged  sixty-one  years; 
grandmother  died  May  21,  1849,  '^ged  sevent}'  )'ears. 

They  had  one  daughter,  Nettie  D.  P'rench,  born  at  Buffalo. 
N.  Y.,  Oct.  26,  1862  ;  died  at  Springville,  June  13,  1881. 

Frecleriok  Fox. 

P'rederick  P\)x  was  born  in  1833,  ''"'  P^rlah-Baden.  German)', 
and    worked    at    farming    until    he  came  to  this  count)'.      He 

luocRAi'iiicAL   SKi:r(M[i:s.  367- 

started  to  come  here  Nov.  7,  i860;  his  brother  Leo  and  sister 
Mary  M.came  with  him.  Tiiey  embarked  at  tlie  Cit)-of  Havre, 
in  France,  and  were  ft)rt)'  da)'s  on  the  ocean  to  New  York. 
They  came  from  New  York  to  Huffalo.  and  from  Buffalo  to 
his  brother  Christian's,  in  Ashford.  He  worked  for  him  one 
year  and  for  George  Hughey  three  years.  He  was  married 
June  1,  1865.  to  Mary  M.  Utrich,  of  Ashford  (her  native  place 
was  North  Collins).  They  moved  to  Springville  and  com- 
menced keeping  hotel  in  1865.  The\'  have  since  re-built  and 
enlarged  the  hotel,  and  continued  to  keep  the  same  until  1883, 
when  he  sold  out  to  Theodore  Frew. 

Their  children  are  :  Frank  G.,  Mary  L.,  CTara  L..  antl  Fred- 
erick William. 

("asiKT  Faurliiij'". 

Casper  Faulring  was  born  May  27,  1839.  in  the  State  of  Sax- 
ony,'Germain'  :  is  a  farmer  b}'  occupation  ;  was  married  March 
I,  1868,  to  Barbara  Foster;  his  father's  name  was  Frederick 
Faulring;  his  mother's  maiden  name  was  Margaret  Taff ;  his 
fatlier's  famih'  came  all  together  frcMii  Germany  in  1854;. 
shipped  on  a  sail  vessel  at  Hamburg,  Germany,  for  New  York, 
and  landed  in  New  York  Jan.  9,  1854;  they  were  sixty-four 
days  in  making  the  passage;  it  was  a  long,  cold  and  rough  time. 
They  settled  on  the  farm  where  he  now  lives. 

They  have  seven  children  : 

John,  born  Dec.  9,  1868. 

Frederick,  born  April  9.  1869. 

Mary,  born  Jan.  1,  1871. 

Ferdinand,  born  Sept.  4,  1873. 

Chris,  born   March  6,  1876. 

Casper,  born  Jan.  r,  1878. 

Louisa,  born  May  7.  1881. 

fianu's  l>.   Fiilh'r. 

Mr.  b\iller's  father,  John  (i.  Fuller,  was  born  in  Drx'den, 
Madison  count}-,  N.  Y.,  ^Liy  11,  1805;  from  there  he  went  to 
Penns\-lvania  ;  from  Penusyhania  he  came  to  Ashford,  N.  Y., 
in  1825;  he  died  in  Sardinia  Sept.  24,  1881.  He  was  married 
to  Florilla  Studley. 


James  D.  Fuller  was  born  in  Ashford,  Cattaraugus  county, 
N.  Y.,  Feb.  28,  1845  ;  about  1850  his  father's  family  moved  to 
Sardinia.  In  1868  Mr.  Fuller  moved  to  Concord,  where  he  has 
since  resided;  his  occupation  is  farming.  Mr.  F.  enlisted  Aug. 
9,  1862,  in  Company  F,  One  Hundred  and  Sixteenth  regiment, 
New  York  State  volunteers,  and  participated  i